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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5971 - עַם
1) nation, people
1a) people, nation
1b) persons, members of one’s people, compatriots, country-men
2) kinsman, kindred
1358) mo (אהמ AhM) AC: ? CO: People AB: ?: The pictograph o is a picture of the eye, the m is a picture of the sea representing mass. Combined these mean "see a mass". A large group of people in one location.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
noun masculine Genesis 11:6 (see below) people (Late Hebrew id., plebeian, common man; ᵑ7עַמָּא people, plural peoples, tribes, etc.; Syriac ; Arabic see above; original meaning probably those united, connected, related, compare We GGN 1893,480); — absolute עַם Genesis 11:6 +, עָם Judges 9:36 +, הָעָם Joshua 8:11 +; construct עַם Numbers 21:29 +; suffix עַמִּי Exodus 3:7 +, עַמְּךָ Exodus 22:27 +, etc.; plural עַמִּים Isaiah 2:3 +, עֲמָמִים (compare Biblical Aramaic) Nehemiah 9:22; construct עַמֵּי 1 Kings 8:43 +, עַמְמֵי Nehemiah 9:24; plural with suffix see II. עַם; — (Thes cites following as feminineוְחָטָאת עַמֶּ֑ךָ Exodus 5:16 [but corrupt and unintellig.; read perhaps ׳וְחַטָאתָ לְע, so ᵐ5ᵑ6 Di]; Judges 18:7 [but ישֶׁבֶת must agree with lost word city, or the like, see GFM]; Jeremiah 8:5 [but read שׁוֺבַב for שׁוֺבְבָה Gie]); —
1 a people, nation (sometimes "" גּוֺי), collective noun (singular Exodus 21:8; Joshua 17:14,15,17; 2 Samuel 17:29 #NAME? Exodus 20:15; Exodus 24:2; Jeremiah 5:31 #NAME? Exodus 1:20; 2 Samuel 13:24): עַם אֶחָד = all mankind Genesis 11:6 (J); peoples in General Genesis 27:29 (J; "" לְאֻמִּים), Exodus 19:5 (E), Deuteronomy 2:25; Deuteronomy 4:6 #NAME? Deuteronomy; Nehemiah 13:24 + often; קְהַל עַמִּים Genesis 28:3 (P) an assembly (multitude) of peoples, Genesis 48:4 (P), Ezekiel 23:24; Ezekiel 32:3 (+ רַבִּים); one's own people Jeremiah 46:16; Psalm 45:11; Ruth 1:10,15,16 (twice in verse) + (on עַמִּי נָדִיב Song of Solomon 6:12 see especially Bu); particular peoples, Egypt Genesis 41:40 (E), Exodus 1:22 (E), Nehemiah 9:10 +; עַםאֲֿרָם Amos 1:5; עַםכְּֿמוֺשׁ (i.e. Moab) Numbers 21:29 (JE), Jeremiah 48:46; but especially Israel Exodus 1:20 (E) + often; ׳עַםבְּֿנֵי יִשׂ Exodus 1:9 (J); called יהוה׳ע Numbers 11:29 (E), 1 Samuel 2:24 +, and (by ׳י) עַמִּי Exodus 3:7; Exodus 5:1 (J) + often (all periods); קְהַל עַםהָֿאֱלֹהִים Judges 20:2, עַםהַֿקָּהָל Leviticus 16:33 (P), קְהַל עָם Psalm 107:32; especially הָעָם הַזֶּה (often in contempt or disgust) Numbers 11:1,12,13 +; figurative of ants Proverbs 30:25, the shaphan Proverbs 30:26, locusts Joel 2:2, compare לְעַם לְצִיִּים Psalm 74:14 (where read לְעַם צִיִּים Hup-Now). — On Judges 1:16 see עֲמָלֵקִי. 2 = smaller units, e.g.
a. inhabitants of a city Genesis 19:4 (J), 1 Samuel 9:12,13; Jeremiah 29:16,25; 2 Chronicles 31:4 + ( Jeremiah 8:5 strike out ׳יְרוּוּשׁᵐ5 Gie Co Rothst).
b. inhabitants of a locality Jeremiah 37:12 [apparently not = tribe, Deuteronomy 33:3 read עַמּוֺᵐ5 Di Dr, Hosea 10:14; Judges 5:8,14read בְּעָרֶיךָ We Now; see below ד].
c. retainers, followers Genesis 14:16; Genesis 32:8; Genesis 33:15; Genesis 35:6; Judges 3:18; Judges 8:5; 2 Samuel 15:17; Jeremiah 41:13,14 +.
d. people bearing arms 1 Samuel 11:11; 1 Kings 20:10 +; כָּבֵד׳ע Numbers 20:20 (JE), i.e. a powerful force; עַם הַצָּבָא Numbers 31:32 (P), הַמִּלְחָמָה׳ע Joshua 8:1,3,11; Joshua 10:7; Joshua 11:7 (all J E); so probably Judges 5:8 a (fighting) band; perhaps also Judges 5:14 (read singular ? see GFM Bu).
3 = common people Jeremiah 21:7; Jeremiah 22:4; Leviticus 4:27 (opposed to ruler Leviticus 4:22), Nehemiah 5:1 (opposed to יְהוּדִים), Nehemiah 7:5 (opposed to rulers).
4 people in General, persons Genesis 50:20 (E), so apparently ׳כָּלהָֿעָם אֲשֶׁר וגו Exodus 33:16 (J), Numbers 11:34 (J), Joshua 5:5 (twice in verse) (D), Judges 9:36 (as singular), Judges 9:37 (as plural), Jeremiah 36:9; persons labouring 1 Kings 9:23; superior persons Job 12:2 (iron.); עַם עוֺלָם Ezekiel 26:30 people of long ago (now in Sh®°ôl).
5 phrases are:
a. (עַמָּהּ, עַמִּי, עַמְּךָ) בְּנֵי עַמּוֺ members of one's people, compatriots, fellow-countrymen, etc. Numbers 22:5 (E), Genesis 23:11 (P) Leviticus 19:18 (H), Judges 14:16,17; Ezekiel 33:2,12 +.
b.בְּנֵי הָעָם = common people (see
3) 2 Kings 23:6; Jeremiah 26:23 +; people in General שַׁעַר בְּנֵי הָעָם Jeremiah 17:19i.e. public gate 2 Chronicles 35:5,12.
c.עַם הָאָרֶץ the people at large, as a body 2 Kings 11:14,18,19,20; 2 Kings 15:5; 2 Kings 16:15; 2 Kings 21:24 (twice in verse) +, Jeremiah 37:2; Jeremiah 44:21; Leviticus 20:2 (H), Genesis 23:7,12,13 (P); common people Jeremiah 34:19, compare ׳הא׳דַּלַּת ע 2 Kings 24:14; distinguished from prince Ezekiel 45:22; Ezekiel 46:3,9, from priests Haggai 2:4; Zechariah 7:5; = Canaanites Numbers 14:9 (JE), compare עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ 1 Chronicles 5:25; mixed post-exile population Ezra 4:4.
d.עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ usually peoples of the earth Joshua 4:24 (D), 2 Chronicles 32:19 +; of heathen peoples about and in Palestine after exile Ezra 10:2,11; traders Nehemiah 10:31; עַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֺת Nehemiah 9:30; Nehemiah 10:29; 2 Chronicles 32:13.
e.מִשְׁמְּחוֺת עַמִּים Psalm 96:7 = 1 Chronicles 16:28 (compare Psalm 22:28).
f. בַּתעַֿמִּי = people personified Isaiah 22:4; Jeremiah 4:11 7t. Jeremiah + Jeremiah 6:14 (van d. H.; omit בַּת Baer Gi), Lamentations 2:11; Lamentations 3:48; Lamentations 4:3,6,10; בְּתוּלַת בַּתעַֿמִּי Jeremiah 14:17.
g. designations of Israel are:עַםקָֿרוֺשׁ Deuteronomy 7:6 3t., קְדוֺשִׁים׳ע Daniel 8:24, (ה)קֹדֶשׁ׳ע Isaiah 62:12; Isaiah 63:18; Daniel 12:7; סְגֻלָּה׳ע Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18.
h. of foreign (non-Israel) peoples: ׳ענָכְרִי Exodus 21:8 (E), אַחֵר׳ע Deuteronomy 28:32, and especially from language, עִמְקֵי שָׂפָה׳ע Ezekiel 3:5 compare Ezekiel 3:6, כִּלְשׁוֺן עַם וָעָם Nehemiah 13:24 compare Esther 1:22 (twice in verse); Esther 3:12, לֹעֵג׳ע Psalm 114:1.
i. עַםעֶבְרָתִי Isaiah 10:6, חֶרְמִי׳ע Isaiah 34:11, מִֿבְחָרָיו׳ע Daniel 11:15, עַמֵּיתּוֺעֵבוֺת הָאֵלֶּה Ezra 9:14; לֹא עַם בִּינוֺת Isaiah 27:11. — For עַםעֿוֺלָם Isaiah 44:7 read (אֹתִיּוֺת) (מִי הִשְׁמִי)עַ מֵעוֺלָם Oort Du Kit Che Hpt compare Perles Anal. 40,64.
II. [עַם] noun [masculine] kinsman ** later development of I. עַם RS K 58; 2nd ed. 72. (on father's side) (Arabic paternal uncle, etc., see I. עמם; compare perhaps Tel Amarna ammu, kinsmen (?); on Nabataean עם ancestor compare Lzb151,499; see also especially Nes Eg 187, ZAW xvi (1896), 322f. Krenkel ib. viii (1888), 280-84); — suffix עַמִּי in בֶּןעַֿמִּי (q. v.), and proper name following; elsewhere plural suffix עַמֶּיךָ Numbers 27:13; Numbers 31:2 ( Leviticus 19:16 read עַמְּךָᵐ5 ⅏), + (possibly) עֲמָָמֶיךָ Judges 5:14; עַמָּיו Genesis 25:8 15t., עַמֶּיהָ Genesis 17:14 3t.; read עַמֶּי (for ᵑ0עַמִּי, I. עַם; compare Krenkel l.c. 281) Genesis 49:29 and perhaps Judges 14:3 (compare Leviticus 21:14); according to Buhl Kit also 2 Kings 4:13; — father's kinsmen: וַיֵּאָסֵף אֶלעַֿמָּיו Genesis 25:8 (of joining kinsmen in Sh®°ôl), so Genesis 25:17; Genesis 35:29; Genesis 49:33; Numbers 20:24; Deuteronomy 32:50, compare Genesis 49:29 (see above), Numbers 27:13; Numbers 31:2; Deuteronomy 32:50 (all P); וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ מֵעַמֶּיהָ Genesis 17:4 (severed from living kinsmen), so Leviticus 7:20,21,23,27; Leviticus 19:8; Leviticus 23:29; Numbers 9:13, מִקֶּרֶב עַמֶּיהָ Exodus 31:14, compare Exodus 30:33,38; Leviticus 17:9 (all PH); מֵעַמָּיו יִקַּח אִשָּׁה Leviticus 21:14 (H), and perhaps Judges 14:3 (simile I. עַם: [םָ֯, הָּ֯] מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֺ Leviticus 17:4,10; Leviticus 18:29+); other combinations Judges 5:14 (si vera lectio read perhaps בְּעַמֶּ֑ךָ, see I. עַם 2 d ), Leviticus 21:1,4,15 (H), Ezekiel 18:18 and (perhaps) 2 Kings 4:13. — בֶּןעַֿמִּי perhaps = son of my kinsman; on proper name with עַם see Gray Prop. N. 41ff.
עַם noun masculine Ezra 6:12 people (see Biblical Hebrew I. עמם, עַם); — ׳ע absolute Daniel 2:44; Daniel 3:29; Ezra 6:12, construct Daniel 7:27; emphatic עַמָּה Ezra 5:12, עַמָּא Ezra 7:13,16,25; plural emphatic עַמֲמַיָּא (K§§ 15d); 55,5 a)) Daniel 3:4,7 (twice in verse); Daniel 3:31; Daniel 5:19; Daniel 6:26; Daniel 7:14.
עַם (with conjunctive accents) and עָם (with distinctives, or with the art.) with suff. עַמִּי, comm. (but rarely f. Exodus 5:16; Judges 18:7 ), a people, so called from their being collected together, see the root עָמַם No. 1 (Arab. عَامَّةُ the common people). It is very often used of Israel, as being the people of God, עַם יְהֹוָה Exodus 15:13; Deuteronomy 32:36 עַם קָדוֹשׁ the holy people, Deuteronomy 7:6 עַם נַחֲלָה the people peculiarly belonging to God, Deuteronomy 4:20, etc.; and in opposition to גּוֹיִם (see גּוֹי ); but the pl. עַמִּים Isaiah 8:9 Psal. 33:10, and עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ Deuteronomy 28:10, etc., is used of all peoples. Specially it is used
(1) of single races or tribes, e.g. עַם זְבֻלוּן Judges 5:18 pl. often of the tribes of Israel (comp. the δήμοι of the Athenians), Genesis 49:10; Deuteronomy 32:8, 33:3, 19 Deuteronomy 33:19; Isaiah 3:13; Hosea 10:14; Psalms 47:2, 10 Ps4 7:10and even used of the race or family of any one, especially in the plural עַמֵּי פ׳ the kindred, relatives of any one, i.q. אַנְשֵׁי פ׳ (see אִישׁ No. 1, ) Leviticus 21:1, Leviticus 21:4, 19:16. נֶאֱסַף אֶל עַמָּיו to be gathered to one’s people, i.q. elsewhere is called, to be gathered to one’s fathers (see אָסַף Niphal). (Hence has arisen its use in the singular of single relatives; whence Arab. عَمُّ an uncle, and the pr.n. עַמִּיאֵל kinsman of God, אֱלִיעָם to whom God is kinsman.) Poet. used of any peculiar race of men, as עַם עָנִי the afflicted people, Psalms 18:28 comp. גּוֹי צַדִּיק just men, Genesis 20:4.
(2) Opp. to princes, leaders, or the king; it denotes the citizens, the common people (compare λαός opp. to leaders, Il. ii. 365; xiii. 108; xxiv. 28), 1 Kings 12:16; 2 Kings 11:17, 23:21 Ezekiel 7:27 soldiers, Judges 5:2 hence, followed by a genit. the companions, or servants of a leader or lord; i.q. אֲנָשָׁיו (see אִישׁ No. 1, ); feine Leute. Song of Solomon 6:12, מַרְכְּבוֹת עַמִּי נָדִיב “the chariot of the companions of the prince;” die Wagen des fürftlichen Gefolges: (־ִי being, I consider, in this place not a suffix, but paragogic, and a mark of the constr. state). Ecclesiastes 4:16 also used of the servants of a private master, 1 Kings 19:21; 2 Kings 4:41. Elsewhere
(3) when an individual speaks, my people is the people to which I belong; Isaiah 53:8 [?]; Ruth 1:16 whence בְּנֵי עַמִּי the sons of my people; i.e. my countrymen, Genesis 23:11 poet. בַּת עַמִּי id. (see בַּת No. 5 ), Lamentations 2:11, 3:14 4:3,. With the art. it is used
(4) also of the whole human race, i.q. הָאָדָם Isaiah 40:7, 42:5 44:7 and to this may also be referred the words spoken in bitter irony, Job 12:2, אָמְנָם כִּי אַתֶּם עָם “surely ye are the whole human race, and with you wisdom will die,” (ihr fehd alle Welt, und habt aller Welt Weisheit).
(5) Poet. used of a troop, herd of animals, Proverbs 30:25, 26 Proverbs 30:26; Psalms 74:14 compare גּוֹי No. 2; also Gr. δῆμος.
Plur. עַמִּים constr. עַמֵּי (more rarely in the Aramean manner עֲמָמִים constr. עַמְמֵי Nehemiah 9:22, 24 Judges 5:14 ); peoples, nations; also the tribes of Israel; see above No. 1, the kindred, relatives of any one; see above No. 2.
עַם Chald. id. Plur. עַמְמִין, emph. עַמְמַיָּא Daniel 3:4,, 31 5:19 6:26 7:14. Syriac ܥܰܘܠܐܳ; plur. ܥܰܡ̈ܡ̱ܐܶ.