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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #05307 - נָפַל
1) to fall, lie, be cast down, fail
1a1) to fall
1a2) to fall (of violent death)
1a3) to fall prostrate, prostrate oneself before
1a4) to fall upon, attack, desert, fall away to, go away to, fall into the hand of
1a5) to fall short, fail, fall out, turn out, result
1a6) to settle, waste away, be offered, be inferior to
1a7) to lie, lie prostrate
1b1) to cause to fall, fell, throw down, knock out, lay prostrate
1b2) to overthrow
1b3) to make the lot fall, assign by lot, apportion by lot
1b4) to let drop, cause to fail (figuratively)
1b5) to cause to fall
1c1) to throw or prostrate oneself, throw oneself upon
1c2) to lie prostrate, prostrate oneself
1d) (Pilel) to fall
V) lpn (נפל NPL) - Fall: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (445): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael) fall, cast, divide, overthrow, present, lay, rot, accept, inferior, light, lost - Strongs: H5307 (נָפַל), H5308 (נְפַל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
נָפַל fut. יִפֹּל, inf. נְפֹּל with suff. נִפְלוֹ 2 Samuel 1:10, and נָפְלוֹ 1 Samuel 29:3.
(1) to fall. (Syr. Ch. ܢܦܰܠ, נְפַל id. The primary syllable fal which is found in this sense in the Germ. fallen, Engl. to fall; Gr. and Lat. fallo, σφάλλω, pr. is to cause to fall, to supplant; transp, it is labi). It is used of a man falling on the ground, Psalms 37:24 or falling from a horse or a seat, Genesis 49:17; 1 Samuel 4:18 into a ditch (בַּשַּׁחַת) Psalms 7:16 falling into a snare, Amos 3:5, etc.; falling in battle, 2 Samuel 1:4; Isaiah 10:4; Psalms 82:7 (fully נָפַל בַּחֶרֶב to fall by the sword, Psalms 78:64; Ezekiel 11:10, and so frequently); used of one fallen sick (נָפַל לְמִשְׁכָּב compare the Fr. tomber malade [so the English expression]), Exodus 21:18 also used of buildings falling into decay, Judges 7:13; Ezekiel 13:12; Amos 9:11. Part. נֹפֵל falling; in a past sense, fallen, lying down, Judges 3:25; 1 Samuel 5:3, 31:8 Deuteronomy 21:1 in a future sense, about to fall, becoming a ruin, Isaiah 30:13. Used of a prophet who sees visions, divinely brought before him in his sleep; thus are the words to be understood, Numbers 24:4, “who saw the visions of God נֹפֵל וּגְלוּי עֵינַיִם lying (in sleep) and with open eyes” (sc. of the mind); an incorrect interpretation was lately given of this passage by a learned man (Lit. Zeit. Jen. 1830, iv. p. 381), who interpreted נֹפֵל in this passage of the falling sickness. Specially to fall is used of
(a) a fetus which is born, Isaiah 26:18 comp. Il. xix. 110, ὅς κὲν ἐπʼ ἤματι τῷδε πέσῃ μετὰ ποσσὶ γυναικός; where the Schol. πέσῃ, γεννήθῃ; also, καταπίπτω, Sap. vii. 3; cadere de matre, Stat. Theb. i. 60; Arab. سقط (not وقع). In Chaldee, נְפַל specially is used of an abortion; whence Heb. נֶפֶל, which see.
(b) used of members of the body which fall away, become emaciated (einfallen), Numbers 5:21, 27.
(c) of the face cast down through sorrow, Genesis 4:5,. Comp. Hiphil No. 1, e.
(d) of men who are fallen into calamities, 2 Samuel 1:10; Proverbs 24:16.
(e) of kingdoms or states, which are overthrown, Isaiah 21:9; Jeremiah 51:8; Amos 5:2.
(f) of lots which are cast, Ezekiel 24:6; Jonah 1:7 and even of any thing obtained by lot, followed by לְ Numbers 34:2; Judges 18:1.-Also, in various ways it is figuratively applied (to express ideas for which in Latin compound verbs would be used)
(g) to fall down (from heaven), used of divinely revealed oracles, Isaiah 9:7 comp. Chald. Daniel 4:28, and Arab. نزل to fall down (from heaven), to be revealed. Hence the Spirit of God, or the hand of God, is said to descend upon any one, Ezekiel 8:1, 11:5.
(h) to fall upon any one as deep sleep (to oppress), followed by עַל Genesis 15:12 terror, Exodus 15:16; Joshua 2:9; Esther 8:17, 9:2 Psalms 55:5, 105:38 Daniel 10:7; Job 13:11 calamity, Isaiah 47:11.
(1) to fall from one’s purpose or counsel, followed by מִן Psalms 5:11, יִפְּלוּ מִמֹּעֲצוֹתָם “let them fall from their counsels;” compare Ovid. Met. ii. 328.
(k) to fall to the ground, to fail, Numbers 6:12 especially used of vain promises, Joshua 21:45, 23:14. More fully נָפַל אַרְצָה, Gr. πίπτειν εἰς γῆν, ἔραζε, 2 Kings 10:10 (comp. χαμαιπετὲς ἔπος, Pind. Pyth. vi. 37; Nem. iv. 65; Ol. ix. 19; Platonis Eutyphr. 17).
(l) to fall out, to happen. Ruth 3:18, אֵיךְ יִפֹּל דָּבָר “how the thing will fall out” (Cic. Brut. 40), i.e. will happen; comp. Chald. Ezra 7:20.
(m) followed by מִן comparative, to fall in comparison with any one, i.e. to be inferior to him, to yield to him, Job 12:3, 13:2 also, followed by לִפְנֵי Esther 6:13.
(2) It is also used of those who purposely cast themselves, throw themselves, or rush upon any place (compare Syr. ܢܦܠ, which is put in the New Test. for πίπτειν and βάλλεσθαι), specially
(a) to fall prostrate, to prostrate oneself, 2 Samuel 1:2 וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה, “and he fell (prostrated himself) on the ground,” Job 1:20 often with the addition of עַל פָּנָיו Genesis 17:3, 17 Genesis 17:17; Numbers 16:4; Joshua 7:6 עַל אַפָּיו 2 Samuel 14:4 לְאַפָּיו אַרְצָה 1 Samuel 20:41 also לִפְנֵי פ׳ Genesis 44:14 לִפְנֵי רַגְלֵי פ׳ Esther 8:3.
(b) נָפַל עַל צַוְּארֵי פ׳ to fall on some one’s neck, to rush into his embrace, Genesis 33:4, 45:14 46:29 compare 50:1.
(c) נָפַל עַל חַרְבֹּו to fall, (throw oneself) on one’s own sword, 1 Samuel 31:4, 1 Samuel 31:5; 1 Chronicles 10:4.
(d) to fall upon as an enemy, to attack, Job 1:15 followed by בְּ Joshua 11:7.
(e) to alight from a beast or chariot; followed by מֵעַל Genesis 24:64; 2 Kings 5:21.
(f) to let oneself down, to encamp as an army, Judges 7:12 of a people, Genesis 25:18 (compare 16:12 ). LXX. κατῴκησε.
(g) נָפְלָה תְחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי my prayer (petition) falls before any one, a phrase which has a twofold meaning.
(α) to ask as a suppliant, Jeremiah 36:7.
(β) to be heard and attended to, answered; Jeremiah 37:20, 42:2, (pr. to be allowed to lay one’s petition down; to accept it; which, when it is done, intimates a disposition to answer it).
(h) to fall away, to desert, (abfallen), Gr. πίπτειν, διαπίπτειν, 1 Samuel 29:3 followed by עַל 1 Chronicles 12:19, 20 1 Chronicles 12:20; 2 Chronicles 15:9; Jeremiah 21:9, 37:14 39:9 Isaiah 54:15 אֶל Jeremiah 37:13, 38:19 52:15 to any one.
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1 to cause to fall, i.e.
(a) to cast, to throw (werfen) e.g. wood on the fire, Jeremiah 22:7 to throw down, to prostrate any one (niederwerfen), Deuteronomy 25:2 to throw down, a wall, 2 Samuel 20:15.
(b) to cause any one to fall by the sword, Jeremiah 19:7; Daniel 11:12 to fell trees, 2 Kings 3:19, 25 2 Kings 3:25, 6:5.
(c) to bear, to bring forth, Germ. werfen (see Kal No. 1, a), Isaiah 26:19 “the earth shall bring forth the dead,” i.e. cast them forth from herself.
(d) to cause to fall away (as a limb-the thigh), to emaciate, Numbers 5:22 see Kal No. 1, b.
(e) to cause to fall, used of the countenance, for sorrow or anger, Jeremiah 3:12 followed by בְּ of pers. (to be angry with any one); also הִפִּיל פְּנֵי פ׳ to let any one’s countenance fall, i.e. to make sad, Job 29:24 see Kal No. 1, c.
(f) to cast a lot, Psalms 22:19; Proverbs 1:14 also without גּוֹרָל 1 Samuel 14:42 hence to distribute by lot, to appropriate to any one followed by an acc. of the thing, and לְ of pers. Joshua 13:6, 23:4 Ezekiel 45:1, 47:22 without the dat. Psalms 78:55 see Kal No. 1, f.
(g) to lay down one’s request (petition) before any one, i.e. to ask as a suppliant, Jerem. 38:26 42:9 Daniel 9:18, 20 see Kal 2, g.,
(2) to let fall, e.g. a stone, Numbers 35:23 hence
(a) הִפִּיל אַרְצָה to let fall to the ground (used of a promise), not to fulfil, 1 Samuel 3:19 without אַרְצָה Esther 6:10 see Kal 1, k.
(b) to drop, to desist from anything (Germ. eine Sache fallen laffen); followed by מִן Judges 2:19.
(1) to prostrate oneself, Deuteron. 9:18, 25 Ezra 10:1.
(2) followed by עַל to rush upon, to attack any one, Genesis 43:18.
Pilel נִפְלַל once in Ezekiel (a book abounding in uncommon forms) 28:23, i.q. נָפַל, which is found in a similar connection, Ezekiel 30:4, 32:20.
Derivative nouns, נֶפֶל, נָפִיל, מַפָּל, מַפֵּלָה, מַפֶּלֶת.
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