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Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature
(properly מַשְׁתֶּה, mishteh', δοχή, when a hospitable entertainment; and חָג, chag, ἑορτή ), when a religious festival). To what an early date the practices of hospitality are referable may be seen in Genesis 19:3, where we find Lot inviting the two angels "Turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house and tarry all night, and wash your feet; and he pressed upon them greatly, and they entered into his house; and he made them a feast;"' which was obviously of an impromptu nature, since it is added, " and did bake unleavened bread, and they did eat" (Judges 6:19). It was usual not only thus to receive persons with choice viands, but also to dismiss them in a similar manner; accordingly Laban, when he had overtaken the fleeing Jacob, complains (Genesis 31:27), "Wherefore didst thou steal away from me and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth, and with songs, and with tabret, and with harp ?" See also 2 Samuel 3:20; 2 Kings 6:23; Job 8:20; 1 Maccabees 16:15. This practice explains the reason why the prodigal, on his return, was welcomed by a feast (Luke 15:23). Occasions of domestic joy were hailed with feasting; thus, in Genesis 21:8, Abraham "made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned." Birthdays were thus celebrated (Genesis 40:20): " Pharaoh, on his birthday, made a feast unto all his servants" (Job 1:4; Matthew 14:6; compare Herod. i, 133). Marriage feasts were also common. Samson (Judges 14:10) on such an occasion "made a feast," and it is added, " for so used the young men to do." So Laban, when he gave his daughter Leah to Jacob (Genesis 29:22), " gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast." These festive occasions seem originally to have answered the important purpose of serving as evidence and attestation of the events which they celebrated, on which account relatives and neighbors were invited to be present (Ruth 4:10; John 2:1). Those processes in rural occupations by which the divine bounties are gathered into the hands of man have in all ages been made seasons of festivity; accordingly, in 2 Samuel 13:23, Absalom invites all the king's sons, and even David himself, to a sheep-shearing feast, on which occasion the guests became "merry with wine" (1 Samuel 25:2 sq.). The vintage was also celebrated with festive eating and drinking (Judges 9:27). Feasting at funerals existed among the Jews (2 Samuel 3:33). In Jeremiah 16:7, among other funeral customs, mention is made of "the cup of consolation, to drink for their father or their mother," which brings to mind the indulgence in spirituous liquors to which our ancestors were given at interments, and which has not yet entirely disappeared in Lancashire, nor probably in Ireland (Carleton's Irish Peasantry; England in the Nineteenth Century, vol. ii). To what an extent expense was sometimes carried on these occasions may be learned from Josephus (War, 4:1, 1), who, having remarked that Archelaus "mourned for his father seven days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude," states, " which custom is the occasion of poverty to many of the Jews;" adding, "because they are forced to feast the multitude; for if any one omits it he is not esteemed a holy person." (See ENTERTAINMENT).
As among heathen nations, so also among the Hebrews. feasting made a part of the observances which took place on occasion of animal sacrifices. In Deuteronomy 12:6-7, after the Israelites are enjoined to bring to the place chosen of God their burnt offerings, tithes, heave offerings, vows, free-will offerings, and the firstlings of their herds and flocks, they are told, "There shall ye eat before the Lord your God, and ye shall rejoice in all' ye put your hand unto, ye and your households, wherein the Lord thy God hath blessed thee" (1 Samuel 9:19; 1 Samuel 16:3; 1 Samuel 16:5; 2 Samuel 6:19). These sacrificial meals were enjoyed in connection with peace offerings, whether eucharistic or votive. The kidneys, and all the inward fat, and the tail of the lamb, were burnt with the daily sacrifice; the breast and right shoulder fell to the priest, and the rest was to be eaten by the offerer and his friends, on the same day if the offering were eucharistic, on that and the next day if it were votive (Leviticus 3:1-17; Leviticus 7:11-21; Leviticus 7:29-36). To the feast at the second tithe of the produce of the land, which was to be made every year, and eaten at the annual festivals before Jehovah, not only friends, but strangers, Widows, orphans, and Levites were to be invited, as well as the slaves. If the tabernacle was so distant as to make it inconvenient to carry thither the tithe, it was to be turned into money, which was to be spent in providing feasts at the place at which the festivals were held (Deuteronomy 14:22-27; Deuteronomy 12:14;. Tobit i. 6). Charitable entertainments were also provided, at the end of three years, from the tithe of the increase. The Levite, the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow were to be present (Deuteronomy 12:17-19; Deuteronomy 14:28-29; Deuteronomy 26:12-15). At the feast of Pentecost the command is very express (Deuteronomy 16:11), "Thou shalt rejoice before the Lord thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite that is within thy gates, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow that are among you." Accordingly, Tobit (ii, 1, 2) affirms, "Now when I was come home again, in the feast of Pentecost, when I saw abundance of meat, I said to my son, go and bring what poor man soever thou shalt find out of our brethren, who is mindful of the Lord." The Israelites were forbidden to partake of food offered in sacrifice to idols (Exodus 34:15), lest they should be thereby enticed into idolatry, or appear to give a sanction to idolatrous observances (1 Corinthians 10:28). (See ALISGEMA). For further particulars as to social entertainments, (See BANQUET); and as to sacred occasions, (See FESTIVAL).
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McClintock, John. Strong, James. Entry for 'Feast'. Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/tce/f/feast.html. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1870.
the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26