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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #05221 - נָכָה
1) to strike, smite, hit, beat, slay, kill
1a) (Niphal) to be stricken or smitten
1b) (Pual) to be stricken or smitten
1c1) to smite, strike, beat, scourge, clap, applaud, give a thrust
1c2) to smite, kill, slay (man or beast)
1c3) to smite, attack, attack and destroy, conquer, subjugate, ravage
1c4) to smite, chastise, send judgment upon, punish, destroy
1d) (Hophal) to be smitten
1d1) to receive a blow
1d2) to be wounded
1d3) to be beaten
1d4) to be (fatally) smitten, be killed, be slain
1d5) to be attacked and captured
1d6) to be smitten (with disease)
1d7) to be blighted (of plants)
1310) kn (נכ NK) AC: Crush CO: Spice AB: ?: The pictograph n is a picture of a seed, the k is a picture of the palm of the hand. Combined these mean "seed in the palm". Seeds of certain plants were placed in the palm and rubbed with the thumb to a powdery spice.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
נָכָה a root not used in Kal, to smite, to strike. (Arab. and Eth. نكى, نكأ, ነከየ፡ id., but rarely used, mostly in the sense of hurting. Cognate are נָכָא, נָגַע, נָגַח, and in the Indo-Germanic languages, ico-ĕre.)
Niphal, pass. of Hiphil, to be smitten, slain; once found 2 Samuel 11:15.
Piel, unused; for as to the word which some have referred as the inf. Piel, נַכֶּה Numbers 22:6, it is (as elsewhere, Joshua 10:4) 1 pl. fut. Hiphil, and the whole passage is to be thus explained, אוּלַי אוּכַל נַכֶּה־בּוֹ וַאֲגָֽרְשֶׁנּוּ “perhaps I shall be able to effect, that we may smite them (Israel), and I may drive them out.” The verb יָכֹל, like the Arab. قدر, استطاع, is in this place construed with a finite verb, like Esther 8:6. The plural נַכֶּה was well explained by Sal. b. Melech, “I and my people; or I (Balak) in war, thou (Balaam) by curses.”
Pual, pass. to be smitten, Exodus 9:31, 32 of far more frequent use is Hophal, which see.
Hiphil הִכָּה, imp. הַכֵּה and הַךְ, fut. יַכֶּה, וַיַּכֶּה and וַיַּךְ
(1) to smite, to strike (Gr. πλήσσω), e.g. any one with a rod, Exodus 2:11, 13 Deuteronomy 25:3 for the sake of correction, Jeremiah 2:30; Nehemiah 13:25 water, Exodus 8:13 a rock, Psalms 78:20 any one’s cheek, (to buffet), Job 16:10 also with a stone (mit dem Steine treffen), 1 Samuel 17:49, 50 1 Samuel 17:50 with an arrow, 1 Kings 22:34; 2 Kings 9:24 with a horn, Daniel 8:7 (ftoßen). A singular use is הִכָּה שָׁרָשִׁים to strike roots, Germ. Wurzeln fchlagen, fchießen; pr. to send forth into the ground. Followed by מִן of pers. to strike out any thing from any one, Ezekiel 39:3 an eye, Exodus 21:26.
(a) הִכָּה כַף to strike the hand, 2 Kings 11:12; Ezekiel 22:13 and הִכָּה בְכַף to strike with the hand, Ezekiel 6:11 fully הִכָּה כַף אֶל כַּף Ezekiel 21:19, 22 Ezekiel 21:22 to clap the hands, sometimes as a sign of rejoicing, 2 Ki. loc. cit.; sometimes of indignation, Ezekiel 22:13 and of lamentation, Ezekiel 6:11, 21:19.
(b) 1 Samuel 24:6, וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִיד אֹתוֹ “and the heart of David smote him,” i.e. palpitated most vehemently and struck his internal breast; compare Æsch. Prom. 887; κραδία φόβῳ φρένα λακτίζει.
(c) God, or a messenger from him, is often said to smite a person, or a people, or a country with a disease or plague, i.e. to inflict a plague upon it (compare גָגַע, נָגַף); e.g. הִכָּה בַסַּנְוֵרִים to smite with blindness, Genesis 19:11 a pestilence, Numbers 14:12 hæmorrhoids, 1 Samuel 5:6 compare 2 Kings 6:18; Zechariah 12:4 and in like manner, to smite a land with destruction, Mal. 3:24 also absol. Exodus 7:25, “after Jehovah had smitten the river,” i.e. had turned it to blood; compare verse 20 Zechariah 10:11; Isaiah 11:15.
(d) to smite enemies, i.e. to conquer, to put to flight, Genesis 14:5 Deuter. 4:46 Joshua 12:7; 1 Samuel 13:4, 17:9.
(e) to smite a besieged city, i.e. to take it, 1 Chronicles 20:1; 2 Kings 3:19.
(2) In a stronger sense.
(a) to smite in pieces, to break in pieces (zerfchlagen); e.g. a house, Amos 3:15, 6:11. Psalms 3:8, “thou hast broken in pieces the jaw bone of all my enemies,” an image taken from beasts of prey.
(b) to pierce through, to pierce into, to transfix, e.g. with a spear, 1 Samuel 18:11, 19:10 26:8 2 Samuel 2:23, 3:27 4:6 20:10 with a flesh-hook, 1 Samuel 2:14 with a sword (הִכָּה לְפִי חֶרֶב, see חֶרֶב ); hence
(c) to kill, to slay, Genesis 4:15; Exodus 2:12 sometimes with the addition of the word נֶפֶשׁ as to life. Genesis 37:21, לֹא נַכֶּנּוּ נָֽפֶשׁ prop. “let us not smite him as to life,” so that he may lose his life; i.e. “let us not kill him,” Deuteronomy 19:6, 11 Deuteronomy 19:11. Levit. 24:18. Followed by בְּ partitive, to kill, to slay some of them. 2 Samuel 23:10, וַיַּךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים “and he slew (some) of the Philistines,” 2 Samuel 24:17; Ezekiel 9:7; 2 Chronicles 28:5, 17 2 Chronicles 28:17 especially 1 Samuel 6:19. Different is the passage, 1 Samuel 18:7, הִכָּה שָׁאוּל בַּאְלָפָּיו “Saul has slain his thousands,” 1 Samuel 21:12, 29:5. It is even used of wild beasts ravening, 1 Kings 20:36; Jeremiah 5:6.
(3) in a lighter sense, to touch, to blast (compare Arab. ضرب) e.g. a plant with worms, Jonah 4:7 used of the sun and moon smiting persons, Jonah 4:8; Psalms 121:6 (where the cold of the night appears to be attributed to the moon, as the heat of the day is to the sun; compare Genesis 31:40; Hosea 9:16).
Hophal הֻכָּה, once הוּכָּה Psalms 102:5.
(1) pass. of Hiph. No. 1, to be smitten
(a) to be beaten, Numbers 25:14; Exodus 5:16.
(b) to be smitten by God, smitten with a plague, 1 Samuel 5:12; Isaiah 1:5, 53:4.
(c) to be taken as a city, Ezekiel 33:21, 40:1.
(2) to be slain, killed, Jeremiah 18:21.
(3) to be touched, hurt by the sun or wind, Psalms 102:5; Hosea 9:16.
Hence מַכָּה, and the two following nouns.
Eve of Ascension