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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature

And Chaldee.

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One of the most mooted points which have vexed scholars is the question as to the relation of the Peshito to the Sept. and Chaldee version.

I. Relation to the Septuagint. A good deal has been written concerning this question, pro and con. To the former side belong Gesenius, Credner, Havernick, and Bleek; to the latter, Hirzel and Herbst. Without adducing the arguments used on both sides, it must be admitted that an influence of the Sept. upon the Peshito cannot be denied, and to this supposition we are led by a comparison of the one with the other. To make our assertion good, we will present the following passages from different books, and the reader can draw his own inferences. We commence with the book of Genesis 2:2. Sept. τῆ ἕκτῃ Syr. שתיתיא . From the ant. Talmundic Notices on the Septuagint, s.v. SEPTUAGINT in this Cyclopaedia, it will be seen that the Sept. changed here purposely "seventh" into "sixth." If the Peshito version were made only from the original Hebrew, there was no reason why the השביעי of the Hebrew should h be translated as if it read הששי, like the reading of the Samuel, Samuel vers., and Syr., which all followed the Sept;.

2:4. ארוֹ ושמים Sept. τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν; Syr. שמיא וארעַא .

23. מאיש -Sept. ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς αὐτῖς; Syr. דמן גברה .

24. והיו -Sept. καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο; Syr. תריהון ונהוון .

3:2. מפרי עוֹ -Sept. ἀπὸ παντὸς ξύλου; Syr. also has כל .

7. עלה Sept. φύλλα; Syr. טרפא .

9. ויאמר -Sept. καὶ ειπεν Ἀδάμ; Syr. also supplies אד .

11. ויאמר -Sept. καὶ ειπεν αὐτῷ θεός; Syr. לה מריא ואמר .

16. אלאּהאשה Sept. καὶ τῇ γυναικί; Syr. ולאנתתא .

4:8. אחיו -Sept. διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέδιον; Syr. להקלתא נרדאּ .

10. ויאמר -Sept. καὶ ειπε κύριος; Syr. מריא ואמר לה.

צעקים Sept. βοᾶ '/; Syr. גלא .

15. לכן Sept. οὐχ οὔτως; Syr. לאהכנא .

17. כשם -Sept. ἐπι τῷ ὀνόματι; Syr. עלשם .

25. אתאּאשתו -Sept. Εὔαν τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ; Syr. לחוא אנתתה .

ותלד -Sept. καὶ συλλαβοῦσα ἔτεκεν; Syr. ובטנת וילדת .

5:23. ויהי -Sept. καὶ ἐγενοντο; Syr. והוו (id. ver. 31).

29. ממעשנו -Sept. ἀπὸ τῶν ἐργῶν ἡμῶν; Syr. עבדין מן .

מן -Sept. καὶ ἀπό; Syr. ומן . 6:20. מכל -Sept. and Syr. ומכל .

7:2. שנים Sept. δὐο δύο; Syr. תרין תרין .

3. גם Sept. and Syr. וגם .

8. וכל -Sept. and Syr. ומכל .

20. ההרים -Sept. τὰ ὄρη ὑψηλά; Syr. טורא רמא .

8:7. ויצא יצוא ושוב -Sept. καὶ ἐξελθὼν οὐκ ἀνέστρεψε; Syr. ונפק מפק ולא הפ .ִ

17. כל -Sept. and Syr. וכל (id. ver. 19).

22. וקר -Sept. and Syr. קר .

וקיוֹ -Sept. alnd Syr. קיוֹ .

9:2.בכל -Sept. καὶ ἐπι πάντα; Syr. ועלכל .

5. מיד איש -Sept. ἐκ χειρός; Syr. ומן אידא .

7. שרצו Sept. καὶ πληρώσατε; Syr. ואולדו .

10. בבהמה -Sept. καὶ ἀπὸ κτηνῶν; Syr. ועם בעירא .

11:27. את נחור -Sept. καὶ τὸν Ναχώρ; Syr. ולנחור .

12:3. ומקלל -ִ Sept. καὶ τοὺς καταρωμένους σε; Syr. ומליטני .ִ

7. ויאמר Sept. καὶ ειπεν αὐτῷ; Syr. ואמר לה .

13. נא Sept. and Syr. omit (id. 13:8).

13:7. ישב Sept. κατ ó κουν; Syr. יתבין .

14:1. אריו -ִ Sept. and Syr. ואריו .ִ

ותרעל -Sept. Θαργάλ; Syr. תרעיל .

2. שנאב Sept. and Syr. ושנאב .

5. בהם, in Ham-Sept. ἃμα αὐτοῖς; Syr. דבהין .

6. בהררם -Sept. ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσι; Syr. דבטורי .

7. שדה, the country-Sept. τοὺς ἄρχοντας; Syr. רישנא .

10. סדם עמרה -Sept. Σοδόμων καὶ βασιλεὺς Γομόῤῥας; Syr. דסדום ומלכא דעמורא .

14:20. ביד —ִ Sept. ὑποχειρίους σου; Syr. באידי .ִ

15:5. ויאמר -Sept. καὶ ειπεν αὐτῷ; Syr. ואמר לה .

6. והאמן -Sept. καὶ ἐπίστευσεν ῎Αβραμ; Syr. אבר והימין .

16:2. נא Sept. and Syr. omit.

6. ביד —ִ Sept. ἐν ταῖς χερσί σου; Syr. באידיכי .

15. ילדה Sept. ἔτεκεν αὐτῳ; Syr. דאתילד לה .

17:16. מלכי -Sept. καὶ βασιλεῖς; Syr. ומלכא .

19. אלהים -Sept. θεὸς πρὸς Ἀβραάμ; Syr. לאברהם .

לזרעו -Sept. καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ; Syr. ולזרעה .

18:5. אחר Sept. καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο; Syr. ובתר כן .

17. מאברהם -Sept. ἀπὸ Ἀβραὰμ τοῦ παιδός μον; Syr. עבדי אברה מן .

20. כי רבה Sept. πεπληθύνται πρός με; Syr. עלתקדמי .

29. לא אעשה - Sept. οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσω; .Syr. אחבלאן לא .

19:3. אפה -Sept. ἔπεψεν αὐτοῖς; Syr. אפא להון .

7. ויאמר -Sept. ειπε δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς; Syr. להון ואמר .

12. מן המקום -Sept. ἐκ τοῦ τόπου τούτου; Syr. אתֹרא הנא מן .

20:15. אבימל —ִ Sept. Ἀβιμέλεχ τῷ Ἀβραάμ; Syr. לאברה .

21:8. יצחק -Sept. Ι᾿σαάκ υἱὸς αὐτοῦ; Syr. לסחקועה בראּ . 10. עם (2.)-Sept. and Syr. omit.

13. לגוי Sept. εἰς ἔθνος μέγα; Syr. לעמא רבא .

14. שם -Sept. καὶ ἐπέθηκεν; Syr. וסם .

33. ויטע -Sept. καὶ ἐφύτευσεν Ἀβραάμ; Syr. אברה ונצב .

22:13. אחר Sept. εις; Syr. חד .

16. את יחיד -ִ Sept. τοῦ ἀγαπητοῦ δὲ ἐμέ; Syr. ליחידי ִמני .

23:14. לו -Sept. and Syr. omit.

19. על פני -Sept. ἔστιν ἀπέναντι; Syr. דכדם .

24:21. מחריש -Sept. καὶ παρεσιώπα; Syr. ומתבקא .

25. גם מקום -Sept. καὶ τόπος; Syr. וא אתרה .

31. ויאמר Sept. και ειπεν αὐτῷ; Syr. ואמר לה .

33. ויאמר דבר -Sept. καὶ ειπεν, Λάλησον; Syr. ואמרין לה אמר .

38. לבני -Sept. τῷ υἱῷ μου ἐκεῖθεν; Syr. תמן לברי מן .

40. ישלח -Sept. αὐτὸς ἐξαποστελεῖ; Syr, הו נחרד .

54. שלחני -Sept. ἐκπέμψατέ με ἵνα ἀπέλθω; Syr. שדרוני אזל .

55. ויאמר אחיה Sept. ειπαν δὲ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτῆς;

Syr. ואמרו לה אחין . אחר -Sept. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα; Syr. והידין .

60. רבקה -Sept. ῾Ρεβέκκαν την ἀδελφὴν αὐτῶν; Syr. לרבקא חתהוו .

25:5. ליצּחק -Sept. Ι᾿σαὰκ τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ; Syr. ברה ליסחק .

8. ושבע - Sept. καί πλήρης ἡμερῶν; Syr. יומתה ושבע .

Without enlarging our collation, it must be seen at once that the agreement between the Sept. and the Syriac version cannot be merely accidental, and the most skeptic must admit that the Sept. has been made use of by the Syriac translators. Is this inference correct, we may go a step farther and say what holds good for the one must also be good for the other; or, in other words, the Syriac translator made use of the Sept. for the other books too. And, indeed, Gesenius has produced a number of examples from the book of Isaiah to show that the Sept. was followed even in free and arbitrary interpretations (comp. his Commentar iber den Jesaia, 1, 82 sq.); and, in like manner, Credner, who has minutely examined the minor prophets in his De Prophetarumn Minorum Versioanis Syriacae quam Peschito vocant Indole, thinks that the Sept. was employed there. A similar result will be achieved in comparing the book:of Jeremiah. Thus,

2:25. נואש -Sept. ἀνδριοῦμαι; Syr. אתחיל : both derive it from איש, instead of from יאש (comp. also 18:12).

34. כיעלכל אֵלֶה -Sept. ἐπὶ πάσῃ δρυϊ v; Syr. כל אילן תחית : both probably reading אֵלָה .

3:2. כִעֲרָבַי -Sept. κορώνη; Syr. נעבא, reading כָעֹרֵב .

8. משבח Sept. κατοικία; Syr. עמורתא, deriving from ישב .

8:21. השברתי -Sept. and Syr. omit.

15:6. נלאיתי הנחם -Sept. καὶ οὐκέτι ἀνήσω αὐτούς; Syr. ותוב לא אשבוק להון : both reading הִנַּחֵ for הַנָּחֵם

17:16. יום אָנוּשׁ -Sept. ἡμέραν ἀνθρώπον; Syr. דברנשא יומא : both reading אֶנוֹשׁ .

18:14. מצור שָׂדִי -Sept. ἀπὸ πέτρας μαστοί; Syr. טור תדיא מן : both reading שָׁדִי .

48:2. גם מדמן תדמי -Sept. καὶ παῦσιν παύσιν παύσεται; Syr. אפן משתק אן השתקין : both regarded מדמן not as a proper noun, but as an Aramaic infinitive of דָמִם .

1:21. ואל יושבי פקוד חִרב . In the Masoretictext tlie Athnach under פקוד indicates that it belongs to יושבי . The Sept. connects פקוד with חרב, also reading חֶרֶב ἐκδίκησον μάχαιρα; in like manner the Syr. connects and translates אתתעירי חרבא . It would be useless to adduce more examples for our supposition, since we do not write a dissertation, but for a cyclopaedia which, so far as the point in question is concerned, has treated that subject in such a full way as neither the introductions to the Old Test. nor cyclopaedias and dictionaries of the Bible have done before, if they ever touched this point fully.

There is yet another matter which we should not pass over, and to which, as it, seems little, attention has been paid. We mean the titles of the Syriac psalms, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the editions of the Sept. The titles are partly historical, partly dogmatical; the former speak of David or the Jewish people, the latter of Christ and his Church. Now the question arises, if the Syriac translators really perused the Sept., as our supposition is, how is it that the titles found in the Syriac psalms are not to be met with in the Sept.? But the question is easily answered, when we consider the fact that these titles are not only found in the commentary of Eusebius, but also in the Codex Alexandrinus. From the latter they were reprinted in Walton's Polyglot (vol. 6 pt. 6 p. 137 sq.), and again by Grabe, in the fourth volume of his edition of the Sept. A comparison of the titles as found in the Alex. Codex with those in the Peshito shows that the dogmatical part of these titles are a later addition, otherwise we could not account for the omission in the Greek, if really the latter had copied the Peshito. Deducting these additions, the titles otherwise agree with each other. Thus the title of Psalms 2 reads: προφητεία περὶ Χριστοῦ καὶ κλήσεως ἐθνῶν; Syr. רמז נביותא מטל שחה דמשיחא מטל קריתא דאממא Psalms 3, προφητεία γενησομένων ἀγαθῶν τῷ Δαυίδ; Syr. על טבתא דעתידן אמיר לדויד : Psalms 4 προφητεία τῷ Δαυὶδ περὶ ὡν πέπονθεν; Syr. לדויד מטל הלין דשח .

II. Relation to the Chaldee. That there is a tolerable likeness between the Syriac and Chaldee in many places cannot be denied. Gesenius has produced a number of examples from. Isaiah to show that the Targum was used there (Comment. 1, 83 sq.). Credner is of the same opinion in regard to the minor prophets (De Prophetarum, etc., p. 107). Havernick and Herbst are of an opposite opinion, and yet the original traces of a use of a Targum are too distinct to be denied, as the following examples in Genesis must show:

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Bibliography Information
McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'And Chaldee.'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/a/and-chaldee.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.

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