the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #622 - ἀπόλλυμι
- to destroy
- to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to ruin
- render useless
- to kill
- to declare that one must be put to death
- metaph. to devote or give over to eternal misery in hell
- to perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed
- to destroy
- to lose
ἀπόλλῡμι or ἀπολ-ύω
(Th. 4.25, Pl. R. 608e, Arist. Pol. 1297a12, but f.l. in Men. 580; the form is rejected by Phryn. PS p.10 B., Moer. 12), impf. ἀπώλλυν A. Pers. 652 (lyr.), S. El. 1360, ἀπώλλυον And. 1.58: fut. ἀπολέσω, ἀπολέσσω, Att. ἀπολῶ, Ion. ἀπολέω Hdt. 1.34, al.: aor. ἀπώλεσα, ἀπόλεσσα: pf. ἀπολώλεκα: — freq. in tmesi in; Pr postponed in Od. 9.534: —
1. stronger form of ὄλλυμι, destroy utterly, kill, in Hom. mostly of death in battle, ἀπώλεσε λαὸν Ἀχαιῶν 11.5.758, al.; ἐκπάγλως ἀπόλεσσαν ib. 1.268; also of things, demolish, lay waste, ἀπώλεσεν Ἴλιον ἱρήν ib. 5.648, etc.; generally, βίοτον δ' ἀπὸ πάμπαν ὀλέσσει will waste my substance, Od. 2.49; οἵ μ' ἀπωλλύτην sought to destroy me (impf. sense), S. OT 1454; in pregnant sense, ἐπεί με γᾶς ἐκ πατρίας ἀπώλεσε drove me ruined from.., E. Hec. 946; τῆς παρ' ἡμέραν χάριτος τὰ μέγιστα τῆς πόλεως ἀ. for the sake of.., D. 8.70.
2. λόγοις or λέγων ἀ. τινά talk or bore one to death, S. El. 1360, Ar. Nu. 892 (lyr.): hence, alone, in fut. ἀπολεῖς με Id. Ach. 470; οἴμ' ὡς ἀπολεῖς με Pherecr. 108.20; ἀπολεῖ μ' οὑτοσί by his questions, Antiph. 222.8, etc.
3. ruin a woman, Lys. 1.8.
II lose, πατέρ' ἐσθλὸν ἀπώλεσα Od. 2.46, cf. Il. 18.82, Democr. 272; ἀπώλεσε νόστιμον ἦμαρ Od. 1.354; ἀπὸ θυμὸν ὀλέσσαι
1. lose one's life, 11.16.861, Od. 12.350; θυμὸν οὐκ ἀπώλεσεν loses not his spirit, S. El. 26; ἔλεον ἀπώλεσεν 11.24.44; freq. of things, ἡ τοῦ πλέονος ἐπιθυμίη τὸ παρεὸν ἀπόλλυσι Democr. 224; ἵππους ἑβδομήκοντα ἀπολλύασι Th. 7.51; ἀπώλεσαν τὴν ἀρχὴν ὑπὸ Περσῶν X. An. 3.4.11, cf. 7.2.22; μηδὲν ἀπολλὺς τοῦ ὄγκου Pl. Tht. 155c; ἀ. οὐσίαν, = ἀπόλλυσθαι, Id. Prm. 163d. Med., ἀπόλλῠμαι: fut. -ολοῦμαι, Ion. -ολέομαι Hdt. 7.218: aor. 2 -ωλόμην: pf. -όλωλα, whence the barbarous impf. ἀπόλωλο Ar. Th. 1212: plpf. in Att. Prose sts. written ἀπωλώλειν in codd., as Th. 4.133, 7.27: — perish, die, 11.1.117, etc.; cease to exist, opp. γίγνεσθαι, Meliss. 8, Pl. Prm. 156b, etc.: sts. c. acc. cogn., ἀπόλωλε κακὸν μόρον Od. 1.166; ἀπωλόμεθ' αἰπὺν ὄλεθρον ib. 9.303: c. dat. modi, ἀπώλετο λυγρῷ ὀλέθρῳ (v.l. λυγρὸν ὄλεθρον) ib. 3.87; ἀ. ὑπό τινος Hdt. 5.126; simply, to be undone, αὐτῶν.. ἀπωλόμεθ' ἀφραδίῃσιν Od. 10.27; ἀπωλώλει τῷ φόβῳ μή.. X. Cyr. 6.1.2: freq. in Att., esp. in pf., ἀπόλωλας you are lost, Ar. Nu. 1077; ἀπωλόμεθ' ἂν εἰ μὴ ἀπολώλειμεν Plu. 2.185f; ἱκανὸν χρόνον ἀπολλύμεθα καὶ κατατετρίμμεθα Ar. Pax 355; βλέπειν ἀπολωλός Philostr.Jun. Im. 2: — as an imprecation, κάκιστ' ἀπολοίμην εἰ.. Ar. Ach. 151, al.; κακὸς κακῶς ἀπόλοιθ' ὅστις.. Eub. 116; ἐξώλης ἀπόλοιθ' ὅστις.. Men. 154; ἀπολλύμενος, opp. σῳζόμενος, Isoc. 6.36, cf. Plu. 2.469d: freq. in part. fut., κάκιστ' ἀπολούμενε o destined to a miserable end! i.e. o thou villain, scoundrel, knave! Ar. Pl. 713, cf. 456, Ach. 865, Pax 2; ὁ κάκιστ' ἀνέμων ἀ. Luc. DDeor. 14.2.
2. in NT, perish, in theol. sense, John 3:16, al.; οἱ ἀπολλύμενοι, opp. οἱ σῳζόμενοι, 1 Corinthians 1:18.
II to be lost, ὕδωρ ἀπολέσκετ' (of the water eluding Tantalus) Od. 11.586; οὔποτε καρπὸς ἀπόλλυται never falls untimely, ib. 7.117; ἀπό τέ σφισιν ὕπνος ὄλωλεν Il. 10.186; γέλως ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀπόλωλεν X. Smp. 1.15; ἀπολόμενον ἀργύριον Antipho Soph. 54; ἀπώλοντο οἱ ὄνοι LXX 1 Samuel 9:3.
ἀπόλλυμι and ἀπολλύω ((ἀπολλύει John 12:25 T Tr WH), imperative ἀπόλλυε Romans 14:15 (cf. Buttmann, 45 (39); WH's Appendix, p. 168f)); future ἀπολέσω and (1 Corinthians 1:19 ἀπολῶ from a passage in the O. T., where often) ἀπολῶ (cf. Winers Grammar, 83 (80); (Buttmann, 64 (56))); 1 aorist ἀπώλεσα; to destroy; middle, present ἀπόλλυμαι; (imperfect 3 person plural ἀπώλλυντο 1 Corinthians 10:9 T Tr WH); future ἀπολοῦμαι; 2 aorist ἀπωλόμην; (2 perfect active participle ἀπολωλώς); (from Homer down); to perish.
1. to destroy i. e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, ruin: Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; Luke 17:27, 29; Jude 1:5; τήν σοφίαν render useless, cause its emptiness to be perceived, 1 Corinthians 1:19 (from the Sept. of Isaiah 29:14); to kill: Matthew 2:13; Matthew 12:14; Mark 9:22; Mark 11:18; John 10:10, etc.; contextually, to declare that one must be put to death: Matthew 27:20; metaphorically, to devote or give over to eternal misery: Matthew 10:28; James 4:12; contextually, by one's conduct to cause another to lose eternal salvation: Romans 14:15. Middle to perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed;
a. of persons; (a). properly: Matthew 8:25; Luke 13:3, 5, 33; John 11:50; 2 Peter 3:6; Jude 1:11, etc.; ἀπόλλυμαι λιμῷ, Luke 15:17; ἐν μαχαρια, Matthew 26:52; καταβαλλόμενοι, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἀπολλύμενοι, 2 Corinthians 4:9. (b). tropically, to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery: John 3:15 (R Lbr.),
b. of things; to be blotted out, to vanish away: ἡ εὐπρέπεια, James 1:11; the heavens, Hebrews 1:11 (from Psalm 101:27
2. to destroy i. e. to lose;
a. properly: Matthew 10:42; Mark 9:41 (τόν μισθόν αὐτοῦ); Luke 15:4, 8, 9; Luke 9:25; Luke 17:33; John 12:25; 2 John 1:8, etc.
b. metaphorically, Christ is said to lose anyone of his followers (whom the Father has drawn to discipleship) if such a one becomes wicked and fails of salvation: John 6:39, cf. John 18:9. Middle to be lost: θρίξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς, Luke 21:18; θρίξ ἀπό τῆς κεφαλῆς, Acts 27:34 (Rec. πεσεῖται); τά λαμπρά ἀπώλετο ἀπό σου, Revelation 18:14 (Rec. ἀπῆλθε). Used of sheep, straying from the flock: properly, Luke 15:4 (τό ἀπολωλός, in Matthew 18:12 τό πλανώμενον). Metaphorically, in accordance with the O. T. comparison of the people of Israel to a flock (Jeremiah 27:6
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ἀπ -όλλυμι and ἀπολλύω ,
[in LXX for H6, etc. (38 words in all)].
(1) to destroy utterly, destroy, kill: Mk 124, 922, al.; τ . ψνχήν , Matthew 10:28, al.;
(2) to lose utterly: Matthew 10:42, al.; metaph., of failing to save, John 6:39; John 18:9.
(1) to perish;
(a) of things: Matthew 5:29, John 6:12, Hebrews 1:11 (LXX, al.;
(b) of persons: Matthew 8:26, al. Metaph., of loss of eternal life, John 3:15-16; John 10:28; John 17:12, Romans 2:12, 1 Corinthians 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:18, 2 Peter 3:9. In οἱ ἀπολλὺμενοι , the perishing, contrasted in 1 Corinthians 1:18, al., with οἱ σωζόμενοι , the "perfective" force of the verb, WH. " implies the completion of the process of destruction," is illustrated (v. M, Pr., 114 f.; M, Th., ii, 2:10);
(2) to be lost: Luke 15:4; Luke 21:18. Metaph., on the basis of the relation between shepherd and flock, of spiritual destitution and alienation from God: Matthew 10:6; Matthew 15:24, Luke 19:10 (MM, s.v.; DCG, i, 191 f., ii, 76, 554; Cremer, 451).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
One or two instances of the literal use of this common verb will suffice—P Petr III. 51.5 τὸ ἀργύριον δ ὤιοντο ἀπολωλέναι, ";the money which they thought had been lost,"; P Oxy IV. 743.23 (B.C. 2) ἐγὼ ὅλος διαπον [ο ]ῦμαι εἰ Ἕλενος χαλκοῦς ἀπόλε [σ ]εν, ";I am quite upset at Helenos’ loss of the money"; (Edd.). In P Fay 111.3 ff. (A.D. 95–6) we have it of destroying life : μένφομαί σαι μεγάλως ἀπολέσας χ [υ ]ρίδια δύω ἀπὸ τοῦ σκυλμοῦ τῆς ὡδοῦ, ";I blame you greatly for the loss of two pigs owing to the fatigue of the journey"; (Edd.). (Probably the writer meant ἀπολέσαντα, but the nom. will construe.) So in the dreams of Ptolemy, son of Glaucias, the helper of the Temple twins, P Par 50.9 (B.C. 160) Λέγω · Μηθαμῶς ἐργῇς (?) ἢ ἀπολέσῃ σου τὸν παῖδα · κύριος οὐκ ἀπολύει (= ἀπολλύει, presumably) τὸν αὑτοῦ παῖδα. Cf. P Petr III. 36 (a) verso .28 δεόμενος μή με ἀπολέσηι τῶι λιμῶι ἐν τῆι φυλακῆι : so Luke 15:17. In the curious nursery acrostic, P Tebt II. 278.35 f. belonging to early i/A.D. in which the story of the loss of a garment is told in lines beginning with the letters of the alphabet in order, we find :
λέων ὁ ἄρας
";a lion he was who took it, a fool who lost it"; (Edd., who would read ὁ ἀ., as in the other lines). In P Ryl II. 141.21 (A.D. 37) καὶ ἀπώλεσα ἃς εἶχον ἀπὸ τιμ (ῆς) ὀπίου ";I lost 40 silver drachmae which I had with me from the sale of opium"; (Ed.), it connotes robbery; and so in Syll 237.7 (iii/B.C.) χρήματα τῶι θεῶι ἐμάνυσαν ἃ ἦσαν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἀπολωτα (l. ἀπολωλότα) ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀναθέματος τῶν Φωκέων, καὶ ἐξήλεγξαν τοὺς ἱεροσυληκότας. The –μι forms of the mid. are unchanged : thus P Petr II. 4 (1).4 (B.C. 255–4) νυνὶ δὲ ἀπολλύμεθα (quarrymen ";worked to death"; over exceedingly hard stone), P Tebt II. 278.25 (see above) ἀπόλλυ ̣τ ̣α ̣ι ̣, etc.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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