the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #4910 - מָשַׁל
1) to rule, have dominion, reign
1a) (Qal) to rule, have dominion
1b1) to cause to rule
1b2) to exercise dominion
V) lsm (מסהל MShL) - I. Rule: II. Compare:To compare one thing to another in the sense of a rule of measurement, often a proverb or parable. KJV (97): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) rule, ruler, reign, dominion, governor, power, like, proverb, speak, use, become, compare, utter - Strongs: H4910 (מָשַׁל), H4911 (מָשַׁל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine singular וּמָשַׁל consecutive Zechariah 6:13 2t., מָשָׁ֑ל Daniel 11:4, וּמָשָׁ֑ל consecutive Daniel 11:5; 3 feminine singular מָשָׁ֑לָה Psalm 103:19; 2 masculine singular מָשַׁלְתָּ Isaiah 63:19, וּמָשַׁלְתָּ֫ Deuteronomy 15:16; 3 plural מָֽשְׁלוּ Isaiah 3:5; Lamentations 5:8; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִמְשֹׁל Exodus 21:8 3t., יִמְשׁוֺל Proverbs 22:7; יִמְשָׁלֿ Genesis 3:16, etc.; Imperative מְשָׁלֿ Judges 8:22; Infinitive absolute מָשׁוֹל Genesis 37:8; construct מְשֹׁל Judges 9:2 +, לִמְשָׁלֿ Joel 2:17, etc.; Participle Genesis 45:26 +, etc.; —
1 human subject, rule, have dominion over (בְּ) Genesis 3:16; Genesis 4:7; Genesis 24:2 (all J), Genesis 45:8,26 (E), ׳מָשׁוֺל תִּמְשֹׁל ב Genesis 37:8 (E); Deuteronomy 15:6 (twice in verse); Joshua 12:5 (D); Judges 8:22,23 (twice in verse); Judges 9:2 (twice in verse); Judges 14:4; Judges 15:11; 2 Samuel 23:3 (Participle absolute = when one ruleth, compare Dr), 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chronicles 7:18; 9:26; 23:20; Isaiah 3:4,12; Isaiah 19:4; Micah 5:2; Habakkuk 1:14; Jeremiah 22:30; Lamentations 5:8; Joel 2:17; Proverbs 16:32 (משֵׁל בְּרוּחוֺ), Proverbs 17:21; Proverbs 9:10; Proverbs 22:7; Psalm 19:14; Psalm 105:21; Psalm 106:41; Daniel 11:43; Ecclesiastes 9:17; rarely other prepositions: ל (c. infinitive) Exodus 21:8 (E); עַלֿ Proverbs 28:15; Nehemiah 9:37, אֶלֿ Jeremiah 33:26; with suffix Isaiah 52:5; Jeremiah 30:21; with accusative of congnate meaning with verb מִמְשָׁל רָ֑ב׳מ Daniel 11:3,4; מָשַׁל מִן ֗֗֗ וְעַד Joshua 12:2 (D); absolute 2 Samuel 23:3 (compare Dr), Ezekiel 19:14; Zechariah 6:13 (עַל location), Proverbs 12:24; Proverbs 29:2; Daniel 11:5; especially Participle as substantive = ruler, משֵׁלאֶֿרֶץ Isaiah 16:1, משֵׁל עַמִּים Psalm 105:20; absolute Isaiah 14:5; Isaiah 49:7; Jeremiah 51:46 (twice in verse); Ezekiel 19:11; Proverbs 6:7; Proverbs 23:1; Proverbs 29:12,26; Ecclesiastes 10:4; משְׁלֵי הָעָם הַזֶה Isaiah 28:14.
2 of heavenly bodies, withבְּ Genesis 1:18.
3 of God, with בְּ Judges 8:23; Isaiah 63:19; Psalm 22:29; Psalm 59:14; Psalm 89:10; Psalm 103:19; 1 Chronicles 29:12; 2 Chronicles 20:6; absolute Psalm 66:7; לוֺ׳זּזְרֹעוֺ מ Isaiah 40:10 his arm ruling for him.
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular suffix consecutive וְהִמְשִׁילָם Daniel 11:39; Imperfect 2 masculine singular suffix תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ Psalm 8:7; Infinitive absolute הַמְשֵׁל Job 25:2; — cause to rule,, followed by accusative of person + בְּ Psalm 8:7 (subject ׳י), Daniel 11:39; exercise dominion, only infinitive absolute as noun abstract the exercise of dominion Job 25:2 (attribute of God).
מָשַׁל fut. יִמְשֹׂל.
(1) to make like, to assimilate (Arab. مشل Aram. ܡܬܠܰ id.) see Niph. Hiph. and the noun מָשָׁל similitude, parable, etc. hence
(a) to put forth a parable, Ezekiel 24:3.
(b) to use a proverb, Ezekiel 12:23, 17:2 18:2, Ezekiel 18:3.
(c) to sing a song of derision, Joel 2:17. Part. משְׁלִים poets, Numbers 21:27.
(2) to rule, to have dominion, Joshua 12:2; Proverbs 12:24 followed by בְּ of the thing ruled over, Genesis 3:16, 4:7 more rarely followed by עַל Proverbs 28:15 followed by a gerund, to have power of doing anything, Exodus 21:8. With a dat. of benefit, Isaiah 40:10, זְרֹעוֹ משְׁלָה לוֹ “his arm ruleth for him.” Sometimes i.q. to be over anything, Genesis 24:2. Part. משֵׁל lord, ruler, Genesis 45:8 plur. lords, rulers, princes, and in a bad sense tyrants, Isaiah 14:5, 28:14 49:7 52:5 compare נְדִיבִים Isaiah 13:2.
Learned men have made many attempts to reconcile the significations of making like, and ruling; see Schultens on Proverbs 1:1 Michaëlis on Lowth, De Sacra Poësi, p.41; Simonis in Lex. etc. However I have no doubt but that from the signification of making like, is derived that of judging, forming an opinion (compare דִּמָּה, and Eth. መሰለ፡ to think, to suppose, to think fit), which is nearly allied to the notion of giving sentence, ordering, ruling (compare טַעַם). Another explanation, approved of by Winer in Lex. p. 585, was given in my smaller Lexicon, editt. 2 and 3, but this is decidedly better. This notion of ruling, which is not found in this root in the other Phœnicio-Shemitic languages [except the Phœnician] seems to have passed over to the Greek, in which βασιλεύς, βασιλεύω has no root in that language.
Niphal, prop. to be compared; hence to be like any thing, followed by אֶל Isaiah 14:10 עִם Psalms 28:1, 143:7 בְּ Psalms 49:13, 21 Ps4 9:21.
Piel, i.q. Kal No. 1, a, to use parables, Ezekiel 21:5.
(1) to compare, Isaiah 46:5.
(2) to cause to rule, to give dominion, Psalms 8:7; Daniel 11:39. Inf. subst. הַמְשֵׁל dominion, Job 25:2.
Hithpael, i.q. Niphal, to become like, followed by בְּ Job 30:19.
Derived nouns, מִמְשָׁל, מֶמְשֶׁלֶת, and those which immediately follow.