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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #05674 - עָבַר
1) to pass over or by or through, alienate, bring, carry, do away, take, take away, transgress
1a1) to pass over, cross, cross over, pass over, march over, overflow, go over
1a2) to pass beyond
1a3) to pass through, traverse
1a3a) passers-through (participle)
1a3b) to pass through (the parts of victim in covenant)
1a4) to pass along, pass by, overtake and pass, sweep by
1a4a) passer-by (participle)
1a4b) to be past, be over
1a5) to pass on, go on, pass on before, go in advance of, pass along, travel, advance
1a6) to pass away
1a6a) to emigrate, leave (one’s territory)
1a6b) to vanish
1a6c) to perish, cease to exist
1a6d) to become invalid, become obsolete (of law, decree)
1a6e) to be alienated, pass into other hands
1b) (Niphal) to be crossed
1c) (Piel) to impregnate, cause to cross
1d1) to cause to pass over, cause to bring over, cause to cross over, make over to, dedicate, devote
1d2) to cause to pass through
1d3) to cause to pass by or beyond or under, let pass by
1d4) to cause to pass away, cause to take away
1e) (Hithpael) to pass over
2520) rbo (אהבר AhBR) AC: Cross CO: ? AB: ?: The crossing over or passing through a land or water to gain access to the side beyond. [from: rb- filling a land] (eng: over; ford - with the exchange of the f and b; ferry)
V) rbo (אהבר AhBR) - Cross: To cross over a river or cross through a land. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (573): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) over, pass, through, go, away - Strongs: H5674 (עָבַר), H5675 (עֲבַר)
dm) rfbo (אהבור AhBWR) - I. Produce:As what passes over the land. II. Purpose:In the sense of crossing over to something KJV (10): corn, sake, that, because, intent, deed, to - Strongs: H5668 (עָבֻר), H5669 (עֲבוּר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 Mordt SabDenkm 49; עברת passage, march through DHM ZMG xxix (1875), 614 also bank or neighbourhood of a stream SabDenkm49); —
Qal465 Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ע Genesis 15:17 +, suffix עֲבָרוֺ Jeremiah 23:9; 1 singular עָבַ֫רְתִּי 1 Samuel 15:24 +; 2 masculine plural עֲבַרְתֶּם Genesis 18:5 +; 1 plural עָבַ֫רְנוּ Joshua 24:17 +, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יַעֲבֹר Amos 8:5 +, יַעֲבָרֿ Genesis 33:14 +, suffix 3 masculine singular יַעַבְרֶ֫נּוּ Isaiah 33:21; Isaiah 35:8, יַעַבְרֶ֫נְהוּ Jeremiah 5:22, וַיַּעֲבֹר Genesis 12:6 +; 1 singular אֶעֱבֹר Amos 5:17 +, cohortative אֶעְבְּרָה Numbers 21:22 +, אֶעֱבֹ֑רָה Numbers 20:19; Judges 12:5, etc.; Imperative masculine singular עֲבֹר Exodus 17:5 +; feminine singular עִבְרִי Micah 1:11 2t.; עֲבֹ֑רִי Isaiah 23:12; masculine plural עִבְרוּ Amos 6:2 +; Infinitive absolute עָבוֺר 2 Samuel 17:16; construct עֲבֹר Amos 7:8 +, לַעֲבָרֿ 1 Kings 18:6 + Nahum 2:1 Qr (Kt לעבור); suffix עָבְרִי Exodus 33:22; Deuteronomy 4:21, etc.; Participle עֹבֵר Judges 8:4 +, etc.; —
1 pass over:
a. = cross (stream, wady, sea, etc.), (1) with accusative Genesis 31:21 (E), Genesis 32:11 (J), Joshua 3:14,17; Joshua 4:1 (all J E), Deuteronomy 2:14 (D), Numbers 32:29 (P), 2 Samuel 17:20,22,24; Isaiah 16:8, + 37t., + Genesis 32:23 (E; accusative מַעֲבַר), וְעָֽבְרָה הָֽעֲבָרָה לַעֲבִיר 2 Samuel 19:19 (read וַיַּעַבְרוּ We Dr Kit Löhr, and they crossed the ford, or וְעָֽבְרוּ frequent., HPS; > ᵐ5 Klo Bu וַיַּעַבְדוּ הָעֲבֹדָה and they performed the service); also with accusative + accusative of location 1 Samuel 13:7, + ה locative Deuteronomy 4:26; Deuteronomy 31:13; Deuteronomy 32:47. (2) accusative omitted Judges 3:28; 2 Samuel 17:16 (twice in verse) + 32t., + עֹבֵר Judges 8:4 (read וַיַּעֲבֹר Vrss, or strike out as gloss GFM Bu), 2 Samuel 15:23 a (where read עֹמֵד for ᵑ0עֹבֵר We Dr Bu Kit Löhr HPS, but strike out עֹבְרִים, plausibly, Klo HPS); with אֶלֿ Numbers 32:7 (JE), Deuteronomy 27:2 (D), Joshua 4:13; Joshua 22:19 (both P), with אֶלעֵֿבֶר Deuteronomy 30:13, with הָעֵבֶר 1 Samuel 26:13; with ה locative Deuteronomy 3:21; Deuteronomy 4:14; Deuteronomy 6:1; Deuteronomy 11:8,11; Deuteronomy 34:4; Isaiah 23:6; with accusative of location Isaiah 23:12; Jeremiah 2:10; Numbers 32:32 (P).
b. cross border, boundary, with accusative Numbers 20:17; b Numbers 21:22 b (both J E), + אֶלֿ 1 Samuel 27:2; of invasion, accusative omitted, with אֶלֿ Judges 11:32; Judges 12:3; 1 Samuel 14:1,6,8, with ה locative 2 Kings 8:21, absolute 2 Chronicles 21:9.
c. cross over (that Isaiah , intervening space) against (עַלֿ) 1 Samuel 14:4, unto 2 Samuel 24:20 (read אֶלֿ for עַלֿ Bu HPS, compare ᵐ5 L), so perhaps also Isaiah 45:14 (עַל; read אֶל ?); with accusative of goal Amos 5:5; Amos 6:2.
d. pass, march over (that Isaiah , bodies of captives), Isaiah 51:23 (twice in verse).
e. = overflow, figurative, Isaiah 23:10, absolute of invasion (like a flood) Isaiah 8:8, hence Daniel 11:10,40; Nahum 1:8 (compare 4 c); of evil thoughts Psalm 73:7; compare עָֽבְרוּ דִבְרֵירָֿ֑ע Jeremiah 5:28 they overflow with evil matters.
f. pass, go, over, of waves, over one's head, usually with עַלֿ Isaiah 54:9; Psalm 42:8; Psalm 88:17; Psalm 124:4; Psalm 124:5 (all figurative), Jonah 2:4; with accusative Psalm 38:5, compare Jeremiah 23:9 over whom wine hath gone (= overcome with wine).
g. of razor passing over head, with עַל Numbers 6:50; figurative of time passing over one, with עַלֿ 1 Chronicles 29:30 (compare Biblical Aramaic חלף על Daniel 4:13 +).
h. pass over upon (עַלֿ), in weakened sense, nearly = come or light upon; of spirit Numbers 5:14 (twice in verse); Numbers 5:30; absolute + מֵאֵת 1 Kings 22:24 2 Chronicles 18:23; with עַלֿ also light upon in chastisement or judgment, Hosea 10:11; Job 13:13, compare Nahum 3:19; Deuteronomy 24:5 no affair shall pass over upon (עַלֿ) him, i.e. no duty be laid upon him.
i. overstep, transgress, with accusative of covenant, command, etc. (usually divine); Numbers 14:41; Joshua 7:11,15 (all J E), Deuteronomy 17:2; Deuteronomy 26:13; Joshua 23:16 (all D), Judges 2:20; 1 Samuel 15:24; Hosea 6:7; Hosea 8:1; 2 Kings 18:12; Jeremiah 34:18; Isaiah 24:5; Psalm 148:6; 2 Chronicles 24:20; Daniel 9:11; command of earthly king Esther 3:3; absolute Psalm 17:3.
j. pass over = overlook, forgive עַלמֶּֿשַׁע Micah 7:18 (+ לְ person), Proverbs 19:11; with לְ person only, Amos 7:8; Amos 8:2.
2 Pass beyond, with accusative 1 Samuel 14:23 (of battle), Jeremiah 5:22 (twice in verse) (of sea); + אֶל Genesis 31:52 (twice in verse) (E); pass a little beyond מְעַט מֵהָראֹשׁ׳ע 2 Samuel 16:1, כִּמְעַטשֶׁעָבַרְתִּי מֵהֶם Song of Solomon 3:4; with accusative of God's command (מֶּה), Proverbs 8:29 (of sea), Numbers 22:18 = Numbers 24:13 (JE); accusative omitted Job 14:5; Psalm 104:9.
3 Pass through, traverse, usually
a. with בְּ of land, city, etc.: Numbers 22:21 (E), Numbers 20:21; Joshua 18:9 (JE), Exodus 12:2 (P), 1 Samuel 9:4 (4t. in verse); 2 Samuel 20:14 (+ ה locative), + 31t.; with בְּתוֺךְ Ezekiel 9:4; Job 15:19; with בְּקֶרֶב of camp, nation(s) Joshua 1:11; Joshua 3:2 (D), Joshua 24:17 (E), Amos 5:17; Deuteronomy 29:15; with accusative Deuteronomy 2:18; Deuteronomy 29:15; Judges 11:29 (twice in verse); Isaiah 10:29; Job 14:5 is pass over, beyond (compare 1 i); absolute Exodus 12:23 (J), Numbers 20:19,20 (JE), Deuteronomy 2:28; Micah 5:7; Lamentations 3:44; Ezekiel 14:15; Ezekiel 33:28; opposed to שׁוּב, pass through and return, go to and fro, Exodus 32:27 (E; ׳מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בְּ), participle absolute those going to and fro Ezekiel 35:7; Zechariah 7:14; Zechariah 9:8.
b. with בְּ of river 2 Samuel 19:19 + 2 Samuel 15:23 (but read עֹמֵד We Dr Bu and others), of sea Zechariah 10:11, compare Isaiah 43:2; Psalm 66:6, with בְּתוֺךְ Numbers 33:8 (P), Nehemiah 9:11; with בְּ of gates Isaiah 62:10 (twice in verse); compare עֹבְרֵיבְּעֵמֶק Psalm 84:7 (Ges§ 130a).
c. participle absolute הָעֹבְרִים the passers-through Ezekiel 39:11a, read probably הָעֲבָרִים (JDMich Hi Co Berthol), Ezekiel 39:11 b (Co reads אֶתהַֿגַּיְא; Toy strike out as gloss), Ezekiel 39:14 (strike out ᵐ5ᵑ6 Co Toy Berthol).
d. pass through between (בֵּין) parts of victim, in covenant Genesis 15:7 (J), Jeremiah 34:18,19.
e. traverse with accusative of expanse of water Isaiah 33:21 (of ship).
4. a. pass along by (עַלֿ), Genesis 18:5 (J; not סַרְתֶּם אֶלֿ Ball after ᵐ5), 1 Kings 9:8; Jeremiah 18:16 14t.; with עַלמָּֿנָיו Exodus 34:6 (J); with accusative Genesis 32:32; Judges 3:26 (on other possibilities see GFM), 2 Kings 6:9; absolute pass by Exodus 33:22 (twice in verse) (J), 2 Kings 4:8 15t., + (of wind) Job 37:21; Proverbs 10:25 and (of waters, = flow past) Habakkuk 3:10 (compare Job 6:15), Job 11:16, hence מוֺר עֹבֵר Song of Solomon 5:5,13 flowing myrrh (liquid, opposed to hard = דְּרוֺר׳מ Exodus 30:23); participle = passer-by Micah 2:8; Ezekiel 5:14; Ezekiel 36:34; Ezekiel 39:15 6t. ( Proverbs 26:10 see Toy), + עֹבֵר אֹרַח Isaiah 33:8, עֹבְרֵי דֶרֶךְ Lamentations 1:12; Lamentations 2:15; Job 21:29; Proverbs 9:15; Psalm 80:13; Psalm 89:42; pass by = overtake and pass with accusative 2 Samuel 18:23.
b. pass by, בְּ of thing, Psalm 103:16 (of wind).
c. sweep by, of scourge (figurative) Isaiah 28:15,18,19 (compare מַעֲבָר 3).
d. be past, over, of time, etc., Amos 8:5; 1 Kings 18:29; Genesis 50:4; Song of Solomon 2:11 7t.
e. pass along (from hand to hand), only participle שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר לַסֹּחֵר Genesis 23:16i.e. current money of the merchant (or, money passing over to merchant ? Bu ThLz 1892 (3), 63); כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר 2 Kings 12:5.
5 Pass on, go on:
a. absolute Genesis 18:5 (J), Numbers 22:26 (E), Judges 12:1 20t., + Judges 11:29; Judges 18:13; Joshua 10:29 (D; all with accusative of goal + מִן), Genesis 18:3 (J; with מֵעַל person); also with אֶלֿ person or thing, proceed unto 1 Kings 19:19; 2 Kings 4:8; Nehemiah 2:14, with עַלֿ person (read אֶלֿ ?) Lamentations 4:21; with מִן Ruth 2:8, out of the city 2 Samuel 15:24; with ה locative Judges 12:1; 2 Samuel 19:41, with ה locative + מִן Joshua 10:31,34 (D); מֵעִיר לָעִיר בארץ׳ע 2 Chronicles 30:10; absolute 2 Samuel 19:41 all the people of Judah proceeding with the king (read עֹבְרִים for ויעברו, see
Hiph`il near the end).
b. specifically of boundary-line, pass on, with ה locative Numbers 34:4 (twice in verse); Joshua 15:3,4; Joshua 16:6 (omit אוֺתוֺᵐ5 ᵑ9 compare Benn: Hpt Steuern); + מִן Joshua 19:13 + מִן + אֶלֿ Joshua 18:13; with מִן + לְ Joshua 15:6; with אֶלֿ Joshua 15:7,10; Joshua 16:2; Joshua 18:18,19; with accusative of location Joshua 15:3,10,11 (all P, except Joshua 16:2 J E).
c. with לִפְנֵי pass on before, go in advance of Genesis 32:17; Exodus 17:5 (both E), Genesis 32:22; Genesis 33:3,14 (all J), Deuteronomy 9:3 7t., + Deuteronomy 3:18,28; Deuteronomy 31:3 (twice in verse); Joshua 1:14 (all D) where reference may be to crossing in advance of; with עַלמְּֿנֵי 2 Samuel 15:18 Song of Solomon 2Samuel 15:23 b (reading עַלמָּֿנָיוᵐ5 L We Dr Klo Bu Kit HPS).
d. pass on as far as (עַד), Judges 19:12, + מִן Judges 19:18; with אַחֲרֵי after 2 Samuel 20:13; תַּעֲבָרכּֿוֺס עַל Lamentations 4:21 pass on unto (compare תִּסּוֺב Habakkuk 2:16).
e. pass on into (בְּ), Joshua 3:11 ( + לִפְנֵי), Joshua 4:7 (both J E), compare Judges 9:26; Job 33:28, so also ׳בִּבְרִית י׳ע Deuteronomy 29:11 enter into a covenant with ׳י; (Klo reads ׳וַיַּעֲכֹר בַּבּ also 2 Kings 23:3 for ᵑ0ויעמד).
f. pass on away from (מֵאֵת) Deuteronomy 2:8 ( + ה locative).
g. pass on in order, for counting 2 Samuel 2:15, עַליְֿדֵי מוֺנֶה Jeremiah 33:13, עֹבֵר עַלהַֿמְּקֻדִים Exodus 30:13,14; Exodus 38:26, also pass on under (תַּחַת) rod Leviticus 27:32 (for counting; all P; compare Hiph`il 3 d).
h. pass along, travel with accusative of way Isaiah 35:8; compare Isaiah 51:10; אָרְחוֺת יַמִּים עֹבֵר Psalm 8:9; with בְּ of way Joshua 3:4; Proverbs 4:15; Proverbs 7:8.
i. pass on, advance, absolute, Psalm 48:5 (Ol We pass away, perish), Micah 2:13 a (accusative of location).
6 Pass away:
a. emigrate, leave one's territory or city Micah 1:11.
b. vanish, of chaff, Isaiah 29:5 compare Jeremiah 13:24, shadow Psalm 144:4, b rooks Job 6:15 (all in simile), Song of Solomon 5:6.
c. = cease to exist, perish Nahum 1:12; Job 30:15; Job 33:18 (בְּ instrumental), Job 36:12 ( id.), Job 34:20; Psalm 37:36 (but read ואעבר and I passed by, compare 4 a), compare Isaiah 31:9 (סלעו subject), מֵאֱלֹהַי מִשְׁמָּטִי יַעֲבוֺר Isaiah 40:27 pass away from.
d. = become invalid, obsolete, of law, decree, Esther 1:19; Esther 9:27, also Esther 9:28 ( + מִתּוֺךְהַיְהוּדִים).
e. with מִן of hands Psalm 81:7 (i.e. they were freed from).
f. = be alienated, pass into other hands Ezekiel 48:14 (reading Kt; > Qr
Hiph`il). — Jeremiah 2:20 read אֶעֱבוֺד Kt (not אֶעֱבוֺר Qr); וָאֶתֵּן לָהֶםיַעַבְרוּם Jeremiah 8:13 and I gave to them that which they transgress ᵐ5ᵑ9 ᵑ7 Aq Symm Ew, those that shall pass over them Hi Gf Ke RVm, those that shall consume, devour them Rothst Kau (reading יְבַעֲרוּם) but all very dubious; ᵐ5 Co strike out; Jeremiah 11:15 read Hiph`il q. v.; מִנֹּגַהּ נֶּגְדּוֺ עָבָיו עָֽבְרוּ Psalm 18:13 is difficult; perhaps best, as Che Kit Kau Löhr, out of the brightness before him issued forth hailstones, etc. (strike out עָבָיו); > "" 2 Samuel 22:13 בָּֽעֲרוּ and so here Bu HPS compare Woods Hebraica 1887,262, his clouds burned with hailstones, etc.; read rather עברו in 2 singular
Niph`al Imperfect 3 masculine singular נַחַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא יֵעָבֵר Ezekiel 47:5 a stream which cannot be forded.
Pi`el 1. Perfect 3 masculine singular שׁוֺרוֺ עִבַּר Job 21:10 his bull impregnateth (compare Late Hebrew) **מְעֻבֶּרֶת pregnant, Yeb 4:1; 4:2; 7:3; Keth 1:9'; but note also that in ᵑ7 J and Talmud (both Aramaic and Hebrew) עִבֵּר = conceive, עִבּוּר conception, עוֺבֵר embryo; absolute (properly causeth to pass over, that is semen).
2 Imperfect 3 masculine singular ׳וַיְעַבֵּר בְּ 1 Kings 6:21 he made to pass across with chains of gold. —
Hithpa`el see [ עָבַר] below
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular הֶעֱבִיר 2 Samuel 12:13 +; 2 masculine singular הֵעֲבַ֫רְתָּ Joshua 7:7 (Ges§ 63 p), וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ֫ Ezekiel 5:1 +; 1 singular הֶעֱבַ֫רְתִּי Zechariah 3:4, וְהַעֲבַרְתִּ֫י Ezekiel 20:37 + Jeremiah 15:14 (but read והעבדתיᵐ5 ᵑ6ᵑ7 Manuscripts Ew Hi Gf Gie), etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular וַיַּעֲבֵר Genesis 8:1 +, וַיַּעֲבֶרֿ 2 Chronicles 36:22 = Ezra 1:1, suffix וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי Ezekiel 46:21 +, etc.; Imperative masculine singular הַעֲבֵר Psalm 119:37 2t., הַעֲבֶרֿ 2 Samuel 24:10 = 1 Chronicles 21:8; masculine plural suffix הַעֲבִירוּנִי 2 Chronicles 35:23; Infinitive absolute הַעֲבִיר Joshua 7:7 (read probably הַעֲבֵיר); construct הַעֲבִיר 2 Samuel 3:10 +, לַעֲבִיר 2 Samuel 19:19 (Ges§ 53 q), etc.; Participle מַעֲבִיר Deuteronomy 18:10; Daniel 11:20, plural מַעֲבִרִים 1 Samuel 2:24 (see below); —
1 cause to pass over, bring over:
a. cause one to cross river, with 2accusative, Genesis 32:24 (J), Numbers 32:5; Joshua 7:7 (both J E), 2 Samuel 19:16; 2 Samuel 19:42; accusative of river omitted Genesis 32:24 (J), Joshua 4:3; Joshua 7:7 (+ Infinitive abs.; both J E), Joshua 4:8 (J E; + אֶלֿ), 2 Samuel 2:8 (+ accusative of location).
b. cause something to pass over (עַלֿ): razor (accusative) Numbers 8:7 (P), compare Ezekiel 5:1 (where Co reads suffix of razor), wind Genesis 8:1 (P).
c. make over to (ל), accusative of inheritance Numbers 27:7,8 (P); of making over, dedicating, something to (לְ) deity Exodus 13:12 (J E; = קִדַּשׂ). Especially
d. devote children to (לְ) heathen god Jeremiah 32:35; Ezekiel 23:37 ( + לְאָכְלָה), Leviticus 18:21 (H), compare Ezekiel 16:21; + בָּאֵשׁ by fire 2 Kings 23:10; with accusative alone devote Ezekiel 20:26; with accusative + בָּאֵשׁ alone, devote by fire Deuteronomy 18:10; 2 Kings 16:3; 2 Kings 17:7; 2 Kings 21:6 2 Chronicles 33:6; Ezekiel 20:31 (on the practice compare Now Archaeology ii. 205f. Benz Archaeology 483f. Toy Ezekiel 16:20; 20,26 GFM JBL xvi (1897), 161ff.).
2. a. cause to pass through, with accusative + בְּ Ezekiel 14:15; Ezekiel 47:3,4 + Ezekiel 47:4 (where insert בְּ, compare Co Berthol Toy), Numbers 31:23 (twice in verse) (P); with accusative + בְּתוֺךְ Psalm 136:14; with accusative of person alone Psalm 78:13, + אֶלֿ Ezekiel 46:21, + עַדאֲֿשֶׁר Nehemiah 2:7; with accusative of (sound of) שׁוֺפָר Leviticus 25:9 (H), + בְּ Leviticus 25:9 (P); with accusative קוֺל = proclamation, + בְּ Exodus 36:6 (P), 2 Chronicles 30:5; 36:22 = Ezra 1:1; Ezra 10:7 ( + לִ person), Nehemiah 8:15.
b. let pass through, with accusative + בְּ person Deuteronomy 2:30.
3. a. cause to pass by, with accusative + עַלֿ, Ezekiel 37:2 (+ סָבִיב סָבִיב), + עַלמְּֿנֵי Exodus 33:19 (J), + לִפְנֵי 1 Samuel 16:8,10 and (לִפְנֵי omitted) 1 Samuel 16:9.
b. let pass by, with accusative מוֺעֵד Jeremiah 46:17 he hath let the set time pass by (in mocking appell. of Pharaoh).
c. cause arrow to pass beyond one 1 Samuel 20:36.
d. cause to pass under rod, for counting, Ezekiel 20:37 (compare Qal 5 g).
4 Cause to pass away, take away, kingdom (accusative) + מִן person 2 Samuel 3:10, compare Esther 8:2, + מֵעַל Jonah 3:6 (of putting off garment); with accusative of sin 2 Samuel 12:13; 2 Samuel 24:20 = 1 Chronicles 21:8; Job 7:21, + מֵעַל person Zechariah 3:4; Jeremiah 11:15 (reading יַעֲבִרוּ מֵעַל Ew Gf Gie); put away evil things (accusative) from (מִן), 1 Kings 15:12 compare "" 2 Chronicles 15:8; Zechariah 13:2; Ecclesiastes 11:10; with accusative alone Psalm 119:39; Esther 8:3; also take me away (suffix) 2 Chronicles 35:23 (with מִן) 2 Chronicles 35:24; turn away eyes (accusative) + מִן Psalm 119:37. — Genesis 47:21 read הֶעֱבִיד לַעֲבָדִים⅏ ᵐ5ᵑ9 Ol Kn Di Kau Holz; Jeremiah 15:14 read וְהַעֲבַדְתִּיךָᵐ5 ᵑ7 Manuscripts Gie; 2 Samuel 12:31 read וְהֶעֱבִיד Hoffm ZAW ii (1882), 53f. Gr Klo Bu Kit HPS, compare Dr Löhr; 2 Samuel 19:41 (for ויעברו Kt, הֶעֱבִרוּ Qr) read עֹבְרִיםᵐ5 We Bu Löhr HPS, וַיַּעַבְרוּ Kit (see Qal 5 a); Ezekiel 48:14 read
Qal (so Kt; see Qal 6 e); ׳מַעֲבִרִים עַםיֿ 1 Samuel 2:24 not good is the report which I hear the people of ׳י spreading (compare
2), so Ew Th We Dr Kit Löhr RVm, but order of words difficult; > (ye) make the people of ׳י transgress ᵑ9 AV RV; text dubious; נוֺגֵשׂ מַעֲבִיר Daniel 11:20 one causing an exactor to pass through Ew and others Revelation , Bev proposes ׳נוֺגֵשׂ מ an exactor causing to pass away the glory, etc.
[עָבַר] verb denominative Hithpa`el be arrogant, infuriate oneself; — Perfect 3 masculine singular הִתְעַבָּ֑ר Psalm 78:62; 2 masculine singular Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
עָבַר fut. יַעֲבֹר.
(1) to pass over. (Arabic عبر to pass over, to cross a stream; also to go away, to depart, to die; عِبْرُ, عُبْرُ shore, bank of a stream, Ufer, غبر to go away, to depart. The same stock is widely extended in the Indo-Germanic languages; see Sansc. upari, Pers. ابر, بر and زبر super, supra, Gr. ὑπέρ, πέρα, πέραν, περάω, Lat. super, Goth. ufar, afar, Germ. über.) Prop. to pass over a stream, the sea, followed by an acc. Genesis 31:21; Joshua 4:22, 24:11 Deuteronomy 3:27, 4:21 followed by בְּ Joshua 3:11; 2 Samuel 15:23; Zechariah 10:11 בְּתוֹךְ Numbers 33:8. Absol. to pass over, sc. a stream (er feßte über), Joshua 2:23, and followed by an acc. of that to which we pass over, Jeremiah 2:10, עִבְרוּ אִיִּיִ כִתִּיִּים “pass over (the sea) unto the shores of Chittim;” Amos 6:2 followed by אֶל Numbers 32:7; 1 Samuel 14:1, 1 Samuel 14:6 (where it means to pass over to an opposite place).
(a) of the wind passing over upon any thing, followed by בְּ Psalms 103:16.
(b) of waters, which, overflowing their banks, pass over, Isaiah 8:8, 54:9 Nahum 1:8; Habakkuk 3:10 followed by an acc. of the bank, Jeremiah 5:22 used figuratively of an army overflowing, Daniel 11:10, 40 Daniel 11:40 of the feelings of the soul which overflow and pour themselves out in words, Psalms 73:7. Compare Hithpael.
(c) used of tears, as overflowing (compare Arab. عَبَِر the eye gushes with tears, Germ. die Augen gehen über, عَبْرَةُ a tear). Part. מֹר עֹבֵר overflowing myrrh, dropping spontaneously, Song of Solomon 5:5, 13.-It is
(d) to go over to some one’s side, followed by עַל Isaiah 45:14.
(e) to violate a law, 2 Kings 18:12; Esther 3:3; Jeremiah 34:18; Daniel 9:11.
(2) to pass over, to pass through, a country, a city, etc.; followed by an acc. Judges 11:29, וַיַּעֲבֹר אֶת־גִּלְעָד וְאֶת מְנַשֶּׁה “he went through Gilead and Manasseh.” Isaiah 23:10, עִבְרִי אַרְצֵךְ כַּיְאֹר “pass over thy land like the Nile” (compare No. 1, b); Psalms 8:9. More often also followed by בְּ Genesis 12:6, 30:32 Numbers 20:18, 33:8 Isaiah 8:21, 10:29 34:10 Jeremiah 2:6 followed by בֵּין (between two things) Genesis 15:17; Jeremiah 34:19 בְּתוֹךְ Job 15:19. Absol. Lamentations 3:44, “thou hast covered thyself with clouds, מִעֲבֹר תְּפִלָּה so that prayers do not pass through.”-כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר 2 Kings 12:5, more fully כּ׳ עֹבֵר לַסֹּתֵר Genesis 23:16, “money which passes with the merchants” (gangbare Münze; French, argent qui passe), is money such as merchants will take. (Whether this was stamped coin or not in the time of the patriarchs, this is not the place to investigate.) Vulg. moneta probata.
(3) to pass by (vorübergehn). Genesis 37:28, “and there passed by Ishmaelites.” Ruth 4:1. Part. עֹבְרִים Psalms 129:8, עֹבְרֵי דֶרֶךְ Psalms 80:13, 89:42 Job 21:29, passers by. Followed by an acc. of pers. or place passed by, Genesis 32:32; Judges 3:26; 2 Samuel 18:23 followed by עַל 1 Kings 9:8; 2 Kings 4:9; Proverbs 24:30; Jeremiah 18:16.; 19:8 49:17 Ezekiel 16:6, Ezekiel 16:8מֵעַלּ Genesis 18:3 עַל פְּנֵי Ezekiel 34:6 לִפְנֵי 2 Kings 4:31. Specially
(a) used of time passing by, Genesis 50:4 of the summer or winter, Jeremiah 8:20; Song of Solomon 2:11.
(b) to pass by quickly, to vanish, used of a cloud, Job 30:15 of a shadow, Psalms 144:4 of chaff, Jeremiah 13:24.
(c) to perish, Psalms 37:36; Job 34:20; Isaiah 29:5; Esther 9:28. עָבַר בַּשֶּׁלַת to perish, by the weapon (of death), Job 33:18, 36:12. עָבַר בַּשַּׁחַת to perish in the sepulchre [corruption], Job 33:28.
(d) metaph. is said עָבַר עַל פֶּשַׁע to pass by sin, i.e. to forgive, Micah 7:18; Proverbs 19:11 and without פֶּשׁעַ, followed by a dat. of pers. to forgive any one, Amos 7:8, 8:2.
(e) Isaiah 40:27, מֵאֱלֹהַי מִשְׁפָּטִי יַעֲבֹר “my cause has passed over from my God;” i.e. he does not regard my cause, he overlooks it and neglects it (er läft es ruhig an fich vorübergehn). Comp. Arab. عدا to pass by, to omit to supersede.
(4) to pass on, or along, to go beyond (weiter gehn). Genesis 18:5, אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ “afterwards ye shall pass on,” go farther. 2 Samuel 18:9; Habakkuk 1:11; Esther 4:17 hence
(a) to move on, to march, Joshua 6:7, Joshua 6:8; Psalms 42:5.
(b) to pass away, to depart, Song of Solomon 5:6 followed by מִן Psalms 81:7, כַּפָּיו מִדּוּד תַּעֲבֹרְנָה “his hand departed from the basket” (for carrying burdens); i.e. he gave it up, he was freed from the work of carrying it. 1 Kings 22:24, אֵיוֶה עָבַר רוּחַ יְיָ מֵאִתִּי “which way did the Spirit of Jehovah depart from me?”
(c) to pass on to any place, to go to any place; followed by עַל 2 Kings 6:30 followed by an acc. Amos 5:5. עָבַר מֵעִיר לָעִיר to pass from city to city, to go through all the cities, 2 Chronicles 30:10. עָבַר וָשָׁב to pass on and return, to go hither and thither, Exodus 32:27; Ezekiel 35:7; Zechariah 7:14, 9:8.
(d) to enter, followed by an accus. into a gate, Micah 2:13 (opp. to יָצָא); metaph. עָבַר בַּבְּרִית to enter into a covenant, Deuteronomy 29:11 compare בּוֹא No. 1, e.
(e) followed by לִפְנֵי to pass on before, Genesis 33:3; Exodus 17:5; 2 Kings 4:31; Micah 2:13.
(f) followed by אַתֲרֵי to follow any one, 2 Samuel 20:13.
(5) Followed by עַל to pass over any person or thing, Numbers 6:5.
(a) to overwhelm any one, used of overflowing waters (compare No. 1, b), Psalms 124:4 of wine, followed by an acc. Jerem. 23:9, “like a man עֲבָרוֹ יַיִן (whom) wine overwhelms,” oppresses, (compare similar expressions under the words בָּלַע, הָלַם); used of a multitude of sins (followed by an acc.), Psalms 38:5 of the anger of God, Psalms 88:17 compare Lamentations 4:21.
(b) to rush upon any one, to attack, to assail him, followed by עַל Nahum 3:19, “whom has not thy wickedness assailed;” Job 13:13, “let what (calamity) will assail me;” Micah 5:7. Used of God himself, Job 9:11 of a spirit of jealousy, Numbers 5:14.
(c) to be imposed on any one, Deuteronomy 24:5. But Isaiah 45:14, עָבַר עַל is to pass over to another owner (speaking of riches), compare Ezekiel 48:14.
Niphal, to be passed over (as a stream), Ezekiel 47:5.
Piel, to cause to pass over, to make to pass forward
(a) a bar or bolt, hence to shut up with a bolt; to bar, followed by לִפְנֵי. 1 Kings 6:21, וַיְעַבֵּר בְּרַתּוּקוֹת זָהַב לִפְנֵי הַדְּבִיר “and he closed up with golden chains (as if with a bolt) before the holy of holies.”
(b) a female is said to let pass, to conceive seed, hence to become pregnant. Job 21:10, שׁוֹרוֹ עִבַּר “his ox (i.e. cow) becomes pregnant.” Chald. עָבַר Peal, Pael, Ethpael, id., see Bochart, Hieroz. i. p. 291, and Buxtorf, Lex. Chald., p. 1568; compare syn. עֲרָה to pass by, Ps. Aph. to become pregnant, in Targ. for הָרָה pr. to transmit.
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to pass over, i.e. to transmit, to send over, to conduct over any one, e.g. a people, a flock across a stream, with an acc of obj., 2 Samuel 19:16 more often with two acc., of pers., and of the river, Genesis 32:24; Numbers 32:5; Joshua 7:7; 2 Samuel 19:16 with an acc. of obj, and בְּ of the river, Psalms 78:13, 136:14. This word is used whether a stream be passed in boats (drüberführen), 2 Sa. loc. cit.; as by swimming, as in the case of a flock, or by a ford (dur ch führen), Gen., Josh. l.l.c.c. It is also
(a) to cause a razor to pass over some one, followed by עַל Numbers 8:7; Ezekiel 5:1.
(b) to cause to remove from one place to another. Genesis 47:21, “and he removed the people לֶעָרִים (from cities) into cities,” i.e. from one city to another, he made them exchange habitations.
(c) to cause an inheritance to pass to any one, followed by לְ Numbers 27:7, Numbers 27:8.
(d) to cause to pass over, i.e. to violate a law (compare Kal No. 1, letter e), 1 Samuel 2:24.
(2) causat. of Kal No. 2 to cause or suffer to pass through, e.g. a land, Deuteronomy 2:30 to cause to pervade (as wild beasts in a land), Ezekiel 14:15 specially הֶעֱבִיר קוֹל בְּ to cause to be proclaimed (in a land, or camp), Exodus 36:6; Ezra 1:1, 10:7 הֶעֱבִיר שׁוֹפָר to cause the trumpet to sound throughout; i.e. to blow the trumpet, Leviticus 25:9.
(3) causat. of Kal No. 3, to cause to pass by, 1 Samuel 16:9, 10 1 Samuel 16:10, 20:36, “he shot an arrow לִהַעֲבִירוֹ so as to pass him by,” i.e. beyond him. Metaph. הֶעֱבִיר חַטָּאָה to pass by sin, to remit, to forgive (compare Kal No. 3, letter d), 2 Samuel 12:13, 24:10 Job 7:21.
(4) causat. of Kal No. 4, i.q. הֵבִיא to bring, specially to offer as a sacrifice, to consecrate, followed by לַיהוָֹה Exodus 13:12; Ezekiel 23:37 more often also in this phrase הֶעֱבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ to offer (children) to Moloch, Leviticus 18:21; Jeremiah 32:35 compare Ezekiel 16:21, with the addition of the word בָּאֵשׁ 2 Kings 23:10; Ezekiel 20:31. It can scarcely be doubted that children thus offered to Moloch were actually burned, as is shewn by the following passages, Jeremiah 7:31, 19:5 Psalms 106:37; 2 Chronicles 28:3 compare Diod. xx. 14; Euseb. Præp. iv. 16; although the Rabbins in order to free their ancestors from the stigma of such an atrocious superstition, have alleged that they were only made to pass through the fire as a rite of lustration:
(see Carpzov, Apparatus Antiqu. Cod. S. p. 487); the same opinion is found in the LXX. 2 Kings 16:3. The idea of offering being neglected, this word appears to have the signification of burning, in the phrase הֶעֱבִיר בַּמַּלְבֵּן to cast into the brick-kiln, 2 Samuel 12:31.
(5) causat. of Kal No. 4, b, to lead away, 2 Chronicles 35:23 to take away, to remove, e.g. a garment, Jonah 3:6 a ring, Esther 8:2 idols, lying prophets, 2 Chronicles 15:8; Zechariah 13:2 to avert evil, reproach, Esther 8:3; Psalms 119:37, 39 Psalms 119:39; Ecclesiastes 11:10.
(1) to pour oneself forth in wrath, i.e. pour forth wrath, to be wroth (compare Kal No. 1, b), Psalms 78:21, 59 Psalms 78:59 followed by בְּ Psalms 78:69 עִם Psalms 89:39 עַל Proverbs 26:17 with suff. Proverbs 20:2, מִתְעַבְּרוֹ for מ׳ לוֹ “whoever pours forth wrath against him” (the king). (Compare Arab. جَارَ to transgress, to be proud, to burn with anger).
(2) to be proud, ὑβρίζειν, Proverbs 14:16 (compare עֶבְרָה No. 2).
Derived nouns, עֲבוּר, מַעֲבָר, מַעֲבָרָה, and those which follow as far as עַבְרוֹנָה.