Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #08104 - שָׁמַר
1) to keep, guard, observe, give heed
1a1) to keep, have charge of
1a2) to keep, guard, keep watch and ward, protect, save life
1a2a) watch, watchman (participle)
1a3) to watch for, wait for
1a4) to watch, observe
1a5) to keep, retain, treasure up (in memory)
1a6) to keep (within bounds), restrain
1a7) to observe, celebrate, keep (sabbath or covenant or commands), perform (vow)
1a8) to keep, preserve, protect
1a9) to keep, reserve
1b1) to be on one’s guard, take heed, take care, beware
1b2) to keep oneself, refrain, abstain
1b3) to be kept, be guarded
1c) (Piel) to keep, pay heed
1d) (Hithpael) to keep oneself from
2853) rms (סהמר ShMR) AC: Guard CO: Brier AB: Custody: A close watching of something for guarding or protecting. Shepherds constructed corrals of briers at night to protect the flock from predators. [from: nx- from the thorns used in constructing a corral]
V) rms (סהמר ShMR) - Guard: To watch over or guard in the sense of preserving or protecting. KJV (468): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) keep, observe, heed, keeper, preserve, beware, mark, watchman, wait, watch, regard, save - Strongs: H8104 (שָׁמַר)
Nm) rms (סהמר ShMR) - Dregs: The settlings of wine. [Unknown connection to root;] KJV (5): lees, dregs - Strongs: H8105 (שֶׁמֶר)
Nf1) erms (סהמרה ShMRH) - Guard: One who watches over. KJV (1): watch - Strongs: H8108 (שָׁמְרָה)
bm) rims (סהמיר ShMYR) - I. Brier:Used to construct a corral to protect the flock at night. II. Shamiyr:An unknown sharp stone such as flint or obsidian. KJV (11): brier, adamant, diamond - Strongs: H8068 (שָׁמִיר)
dm) rfms (סהמור ShMWR) - Watching: KJV (2): observed - Strongs: H8107 (שִׁמֻּרִים)
df1) erfms (סהמורה ShMWRH) - Lid: As a covering of protection. KJV (1): waking - Strongs: H8109 (שְׁמֻרָה)
hm) rmsm (מסהמר MShMR) - Custody: A careful watching over as an office, guard or prison. KJV (22): ward, watch, guard, diligence, office, prison - Strongs: H4929 (מִשְׁמָר)
hf2) trmm (מסהמרת MShMRT) - Charge: What is given to be watched over and protected. KJV (78): charge, ward, watch, keep, ordinance, office, safeguard - Strongs: H4931 (מִשְׁמֶרֶת)
ndf1) erfmsa (אסהמורה AShMWRH) - Watch: An increment of time during the night when guards watch the area. KJV (7): watch, night watch - Strongs: H821 (אַשְׁמֹרֶת)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal425 Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳שׁ Genesis 37:11 +, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִשְׁמֹר 1 Samuel 2:9 +, יִשְׁמָרֿ Jeremiah 5:24 +, suffix 3 masculine singular יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ Exodus 21:29,36; 3 feminine singular suffix תִּשְׁמוּרֵ֑ם Proverbs 14:3 (read תִּשְׁמְרוּם, see Ges§ 47g Toy), etc.; Imperative masculine singular שְׁמֹר Job 2:6 +, שָׁמְרָה 1 Chronicles 29:18 +; masculine plural שִׁמְרוּ Joshua 6:18 +, etc.; Infinitive absolute שָׁמוֺר Deuteronomy 5:12 +; construct שְׁמֹר Genesis 3:24 +, suffix שָׁמְרָהּ Genesis 2:15, etc.; Participle active שֹׁמֵר 1 Samuel 1:12 +, etc.; passive שָׁמוּר Ecclesiastes 5:12 ( 1 Samuel 9:24 see below), etc.; — [Synon. I. נָצַר, נָטַר, q. v.]:
1. a. keep, have charge of, garden Genesis 2:15 (J), ark 1 Samuel 7:1, property in trust Exodus 22:6; Exodus 22:9 (E), compare 1 Samuel 25:31; tend flock Genesis 30:31 (E), compare Zechariah 3:7; Numbers 3:8 (P); so perhaps (object omitted) Hosea 12:13 (where ׳שׁ chosen for parallelism Now Marti and others); Participle הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹ֑כִי Genesis 4:9 (J), ׳שׁ of sheep 1 Samuel 17:20, הַכֵּלִים׳שׁ 1 Samuel 17:22, הַכְּגָדִים׳שׁ 2 Kings 22:14; 2 Chronicles 34:22, הַנָּשִׁים׳שׁ Esther 2:3,8,15, compare Esther 2:14, etc.
b. keep, guard, captives Joshua 10:18 (J), 1 Kings 20:39, דֶּרֶךְ Genesis 3:24 (J); keep watch and ward, אֶל person for whom 1 Samuel 26:15 ( Psalm 59:10 see
3 end), עַל person Psalm 59:16; Proverbs 6:22; בַּנַּעַר 2 Samuel 18:12 have a care of (read לִי for מִיᵐ5 and modern); in hostile sense, אֶל הָעִיר (in siege) 2 Samuel 11:16, חַטָאתִי עַל Job 14:16 (but read תַּעֲבֹר with ᵐ5 Ew Di Du and others [not Hi Bu]); absolute with מֵעַל Ecclesiastes 5:7 watcheth above, etc.; keep one's mouth, be prudent of speech Proverbs 21:33, compare Micah 7:5; keep = protect, save, one's life, נֶפֶשׁ Proverbs 13:3; Proverbs 16:17; Proverbs 19:16; Proverbs 22:5, another's Job 2:6; in Proverbs , accusative of person, subject Wisdom of Solomon , Job 4:6 she shall preserve thee, compare (+ מִן of evil) Job 6:24; Job 7:5; especially Participle watch, watchman, of city Isaiah 21:11 (twice in verse); Isaiah 21:12; Isaiah 62:5 (figurative), Song of Solomon 3:3; Song of Solomon 5:7 (twice in verse); Psalm 127:1; הַמֶּלֶף׳שׁ (in temple) Jeremiah 35:4 + (see סַף), מֶּית הַמֶּלֶךְ׳הַמּ 1 Kings 14:27 2 Chronicles 12:10, הַשְּׁעָרִים׳שׁ Nehemiah 13:22, שֹׁמְרֵי הַבַּיִת (figurative) Ecclesiastes 12:3; ׳שׁהַבַּיִתךֵסעוֺה ךֵהת פךֵךֵכ (of David's concubines) 2 Samuel 15:16; 2 Samuel 16:21; 2 Samuel 20:3; שֹׁמֵר הַכֵּלִים 1 Samuel 17:22, הַבְּגָדִים׳שׁ 2 Kings 22:14, חַמַּרְדֵּס׳שׁ Nehemiah 2:8, הַנָּשִׁים׳שׁ Esther 2:3,14,15, שֹׁמְרִים absolute Judges 7:19; Jeremiah 51:12.
c. hence watch for, wait for, accusative of person 1 Samuel 19:11 (to kill him), compare Psalm 59:1 (title; accusative הַבַּיִת); with יֲקֵכַי Psalm 56:7 = dog my steps, Psalm 71:10; Jeremiah 20:10; = watch (suspiciously) Job 10:14; Job 13:27; Job 33:11; absolute הַשֹּׁעמרִים Judges 1:24; wait for, נֶשֶׁף Job 24:15, לַבֹּקֶר Psalm 130:6 (twice in verse).
d. watch, observe, accusative of thing 1 Samuel 1:12; Ecclesiastes 11:4; Job 39:1; Jeremiah 8:7 (of birds), with intelligence Isaiah 42:20; Psalm 107:43; accusative of person Psalm 37:37 ("" ראה), Zechariah 11:11; accusative of sin Psalm 31:7; Psalm 130:3; accusative of thing, for the purpose of avoiding, Psalm 17:4.
2. a. keep, retain, of storing up (food) Genesis 41:35 (E); absolute Ecclesiastes 3:6 (opposed to הִשְׁלִיךְ); treasure up (in memory) Genesis 37:11 (E), compare Malachi 2:7; 1 Chronicles 29:18; Proverbs 4:21 (בְּתוֺךְ לְבָבֶ֑ךְ), Proverbs 22:18 (כְּבִטֱנ֑ךָ); retain wrath Amos 1:11 (read שָׁמֶר לָנֶצַח We Now GASm Marti; see also נָטַר 1) + (anger omitted) Jeremiah 3:5 ("" נטר).
b. keep within bounds, restrain, object שׁוֺר Exodus 21:29,36 (E); with accusative hand, מִן of evil Isaiah 56:2; figurative keep thy foot, with temporal clause Ecclesiastes 4:17; לְֿפִי מַחְסוֺם׳אֶשׁ Psalm 39:2 (ᵐ5 Du and others אָשִׁימָה); apparently reflexive (= Niph`al), Joshua 6:18 (+ מִןהַֿחֵרֶס), possibly sc. גַפְשְׁכֶם Di.
3. a. observe, celebrate, accusative of festival, etc., Exodus 23:15 (E), Exodus 34:18 (J), Exodus 12:17; of day Exodus 12:17 (P), of month Deuteronomy 16:1.
b. keep Sabbath Deuteronomy 5:12; Leviticus 19:3,30; Leviticus 26:2 (all H), Exodus 31:13,14,16 (P), Isaiah 56:4, also (+ מֵחַלְּלוֺ) Isaiah 56:2; Isaiah 56:6.
c. of other obligations: keep convenant Ezekiel 17:14, especially convenant of ׳י Deuteronomy 29:8; 1 Kings 11:11 5t., ׳שְׁבֻעַת י 1 Kings 2:43, perform vow Deuteronomy 23:24; keep commands Jeremiah 35:18; Ezekiel 20:18; especially מִצָוֺת, תֻקִּים, יֲבֹדָה, etc., of ׳י (sometimes "" נצר), Exodus 20:6 = Deuteronomy 5:10; Amos 2:4; 1 Kings 2:3; Psalm 119:8; Psalm 119:17; Psalm 119:34 + very often (c. 120t.); ׳דֶּרֶח י׳שׁ Genesis 18:19 (J) + 4t., ׳דַּרְכֵי י 2 Samuel 22:22 = Psalm 18:22, ׳י׳ד omitted Judges 2:22 b; אָרְחוֺת צַדַּיקִים׳שׁ Proverbs 2:20 ("" תֵּלֵח תְּלֵח בְּדֶרֶח טוֺבֹים), ׳שׁדְּרָכַי (ways of wisdom) Proverbs 8:32 ( Psalm 17:4 see
1 d); keep discharge an office, כְּהֻנָּה Numbers 3:10; Numbers 18:7 (both P), absolute 2 Chronicles 5:11; a function or duty, especially מִשְׁמֶרֶת׳שׁ Leviticus 8:35; Numbers 1:53 + approximately 32t. (see ׳מ below); accusative of obligation often omitted, especially D (and R D) keep and do Deuteronomy 4:6; Deuteronomy 7:12 8t.; to do Deuteronomy 5:1,29 16t. D + 3t., etc.
d. observe = follow dictates of (prudence, justice, kindness, wisdom) Hosea 12:7 (חֶסֶד וּמִשְׁמָּט), Isaiah 56:1; Proverbs 4:4; Proverbs 5:2; Proverbs 7:1,2; bad sense, observe vanities Psalm 31:7. — Doubtful are: לִשְׁמֹר absolute Hosea 4:10, very strange (conjectures in We Now Marti); שָׁמוּר 1 Samuel 9:24, HPS אֵחַרְנוּ, compare Now Bu Comm.; Psalm 59:10 read עֻוִּי אֵלֶיךָ אֲזַמֵּ֑רָה (as Psalm 59:18, ᵑ6 Che Bae).
4 sometimes ׳י subject:
a. keep, preserve, protect, accusative of person, + ב of way, etc., Genesis 28:15,20 (J), Exodus 23:20 (E; of מַלְאָח), Psalm 91:11 (׳מ), Joshua 24:17 (E); accusative of person (or נפשׁ) only: 1 Samuel 30:23; Jeremiah 31:9; Numbers 6:24 (P), Job 29:2; Psalm 16:1 10t. Psalm; + מִן Psalm 121:7 2t.; accusative רַהְּלַי 1 Samuel 2:9, compare Proverbs 3:26 (מִן); Participle שֹׁמְרֶ֑ךָ Psalm 121:3; Psalm 121:5, compare Psalm 121:4, etc.; accusative of city Psalm 127:1.
b. with accusative בְּרִית, ל person Deuteronomy 7:12, + חֶסֶד Deuteronomy 7:7 5t., אֱמֶת לְעוֺלָם׳הַשּׁ Psalm 146:6; הַשְּׁבֻעָה Deuteronomy 7:8, etc.; passive of covenant (׳י agent) עֲרוּכָה בַכֹּל וּשְׁמֻרָה 2 Samuel 23:5 (legal terminology, Dr).
5 keep, reserve, weeks of harvest Jeremiah 5:24 (ל person).
Niph`al36 Perfect 3 masculine singular נִשְׁמַד 2 Samuel 20:10, etc.; Imperfect 3 feminine singular תִּשָּׁמֵד Judges 13:13; 2 masculine plural תִּשָּׁמַ֑רוּ Exodus 23:13; Imperative masculine singular תִּשָּׁמֵד Isaiah 7:4 הִדָמשּׁ֫מֶר (לְךָׅ Genesis 24:6 +; feminine singular הִשָּֽׁמְרִי Judges 13:4, etc.; —
1 be on one's guard, with בַּחֶרֶב 2 Samuel 20:10 by reason of the sword, i.e. against it; with ב temporal 1 Samuel 19:2, שָׁם 2 Kings 6:10; take heed Exodus 23:13 (E) Deuteronomy 2:4; with מִן person Exodus 23:21 (E), Jeremiah 9:3; מִן of thing Judges 13:13; Deuteronomy 23:10; מִן infinitive take care not to, etc. Genesis 31:29 (E), 2 Kings 6:9; infinitive without מִן Exodus 19:12 (J), but read probably מֵעֲלוֺת; followed by מֶּן lest Genesis 24:6 (J) + 11t. (especially Deuteronomy); with (וְ)אַל jussive Exodus 10:23 (J), Judges 13:4; Job 36:21, with Imperative coordinate Isaiah 7:4. — Very often Imperative (24t.), especially in phrase הִשָּׁמֶרלְֿךָ (12t.), הִשָּֽׁטְרוּ לָכֶם (3t.); + לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם Deuteronomy 4:15; Joshua 23:11 (R D; + infinitive); + ׳בְּנַפ Jeremiah 17:21 apparently ב pret. on peril of your life (compare ב
III:3 a), so perhaps alsoבְּרוּחֲכֶם Malachi 2:15,16 (We Now).
2 keep oneself, refrain, abstain, מֵאִשָּׁה 1 Samuel 21:5.
3 be kept, guarded, Hosea 12:14 (compare ׳שׁ of Jacob Hosea 12:13); be preserved (by ׳י) Psalm 37:28 (לִיוֺלָם), but read probably עַוָּלִים (לְעוֺלָם) נִשְׁמָ֑דוּ Hup-Ri (Now) Che Bae Du Dr.
Pi`el Participle plural מְשַׁמְּרִיםהַבְלֵישָֿׁוְא Jonah 2:9 those paying regard to false vanities (compare Qal Psalm 31:7).
Hithpa`el Imperfect 1 singular וָאֶשְׁתַּסֵּר מֵעֲוֺנַי Psalm 18:24 I kept myself from, etc. = 2 Samuel 22:24 (verb cohortative); 3 masculine singular וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּר חֻקּוֺת עָמְרִי Micah 6:16, but read וְתִשְׁמֹר thou keepest, observest, We Now GASm.
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שָׁמַר fut. יִשְׁמֹר
(1) to keep, to watch, to guard
(a) in a narrower sense, as a garden, Genesis 2:15, 3:24 a flock, Genesis 30:31 a house, Ecclesiastes 12:3. Part. שֹׁמֵר subst. a watchman Canticles 3:3 of cattle, i.e. a shepherd, 1 Samuel 17:20 trop. used of prophets, Isaiah 21:11, 62:6, compare צֹפִים.
(b) in a wider sense, to keep safe, to preserve, followed by acc. Job 2:6; Proverbs 13:3 בְּ 2 Samuel 18:12 אֶל 1 Samuel 26:15 עַל 1 Samuel 26:16; Proverbs 6:22 often used of God as guarding men, followed by an acc. Genesis 28:15, 20 Genesis 28:20; Psalms 12:8, 16:1 25:20 followed by מִן to guard from any thing, Psalms 121:7, 140:5 141:9.
(2) to keep, to reserve, Exodus 22:6 also to preserve, as loving-kindness, Daniel 9:4; Nehemiah 9:32, anger, Amos 1:11, עֶבְרָתוֹ שְׁמָרָה נֶצַח “(Edom) kept his anger continually;” (שְׁמָֽרָה with these vowels and the accent on the penultima is masc. with ה parag.), and without the acc. עֶבְרָה or אַף (like נָטַר No. 2), Jeremiah 3:5, אִם־יִשְׁמֹר לָנֶצַח “will he continually keep” sc. his anger? Specially to keep in mind and memory (φυλάττεσθαί τι), Genesis 37:11; Psalms 130:3.-Without acc. and with suff. of pers. Job 10:14, וּשְׁמַרְתָּנִי “thou wilt keep (punishment) for me,” du gedachteft (es) mir.
(3) to observe, to attend to any thing, followed by an acc. 1 Samuel 1:12; Psalms 17:4, “I have observed the ways of the violent man,” i.e. that I might avoid them (this phrase is used in another sense, Proverbs 2:20); without this, Isaiah 42:20 followed by עַל Job 14:16 followed by אֶל Psalms 59:10. Sometimes used in a bad sense, to watch narrowly (etwas belauern), to lie in wait for, followed by an acc. Job 13:27, 33:11 Psalms 56:7, 71:10. שָׁמַר עִיר to observe, i.e. to besiege a city, 2 Samuel 11:16, compare נָצַר No. 5.
(4) to keep, to observe, as a covenant, Genesis 17:9, 10 Genesis 17:10 the commandments of God, 1 Kings 11:10 the sabbath, Isaiah 56:2, Isaiah 56:6 a promise, 1 Kings 3:6, 8:24. Followed by a gerund, to seek to do any thing, Numbers 23:12; 2 Kings 10:31.
(5) to honour, to worship, as God, Hosea 4:10, idols, Psalms 31:7 a master, Proverbs 27:18. Compare Virg. Georg. iv. 212, “Prœterea regem non sic Ægyptus, et ingens Lydia … … observant.”
(6) recipr. i.q. Niphal and שָׁמַר נַפְשׁוֹ (Deuteronomy 4:9), to abstain oneself from any thing, followed by מִן Joshua 6:18.
(1) pass. to be kept, preserved, Psalms 37:28.
(2) to abstain oneself from any thing (compare Kal No. 6), followed by מִן Deuteronomy 23:10; Judges 13:13; 1 Samuel 21:5.
(3) to beware of any thing, followed by מִן Jeremiah 9:3 מִפְּנֵי Exodus 23:21 בְּ 2 Samuel 20:10 followed by inf. Exodus 19:12, “take heed to yourselves to ascend the mountain,” i.e. that ye do not ascend; also פֶּן (lest) followed by an entire sentence, Genesis 24:6, 31:24, 29 Genesis 31:29; Deuteronomy 4:15, 11:16 (the imperative having sometimes added the pronoun pleon. לְךָ Gen. Ex. locc. citt.). Sometimes, to make the prohibition more forcible, there is added to the verb of warning the expression לְנַפְשְׁךָ, בְּנַפְשְׁךָ by thy life (Germ. bey Leibe nicht), which does not depend on the verb נִשְׁמַר, Deuteronomy 4:15, 16, נִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשׁוֹתֵיכֶם פֶּן תַּשְׁחִיתוּ “take heed diligently, as ye love your life, not to act wickedly,” etc.; Jeremiah 17:21, הִשָּֽׁמְרוּ בְּנַפְשׁתֵיכֶם וְאַל תִּשְּׂאוּ “take heed as ye value your life, not to carry;” Joshua 23:11. Once followed by a gerund, to care for something, to take heed to do something, Deuteronomy 24:8, הִשָּׁמֶר … לִשְׁמֹר מְאֹד וְלַעֲשׂוֹת “take heed to observe diligently and do,” etc.
Piel, i.q. Kal No. 5, to worship (an idol), Jonah 2:9.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 4, prop. to observe for oneself, Micah 6:16.
(2) to take heed to oneself, followed by מִן Psalms 18:24.
Derivatives, שֶׁמֶר-שִׁמְרָת, אַשְׁמֻרָה, מִשְׁמָר, מִשְׁמֶרֶת, and pr.n. יִשְׁמְרַי.
שָׁמַר i.q. סָמַר, שָׁמַר Ch. Pa. סַמֵּר to fasten with nails; whence שָׁמִיר a thorn, a point. Perhaps the two significations (No. I., II.) may be reconciled from the sense of guarding, coming from that of shutting up, making fast with nails.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.