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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4313 - προπορεύομαι
- to send before, to make to precede
- to go before one
- of a leader
- of a messenger or a herald
From G4253 and G4198
In the LXX regularly (Thackeray Gr. i. p. 183) and in the Κοινή, frequently, especially in the Ptolemaic period,πρῶτος stands for πρότερος, so reversing the usual Hellenistic rule that the comparative does duty for both degrees of comparison. For an ex. almost contemporary with the NT we may cite P Oxy II. 2979 (A.D. 54), where a man asks for information for a supplementary return of lambs born since the first or former return for the year had been made—παρὰ τὴν πρώτην ἀπογραφήν. No stress can, therefore, be laid on the use of πρῶτος in Acts 1:1, as if Luke meant to write a third treatise (cf. Ramsay Paul, p. 28).
To illustrate John 1:15; John 15:18, we may quote P Leid Wxii. 49 (ii/iii A.D.) (= II. p. 125) ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Φόβος αὐτοῦ ἰσχυρότερον ἀντέστη αὐτῷ λέγων · σοῦ πρῶτός εἰμι, ";prior sum quam tu."; Abbott (Foh. Gr. p. 510 f.) suggests that the Leiden papyrus may have been dependent on John 1:15, and translates the latter passage ";my Chief"; (ib. p. II ff.), but see Moulton (Proleg. pp. 79, 245) in support of the ordinary rendering ";before me.";
That πρώτη in Acts 16:12 is not to be understood geographically (as Lightfoot Philippians 2:1-30 p. 49) but politically has been made clear by Ramsay in C. and B. ii. p. 429 (cf. Paul, p. 206 f.) in connexion with the rivalries of Greek cities to be regarded as ";first"; or ";chief"; of their respective districts. For the suggestion that the true reading in Ac l.c. is not πρώτη but πρώτης, see Field Notes, p. 124, Blass Philology p. 67 ff.
In P Hib I. 110.72 (c. B.C. 255) (= Chrest. I. p. 514) a certain Phoenix is described as τῶν πρώτων Εσ ̣ο ̣π ̣[.].[. ., ";one of the first company of E . . .,"; and the editors compare for a similar military title an unpublished Tebtunis papyrus of iii/B.C.—τῶν Μενελάου πρώτων ἐκ τοῦ Ἑρμοπολίτου καὶ (ἑκατοντάρουρος) : cf. also IG XIV. 601 cited s.v. Μελίτη. In P Oxy VIII. 1101.3 (A.D. 367–70) π [αρ᾽ ὀ ]λίγων τῶν πρώτων is rendered by the editor ";from a few first comers,"; and in Syll 523 (=.3 578).10 (ii/B.C.) τὸ πρῶτον ἔργον is used in the sense of the highest class—class 1—in connexion with the instruction of youths (see the editor’s note).
The adverbial πρῶτον is seen in the soldier’s letter to his father BGU II. 423.12 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 91) γράψον μοι ἐπιστόλιον πρῶτον μὲν περὶ τῆς σωτηρίας σου, δεύτερον περὶ τῆς τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου, and τὸ πρῶτον, as in John 10:40 al., in P Oxy IV. 811 (c. A.D. 1) καὶ τὸ πρῶτον ἔγρ [αψά σο ]ι εὐχαριστῶν Ἑρμίππου (l. Ἑρμίππῳ), where the meaning is either ";at the first"; or ";earlier"; (= πρότερον), see Olsson Papyrusbriefe, p. 53.
For the double superlative πρώτιστος cf. P Eleph 10.4 (B.C. 223–2) ἀπὸ τοῦ πρωτίσ ̣του χρόνου, and BGU II. 665ii. 16 (i/A.D.) ὅτι πρώτι [σ ]τα λαμβάνει (sc. ὀψώνιον), and see Proleg. p. 236. In BGU III. 830.20 (i/A.D.) ἐγὼ γὰρ ἔχω τὸ προτερ [ικό ]ν (l. πρωτερικόν), Herwerden understands πρωτερικόν as = ";praeoptatio,"; ";praerogativa (?,";) but cf. Olsson Papyrusbriefe p 198.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
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