the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1411 - δύναμις
- strength power, ability
- inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth
- power for performing miracles
- moral power and excellence of soul
- the power and influence which belong to riches and wealth
- power and resources arising from numbers
- power consisting in or resting upon armies, forces, hosts
δύνᾰμις [ ῠ], ἡ,
gen. εως, Ion. ιος, Ion. dat. δυνάμι: (δύναμαι): —
1. power, might, in Hom., esp. of bodily strength, εἴ μοι δ. γε παρείη Od. 2.62, cf. Il. 8.294; οἵη ἐμὴ δ. καὶ χεῖρες Od. 20.237; ἡ δ. τῶν νέων Antipho 4.3.2, etc.: generally, strength, power, ability to do anything, πὰρ δύναμιν beyond one's strength, Il. 13.787; in Prose, παρὰ δ. τολμηταί Th. 1.70, etc.; ὑπὲρ δ. D. 18.193; opp. κατὰ δ. as far as lies in one, Hdt. 3.142, etc. (κὰδ δ. Hes. Op. 336); εἰς δύναμιν Cratin. 172, Pl. R. 458e, etc.; πρὸς τὴν δ. Id. Phdr. 231a.
2. outward power, influence, authority, A. Pers. 174 (anap.), Ag. 779 (lyr.); καταπαύσαντα τὴν Κύρου δ. Hdt. 1.90; δυνάμει προὔχοντες Th. 7.21, etc.; ἐν δ. εἶναι, γενέσθαι, X. HG 4.4.5, D. 13.29.
3. force for war, forces, δ. ἀνδρῶν Hdt. 5.100, cf. Pl. Mx. 240d, Plb. 1.41.2, LXX Genesis 21:22, OGI 139.8 (ii B. C.); μετὰ δυνάμεων ἱκανῶν Wilcken Chr. 10 (ii B. C.), etc.; δ. καὶ πεζὴ καὶ ἱππικὴ καὶ ναυτική X. An. 1.3.12; πέντε δυνάμεσι πεφρουρημένον, of the five projecting rows of sarissae in the phalanx, Ascl. Tact. 5.2,al.
4. a power, quantity, χρημάτων δ. Hdt. 7.9. ά.
5. means, κατὰ δύναμιν Arist. EE 1243b12; opp. παρὰ δ., 2 Corinthians 8:3; κατὰ δ. τῶν ὑπαρχόντων BGU 1051.17 (Aug.).
1.power, faculty, capacity, αἱ ἀμφὶ τὸ σῶμα δ. Hp. VM 14; αἱ τοῦ σώματος δυνάμεις Pl. Tht. 185e; ἡ τῆς ὄψεως δ. Id. R. 532a; ἡ τῶν λεγόντων δ. D. 22.11: c. gen. rei, capacity for, τῶν ἔργων Arist. Pol. 1309a35; τοῦ λέγειν Id. Rh. 1362b22; τοῦ λόγου, τῶν λόγων, Men. 578, Alex. 94; δ. στρατηγική Plb. 1.84.6; δ. ἐν πραγματείᾳ Id. 2.56.5; δ. συνθετική D.H. Comp. 2: abs., any natural capacity or faculty, that may be improved and may be used for good or ill, Arist. Top. 126a37, cf. MM 1183b28.
2. elementary force, such as heat, cold, etc., Hp. VM 16, Arist. PA 646a14; ἡ τοῦ θερμοῦ δ. ib. 650a5; θερμαντικὴ δ. Epicur. Fr. 60, cf. Polystr. p.23 W. property, quality, ἰδίην δύναμιν καὶ φύσιν ἔχειν Hp. VM 13, cf. Nat.Hom. 5, Vict. 1.10; esp. of the natural properties of plants, etc., αἱ δ. τῶν φυομένων, τῶν σπερμάτων, X. Cyr. 8.8.14, Thphr. HP 8.11.1; productive power, τῆς γῆς Id. Oec. 16.4; μετάλλων Id. Vect. 4.1: generally, function, faculty, δύναμις φυσική, ζωική, ψυχική, Gal. 10.635; περὶ φυσικῶν δ., title of work by Galen. in pl., agencies, ὑπάρχειν ἐν τῇ φύσει τὰς τοιαύτας δυνάμεις (sc. the gods) Polystr.p.10 W. function, meaning, of part in whole, Id. p.17 W. in Music, function, value, of a note in the scale, δ. ἐστι τάξις φθόγγου ἐν συστήματι Cleonid. Harm. 14, cf. Aristox. Harm. p.69M.; μέση κατὰ δύναμιν, opp. κατὰ θέσιν, Ptol. Harm. 2.5.
3. faculty, art, or craft, Pl. R. 532d, Arist. Metaph. 1018a30, EN 1094a10, Arr. Epict. 1.1.1; δ. σκεπτική the doctrine of the Sceptics, S.E. M. 7.1.
4. a medicine, Timostr. 7, etc.; δ. ἁπλαῖ Hp. Decent. 9, Aret. CD 1.4, etc.; δ. πολυφάρμακοι Plu. 2.403c, Gal. 13.365: in pl., collection of formulae or prescriptions, Orib. 10.33. action of medicines, περὶ τῆς ἁπλῶν φαρμάκων δ., title of work by Galen; also, potency, δυνάμει θερμά, ψυχρά, Id. 1.672, al.
5. magically potent substance or object, PMag.Leid.V. 8.12: in pl., magical powers, Hld. 4.7.
1. force or meaning of a word, Lys. 10.7, Pl. Cra. 394b, Diog.Oen. 12, Phld. Sign. 31, etc. phonetic value of sounds or letters, Plb. 10.47.8, D.H. Comp. 12, Luc. Jud.Voc. 5, etc.
2. worth or value of money, Th. 6.46, 2.97, Plu. Lyc. 9, Sol. 15. capability of existing or acting, potentiality, opp. actuality (ἐνέργεια), Arist. Metaph. 1047b31, 1051a5, etc.: hence δυνάμει as Adv., virtually, ὕστερον ὂν τῇ τάξει, πρότερον τῇ δυνάμει.. ἐστί D. 3.15; opp. ἐνεργείᾳ, Arist. APo. 86a28, al.; opp. ἐντελεχείᾳ, Id. Ph. 193b8, al. Math., power, κατὰ μεταφορὰν ἡ ἐν γεωμετρίᾳ λέγεται δ. Id. Metaph. 1019b33; usu.
1.second power, square, κατὰ δύναμιν in square, Pl. Ti. 54b, cf. Theol.Ar. 11, etc.: chiefly in dat., [ εὐθεῖα] δυνάμει ἴση a line the square on which is equal to an area, ἡ BA ἐλάσσων ἐστὶν ἢ διπλασίων δυνάμει τῆς AK the square on BA is less than double of the square on AK, Archim. Sph.Cyl. 2.9: εὐθεῖαι δ. σύμμετροι commensurable in square, Euc. 10 Def. 2; ἡ δυνάμει δεκάς the series 12 + 22... + 102, Theol.Ar. 64. square number, Pl. Ti. 32a. square of an unknown quantity (x2), Dioph. Def. 2, al.
2. square root of a number which is not a perfect square, surd, opp. μῆκος, Pl. Tht. 147d.
3. product of two numbers, ἡ ἀμφοῖν (sc. τριάδος καὶ δυάδος) δ. ἑξάς Ph. 1.3, cf. Iamb. in Nic. p.108 P.; δυνάμει in product, Hero Metr. 1.15, Theol.Ar. 33. concrete, powers, esp. of divine beings, αἱ δ. τῶν οὐρανῶν LXX Isaiah 34:4, cf. 1 Peter 3:22, al., Ph. 1.587, Corp.Herm. 1.26, Porph. Abst. 2.34: sg., Acts 8:10, PMag.Par. 1.1275; πολυώνυμος δ., of God, Secund. Sent. 3. manifestation of divine power, miracle, Matthew 11:21, al., Buresch Aus Lydien 113, etc.
δύναμις, δυνάμεως, ἡ; (from Homer down); the Sept. for חַיִל, גְּבוּרָה, עֹז, כֹּחַ, צָבָא (an army, a host); strength, ability, power;
a. universally, "inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth": Luke 1:17; Acts 4:7; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 12:9 (ἡ δύναμις ἐν ἀσθένεια τελεῖται (R G τελειοῦται));
b. specifically, the power of performing miracles: Acts 6:8; πᾶσα δύναμις, every kind of power of working miracles (with the addition of καί σημείοις καί τέρασι), 2 Thessalonians 2:9; plural: (Matthew 13:54; Matthew 14:2; Mark 6:14); 1 Corinthians 12:28; Galatians 3:5; ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, 1 Corinthians 12:10; by metonymy, of the cause for the effect, a mighty work (cf. Winers Grammar, 32; Trench, § xci.): δύναμιν ποιεῖν, Mark 6:5; Mark 9:39; so in the plural, Mark 6:2 Luke 19:37; joined with σημεῖα, Acts 8:13; with σημεῖα καί τέρατα, Acts 2:22; 2 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 2:4 (?); ποιεῖν δυνάμεις, Matthew 7:22; (
c. moral power and excellence of soul: 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 4:7; Ephesians 3:16; Colossians 1:11.
d. the power and influence which belong to riches; (pecuniary ability), wealth: τοῦ στρήνους, 'riches ministering to luxury' (Grotius), Revelation 18:3; κατά δύναμιν καί ὑπέρ (others, δύναμιν, according to their means, yea, beyond their means, 2 Corinthians 8:3; (in this sense, for חַיִל, the Sept. Deuteronomy 8:17; Ruth 4:11; not infrequent Greek writings, as Xenophon, Cyril 8, 4, 34; an. 7, 7, 21 (36)).
e. power and resources arising from numbers: Revelation 3:8.
f. power consisting in or resting upon armies, forces, hosts, (so, both in singular and in plural, often in Greek writings from Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, on; in the Sept. and in Apocrypha); hence, δυνάμεις τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, the host of heaven, Hebraistically the stars: Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:26; and δυνάμεις ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, Mark 13:25; equivalent to הַשָּׁמַיִם צְבָא, 2 Kings 17:16; 2 Kings 23:4; Isaiah 34:4; Jeremiah 8:2; Daniel 8:10, etc. (cf. σαβαώθ).
g. Like the Latinvis andpotestas, equivalent to the (force i. e.) meaning of a word or expression: 1 Corinthians 14:11; (Plato, Crat., p. 394 h.; Polybius 20, 9, 11; Dionysius Halicarnassus 1, 68; Dio Cuss. 55, 3; others). [SYNONYMS: βία, δύναμις, ἐνέργεια, ἐξουσία, ἰσχύς, κράτος βία, force, effective, often oppressive power, exhibiting itself in single deeds of violence; δύναμις, power, natural ability, general and inherent; ἐνέργεια, working, power in exercise, operative power; ἐξουσία, primarily liberty of action; then, authority — either as delegated power, or as unrestrained, arbitrary power; ἰσχύς, strength, power (especially physical) as an endowment κράτος, might, relative and manifested power — in the N. T. chiefly of God; τῷ κράτει τῆς ἰσχύος, Ephesians 6:10, τήν ἐνέργειαν τῆς δυναμμεως, Ephesians 3:7, τήν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ κράτους τῆς ἰσχύος, Ephesians 1:19. Cf. Schmidt, chapter 148; Lightfoot on Colossians 1:16; Meyer on Ephesians 1:19.]
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δύναμις , -εως , ἡ
[in LXX for H2428, H6635, H1369, H5797, etc.; 35 words in all;]
power, might, strength; relatively, ability, power to perform: Matthew 25:15, Acts 3:12, Hebrews 11:11; κατὰ δ ., 2 Corinthians 8:3; παρὰ δ ., ib.; ὑπὲρ δ ., 2 Corinthians 1:8; of pecuniary ability, 2 Corinthians 8:3, Revelation 18:3; absol., power, might: Luke 24:49, Acts 1:8; opp. to ἀσθένεια , 1 Corinthians 15:43; ἡ δ . τ . ἁμαρτίας , 1 Corinthians 15:56; of power in action, Romans 1:16; Romans 1:20, 1 Corinthians 1:18, Philippians 3:10, al.; ἡ δ . τ . θεοῦ , Matthew 22:29, Mark 12:24, Romans 1:20, al.; opp. to μόρφωσις , 2 Timothy 3:5; in doxologies, Revelation 4:11; Revelation 7:12, al.; ἐν δ ., Mark 9:1, Luke 4:36, Romans 1:4, al.; of the power of performing miracles, Acts 6:8, 2 Thessalonians 2:9; pl., Matthew 13:54, Mark 6:14, Galatians 3:5, al.; of the force or meaning of a word (Plat., al.), 1 Corinthians 14:11. By meton., of persons or things;
(a) of God, Matthew 26:64, Mark 14:62 (Dalman, Words, 200 ff.);
(b) of angels, Romans 8:38, Ephesians 1:21, 1 Peter 3:22;
(c) of armies, pl. [LXX for H6635], metaph., of the stars, Matthew 24:29, Mark 13:25, Luke 21:26;
(d) of that WH. manifests God's power: Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:24; τ . εὐαγγέλιον , Romans 1:16; ἡ , δ . τ . κυρίου , 1 Corinthians 5:4;
(e) of mighty works (Tr., Syn., § xci), δ . ποιεῖν , Mark 6:5; Mark 9:39; pl., Matthew 7:22, Mark 6:2, Luke 10:13, al.; σημεῖα κ . δ ., Acts 8:13; δ . κ . τέρατα κ . σημεῖα , Acts 2:22, 2 Corinthians 12:12.
SYN.: βία G970, ἐνέργεια G1753, ἐξουσία G1849, ἰσχύς G2479, κράτος G2904 (v. Tr., l.c.; Cremer, 218, 236; DB, i, 616; iv, 29; DCG, i, 607; ii, 188).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the more ordinary meanings of δύναμις we may cite such passages as P. Oxy II. 292.5 (c. A.D. 25) (= Selections, p. 37) διὸ παρακαλῶ σε μετὰ πάσης δυνάμεως ἔχειν αὐτὸν συνεσταμένον, ";wherefore I beg you with all my power to hold him as one recommended to you,"; ib. VI. 899.8 (A.D. 200) ἐς ὅσον μὲν οὖν δύναμίς μοι ὑπῆρχεν, ";as long as I had the power,"; ib. 940.4 (v/A.D.) τὴν τῶν ἄλλων μερίδων δύναμιν, ";the capacity of the other holdings"; (Edd.), and, for a Christian example, ib. VIII. 1150.5 (a prayer—vi/A.D.) ὁ θεὸς. . . δεῖξον τὴν δύναμ [ίν σου. In P Petr II. 3(b ).2 we have παρὰ δύναμιν, and κατὰ δύναμιν, ";according to one’s means,"; as in 2 Corinthians 8:3, is very common, especially in marriage contracts, as when in BGU IV. 1050.14 (time of Augustus) a certain Dionysius undertakes τρέφειν καὶ ἱματίζειν τὴν Ἰσιδώραν ὡς γυναῖκα γα [μετὴν ] κατὰ δύναμιν. In ib. 1051.17 (same date) we have the fuller phrase κατὰ δύναμιν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων, and in ib. III. 717.19 (A.D. 149) κ ]ατὰ δύναμιν [το ]ῦ βί [ου. P Oxy II. 282.8 (A.D. 30–5) shows the contrasting phrase, again as in 2 Corinthians 8:3, when a man makes a complaint against his wife, notwithstanding the fact that he had provided for her in a manner ";beyond his means";—ἐ ]γὼ μὲν οὖν ἐπεχορήγησα αὐτῇ τὰ ἑξῆς καὶ ὑπὲρ δύναμιν. The combination of Matthew 6:13 LWω is found in P Leid Wxiii. 29 (ii/iii A.D.) σὺ γὰρ ἔδωκας (ἡλίῳ) τὴν δόξαν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν ἅπασαν. Ramsay (Recent Discovery, p. 118) has drawn pointed attention to the technical use of δύναμις ";in the language of religion, superstition, and magic,"; and describes it as ";one of the most common and characteristic terms in the language of pagan devotion. ‘Power’ was what the devotees respected and worshipped; any exhibition of ‘power’ must have its cause in something that was divine."; He quotes by way of illustration from Lydia a dedication to the goddess, ε (ὐ)λογῶν σου τὰς δυνάμις (Buresch, Aus Lydien, p. 113), and also (p. 117), in illustration of Acts 8:10, another Lydian inscription, ";There is one God in the heavens, great Mên the Heavenly, the great power of the ever-living God";—μεγάλη δύναμις τοῦ ἀθανάτου θεοῦ (Keil and Premerstein, II Reise in Lydien, p. 110). Another parallel to the same passage in Acts is cited by Deissmann (BS, p. 336) from the great Paris magical papyrus, 1275 ff. (Wessely i. 76) ἐπικαλοῦμαί σε τὴν μεγίστην δύναμιν τὴν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ (ἄλλοι : τὴν ἐν τῇ ἄρκτῳ) ὑπὸ κυρίου θεοῦ τεταγμένην. In Vettius Valens δύναμις is used as a synonym for ἀγωγή (p. 172.25 etc.). For ";forces"; i.e. ";troops,"; cf. OGIS 139.8 (B.C. 146–16) αἱ ἀκολουθοῦσαι δυνάμεις. MGr has ἡ δύναμι (decl. like nouns in -η).
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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