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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3381 - יָרַד
1) to go down, descend, decline, march down, sink down
1a1) to go or come down
1a2) to sink
1a3) to be prostrated
1a4) to come down (of revelation)
1b1) to bring down
1b2) to send down
1b3) to take down
1b4) to lay prostrate
1b5) to let down
1c1) to be brought down
1c2) to be taken down
1441) dr (רד RD) AC: Spread CO: Sheet AB: ?: The pictograph r is a picture of the head of a man, the d is a picture of a door that allows entrance into the tent. Combined these mean "man through the door". The floor of a tent is a covered with a spread out sheet.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
יָרַד fut. יֵרֵד, וַיֵּרֶד, in pause וַיֵּרַד, imp. רֵד, רְדָה, once יְרַד (Judges 5:13 ), inf. absol. יָרֹד (Genesis 43:20), const. רֶדֶת, with suff. רִדְתִּי, once רְדָה Genesis 46:3.
(1) to go down, to descend. ([“Eth. ወረደ፡”] In Arabic the word which literally corresponds to this is ورد to go for drink, for water, so used because one goes down to the spring: the word in common use is نزل. One is said to descend, not only in going down from a mountain (Exodus 34:29), but generally whoever goes from a loftier place or region to one less elevated, specially those who go to a spring or river, Genesis 24:16, 45 Genesis 24:45; Exodus 2:5; Joshua 17:9; 1 Kings 18:44 to the sea, Isaiah 42:10; Psalms 107:23 (as the land is elevated above the surface of the water), those who disembark from a ship, Ezekiel 27:29 those who go out from a city, (cities, for the sake of strength, being mostly built on mountains), Ruth 3:3, 1 Samuel 9:27; 2 Kings 6:18 those who go from a mountainous and lofty country to one more flat, as from Jerusalem [the land of Canaan rather] into Egypt, Genesis 12:10, 26:2, seq.; 46:3 into Philistia and the sea coast (שְׁפֵלָה) Genesis 38:1; 1 Samuel 13:20, 23:6, 1 Samuel 23:8, 11 1 Samuel 23:11 into Samaria 1 Kings 22:2; 2 Kings 8:29, 10:13 those who go into southern countries (as the ancients supposed the northern regions of the earth to be the more lofty, see Intpp. ad Virg. Georg. i. 240-43. Herod. i. 95. 1Ma_3:37 2Ma_9:23 ), 1 Samuel 25:1, 26:2. Compare Chr. B. Michaëlis Diss. de Notione Superi et Inferi, reprinted in Commentt. Theol. a Velthusenio aliisque editis, v. p. 397, seq.
The place whither one goes down has prefixed to it the particle אֶל 2 Samuel 11:9, 10 2 Samuel 11:10לְ Song of Solomon 6:2 or is put in the accusative (־ָה paragogic either added or omitted). Psalms 55:16, יֵרְדוּ שְׁאוֹל חַיִּים “let them go down alive into Hades.” Job 7:9, 17:16 33:24. Part. יֹרְדֵי־בוֹל those who go down to the grave. Proverbs 1:12.
It is often used also of inanimate things, as of a river flowing downwards, Deuteronomy 9:21 of showers, Psalms 72:6 of a way and of boundaries which are in a direction downwards, or to the south, Numbers 34:11, 12 Numbers 34:12; Joshua 18:13, seq.; of the day closing in, Judges 19:11.
Like other verbs of flowing (see Hebr. Gramm. § 135, 1, note 2, ed. 10.), poet. it takes an accus. of the thing which is sent down in great abundance; and thus has the transitive signification of sending down, to let fall down. Lamentations 3:48, פַּלְגֵי מַיִם תֵּרֵד עֵינִי “my eye pours down rivers of waters.” Lamentations 1:16; Jeremiah 9:17, 13:17 14:17 Psalms 119:136. The same phrase is commonly used in Arabic وردت البكا العين my eye pours out weeping (in great abundance), see Schult. Origg. Hebr. p. 99. There is a different turn of expression, Isaiah 15:3, יֹרֵד בַּבֶּכִי “(weeping) to flow down with weeping.”
(2) to be cast down, to fall (as if to go down against one’s will, compare נָפַל, יָצָא), used of men or beasts slain (fallen), Isaiah 34:7 of those who from prosperity and affluence are cast down into poverty, Deuteronomy 28:43 also of inanimate things, as of a wall, Deuteronomy 28:52 of a wood cut down, Isaiah 32:19; Zechariah 11:2 of a city destroyed, Deuteronomy 20:20.
Hiphil הוֹרִיד to make some person or thing come down, in whatever way, Genesis 42:38, 44:29, 31 Genesis 44:31 hence
(1) when relating to persons, to bring down (hinabführen,-bringen), Genesis 44:21; Judges 7:4 to let down, as by a rope, Joshua 2:15, 18 Joshua 2:18 to send down (to Hades), 1 Samuel 2:6; Ezekiel 26:20 and when done violently, to cast down, e.g. of God casting down a people, Psalms 56:8 to pull down (kings from their thrones), Isaiah 10:13, compare Obadiah 1:3, to subdue (nations), 2 Samuel 22:48.
(2) when relating to things, to carry down, Gen. 37:25 43:11, 22 2 Samuel 22:22 to send down (herunter nehmen), Genesis 24:18, 46 Genesis 24:46; Numbers 4:5 to cause to flow down, 1 Samuel 21:14; Joel 2:23 and, when connected with force, to cast down, Hosea 7:12; Proverbs 21:22.
Hophal הוּרַד pass. of Hiph. Genesis 39:1; Isaiah 14:11, seq.
Derivatives, the following nouns and מוֹרָד.
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