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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #4911 - מָשַׁל
1) to represent, liken, be like
1a) (Niphal) to liken, be like, be similar
1b) (Hiphil) to compare
1c) (Hithpael) to become like
2) to speak in a proverb, use a proverb, speak in parables, speak in sentences of poetry
2a) (Qal) to use a proverb, speak a parable or proverb
2b) (Piel) to make a parable
2b1) maker of parables (participle)
V) lsm (מסהל MShL) - I. Rule: II. Compare:To compare one thing to another in the sense of a rule of measurement, often a proverb or parable. KJV (97): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) rule, ruler, reign, dominion, governor, power, like, proverb, speak, use, become, compare, utter - Strongs: H4910 (מָשַׁל), H4911 (מָשַׁל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נִמְשַׁל Psalm 49:13; Psalm 49:21; 2 masculine singular נִמְֹשָׁ֑לְתָּ Isaiah 14:10; 1 singular נִמְשַׁלְתִּי Psalm 28:1; Psalm 143:7: — be like, similar, with אֶל Isaiah 14:10; עִם Psalm 28:1 = Psalm 143:7; כְּ Psalm 49:13; Psalm 49:21.
Hiph`il Imperfect 2 masculine plural suffix וְתָמְשִׁלוּנִי compare Isaiah 46:5.
Hithpa`el Imperfect 1 singular וָאֶתְמַשֵּׁל Job 30:19 (with כְּ) and I have become like dust..
II. מָשַׁל verb denominative use of proverb, speak in parables or sentences of poetry, especially Ezekiel; —
Qal Imperfect יִמְשֹׁל Ezekiel 16:44; 3 masculine plural יִמְשְׁלוּ Ezekiel 12:23; Imperative מְשֹׁל Ezekiel 17:2; Ezekiel 24:3; Infinitive construct מְשֹׁל Ezekiel 18:3 Participle משֵׁל Ezekiel 16:44, plural משְׁלִים Ezekiel 18:2; Numbers 21:27; — use a proverb: מָשָׁל׳מ Ezekiel 12:23; Ezekiel 18:3; a parable with אֶלֿ Ezekiel 17:2 ("" חוּד חִידָה), Ezekiel 24:3; with עַלֿ Ezekiel 18:2, and (מָשָׁל apparently omitted) הִנֵּה כָּלֿהַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל Ezekiel 16:44 (but this is awkward; point הִנֵּה כֹּל הַמָּשָׁל); משְׁלִים Numbers 21:27 (JE).,
Pi`el Participle הֲלֹא מְמַשֵּׁל מְשָׁלִים הוּא Ezekiel 21:5 is he not a maker of parables?
מָשַׁל fut. יִמְשֹׂל.
(1) to make like, to assimilate (Arab. مشل Aram. ܡܬܠܰ id.) see Niph. Hiph. and the noun מָשָׁל similitude, parable, etc. hence
(a) to put forth a parable, Ezekiel 24:3.
(b) to use a proverb, Ezekiel 12:23, 17:2 18:2, Ezekiel 18:3.
(c) to sing a song of derision, Joel 2:17. Part. משְׁלִים poets, Numbers 21:27.
(2) to rule, to have dominion, Joshua 12:2; Proverbs 12:24 followed by בְּ of the thing ruled over, Genesis 3:16, 4:7 more rarely followed by עַל Proverbs 28:15 followed by a gerund, to have power of doing anything, Exodus 21:8. With a dat. of benefit, Isaiah 40:10, זְרֹעוֹ משְׁלָה לוֹ “his arm ruleth for him.” Sometimes i.q. to be over anything, Genesis 24:2. Part. משֵׁל lord, ruler, Genesis 45:8 plur. lords, rulers, princes, and in a bad sense tyrants, Isaiah 14:5, 28:14 49:7 52:5 compare נְדִיבִים Isaiah 13:2.
Learned men have made many attempts to reconcile the significations of making like, and ruling; see Schultens on Proverbs 1:1 Michaëlis on Lowth, De Sacra Poësi, p.41; Simonis in Lex. etc. However I have no doubt but that from the signification of making like, is derived that of judging, forming an opinion (compare דִּמָּה, and Eth. መሰለ፡ to think, to suppose, to think fit), which is nearly allied to the notion of giving sentence, ordering, ruling (compare טַעַם). Another explanation, approved of by Winer in Lex. p. 585, was given in my smaller Lexicon, editt. 2 and 3, but this is decidedly better. This notion of ruling, which is not found in this root in the other Phœnicio-Shemitic languages [except the Phœnician] seems to have passed over to the Greek, in which βασιλεύς, βασιλεύω has no root in that language.
Niphal, prop. to be compared; hence to be like any thing, followed by אֶל Isaiah 14:10 עִם Psalms 28:1, 143:7 בְּ Psalms 49:13, 21 Ps4 9:21.
Piel, i.q. Kal No. 1, a, to use parables, Ezekiel 21:5.
(1) to compare, Isaiah 46:5.
(2) to cause to rule, to give dominion, Psalms 8:7; Daniel 11:39. Inf. subst. הַמְשֵׁל dominion, Job 25:2.
Hithpael, i.q. Niphal, to become like, followed by בְּ Job 30:19.
Derived nouns, מִמְשָׁל, מֶמְשֶׁלֶת, and those which immediately follow.