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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1849 - ἐξουσία
- power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases
- leave or permission
- physical and mental power
- the ability or strength with which one is endued, which he either possesses or exercises
- the power of authority (influence) and of right (privilege)
- the power of rule or government (the power of him whose will and commands must be submitted to by others and obeyed)
- authority over mankind
- the power of judicial decisions
- of authority to manage domestic affairs
- a thing subject to authority or rule 4c
- one who possesses authority 4c
- a ruler, a human magistrate 4c
- the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates
- a sign of the husband's authority over his wife
- the veil with which propriety required a women to cover herself
- the sign of regal authority, a crown
1. power, authority to do a thing, c. inf., χαίρειν καὶ νοσεῖν ἐ. πάρεστι S. Fr. 88.11 codd.; αὐτῷ ἐ. ἦν σαφῶς εἰδέναι Antipho 1.6, cf. Th. 7.12; ἐξουσίαν ὁ νόμος δέδωκε permission to do.., Pl. Smp. 182e; ἐ. ποιεῖν Id. Cri. 51d, etc.; ἐ. λαβεῖν And. 2.28, X. Mem. 2.6.24, etc.; λαβὼν ἐ. ὥστε.. Isoc. 3.45; ἐπὶ τῇ τῆς εἰρήνης ἐ. with the freedom permitted by peace, D. 18.44: c. gen. objecti, ἐ. ἔχειν θανάτου power of life and death, Poll. 8.86; πρᾶγμα οὗ τὴν ἐ. ἔχουσιν ἄλλοι control over.., Diog.Oen. 57; ἐ. τινός power over, licence in a thing, τοῦ λέγειν Pl. Grg. 461e; ἐν μεγάλῃ ἐ. τοῦ ἀδικεῖν ib. 526a, cf. R. 554c; κατὰ τὴν οὐκ ἐ. τῆς ἀγωνίσεως from want of qualification for.., Th. 5.50: abs., power, authority, E. Fr. 784.
2. abuse of authority, licence, arrogance, ὕβρις καὶ ἐ. Th. 1.38, cf. 3.45, D. 19.200; ἡ ἄγαν ἐ. ib.272; ἄμετρος ἐ. OGI 669.51 (i A.D.).
3. Lit. Crit., ἐ. ποιητική poetic licence, Str. 1.2.17, Jul. Or. 1.10b.
1. office, magistracy, ἀρχαὶ καὶ ἐ. Pl. Alc. 1.135b; οἱ ἐν ταῖς ἐ. Arist. EN 1095b21; οἱ ἐν ἐ. ὄντες Id. Rh. 1384a1; οἱ ἐπ' ἐξουσιῶν LXX Daniel 3:2; ἡ ὑπατικὴ ἐ. the consulate, D.S. 14.113, etc.; also ἡ ὕπατος ἐ. D.H. 7.1; ἡ ταμιευτικὴ ἐ. the quaestorship, Id. 8.77; δημαρχικὴ ἐ., v. δημαρχικός; ἡ τοῦ θαλάμου ἐ., in the Roman empire, lordship of the bedchamber, Hdn. 1.12.3.
2. concrete, body of magistrates, D.H. 11.32; αἱ ἐ. (as we say) the authorities, Luke 12:11,al., Plu. Phil. 17. ἡ ἐ. as an honorary title, POxy. 1103 (iv A.D.), etc.
III abundance of means, resources, ἐξουσίας ἐπίδειξις Th. 6.31; πλοῦτος καὶ ἐ. Id. 1.123, cf. D. 21.138; ἐνδεεστέρως ἢ πρὸς τὴν ἐ. Th. 4.39; τῶν ἀναγκαίων ἐ. Pl. Lg. 828d; excessive wealth, opp. οὐσία, Com.Adesp. 25a.5D. pomp, Plu. Aem. 34.
ἐξουσία, ἐξουσίας, ἡ (from ἔξεστι, ἐξόν, which see), from Euripides, Xenophon, Plato down; the Sept. for מֶמְשָׁלָה and Chaldean שָׁלְטָן; power.
1. power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases; leave or permission: 1 Corinthians 9:12, 18; ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν, 2 Thessalonians 3:9; with an infinitive added indicating the thing to be done, John 10:18; 1 Corinthians 9:4; Hebrews 13:10 (WH brackets ἐξουσία); followed by an infinitive with τοῦ, 1 Corinthians 9:6 (L T Tr WH omit τοῦ); with a genitive of the thing or the person with regard to which one has the power to decide: Romans 9:21 (where an explanatory infinitive is added (Buttmann, 260 (224))); 1 Corinthians 9:12; ἐπί τό ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς, permission to use the tree of life, Revelation 22:14 (see ἐπί, C. I. 2 e.); ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν περί τοῦ ἰδίου θελήματος (opposed to ἀνάγκην ἔχειν (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 3 N. 5)), 1 Corinthians 7:37; ἐν τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐξουσία (appointed, see τίθημι, 1 a. sub at the end) according to his own choice, Acts 1:7; ἐν τῇ σῇ ἐξουσία ὑπῆρχεν, i. e. at thy free disposal, Acts 5:4; used of liberty under the gospel, as opposed to the yoke of the Mosaic law, 1 Corinthians 8:9.
2. "physical and mental power; the ability or strength with which one is endued, which he either possesses or exercises": Matthew 9:8; Acts 8:19; Revelation 9:3, 19; Revelation 13:2, 4; Revelation 18:1; followed by an infinitive of the thing to be done, Mark 3:15; Luke 12:5; John 1:12; Revelation 9:10; Revelation 11:6; Revelation 13:5; followed by τοῦ with the infinitive Luke 10:19; αὕτη ἐστιν ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους, this is the power that darkness exerts, Luke 22:53; ποιεῖν ἐξουσίαν to exert power, give exhibitions of power, Revelation 13:12; ἐν ἐξουσία εἶναι, to be possessed of power and influence, Luke 4:32; also ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν (both expressions refer to the ability and weight which Jesus exhibited in his teaching) Matthew 7:29; (Mark 1:22); κατ' ἐξουσίαν powerfully, Mark 1:27; also ἐν ἐξουσία, Luke 4:36.
3. the power of authority (influence) and of right: Matthew 21:23; Mark 11:28; Luke 20:2; spoken of the authority of an apostle, 2 Corinthians 10:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10; of the divine authority granted to Jesus as Messiah, with the infinitive of the thing to be done, Matthew 9:6; Mark 2:10; Luke 5:24; John 5:27; ἐν ποίᾳ ἐξουσία; clothed in what authority (i. e. thine own or God's?), Matthew 21:23, 24, 27; Mark 11:28, 29, 33; Luke 20:2, 8; delegated authority (German Vollmacht, authorization): παρά τίνος, with the genitive of the person by whom the authority is given, or received, Acts 9:14; Acts 26:10, 12 (R G).
4. the power of rule or government (the power of him whose will and commands must be submitted to by others and obeyed (generally translated authority));
a. universally: Matthew 28:18; Jude 1:25; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 17:13; λαμβάνειν, ἐξουσίαν ὡς βασιλεύς, Revelation 17:12; εἰμί ὑπό ἐξουσίαν, I am under authority, Matthew 8:9; with τασσόμενος added, (Matthew 8:9 L WH brackets); Luke 7:8; ἐξουσία τίνος, the genitive of the object, authority (to be exercised) over, as τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν ἀκαθάρτων, Mark 6:7; with ὥστε ἐκβάλλειν αὐτά added, Matthew 10:1; ἐξουσίαν πάσης σαρκός, authority over all mankind, John 17:2 (πάσης σαρκός κυρειαν, Bel and the Dragon, verse 5); (the genitive of the subject, τοῦ Σατανᾶ, Acts 26:18); ἐπί τινα, power over one, so as to be able to subdue, drive out, destroy, Revelation 6:8; ἐπί τά δαιμόνια, Luke 9:1; or to hold submissive to one's will, Revelation 13:7; ἐπί τάς πληγάς, the power to inflict plagues and to put an end to them, Revelation 16:9; ἐπί τῶν ἐθνῶν, over the heathen nations, Revelation 2:26; ἐπί τίνος, to destroy one, Revelation 20:6; ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐπί τοῦ πυρός, to preside, have control, over fire, to hold it subject to his will, Revelation 14:18; ἐπί τῶν ὑδάτων, Revelation 11:6; ἐπάνω τίνος ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, to be ruler over a thing, Luke 19:17.
b. specifically, α. of the power of judicial decision; ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with an infinitive of the thing decided: σταυρῶσαι and ἀπολῦσαι τινα, John 19:10; followed by κατά τίνος, the power of deciding against one, John 19:11; παραδοῦναι τινα ... τῇ ἐξουσία τοῦ ἡγεμόνος, Luke 20:20. β. of authority to manage domestic affairs: Mark 13:34.
c. metonymically, α. a thing subject to authority or rule: Luke 4:6; jurisdiction: ἐκ τῆς ἐξουσίας ἡδωρου ἐστιν, Luke 23:7 (1 Macc. 6:11 (cf. Psalm 113:2
d. a sign of the husband's authority over his wife, i. e. the veil with which propriety required a woman to cover herself, 1 Corinthians 11:10 (as βασιλεία is used by Diodorus 1, 47 for the sign of regal power, i. e. a crown). (Synonym: see δύναμις, at the end. On the infinitive after ἐξουσία, and ἐξουσία ἔχειν cf. Buttmann, 260 (223f).)
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ἐξουσία , -ας , ἡ
(< ἐξεστι ),
1. prop., liberty or power to act, freedom to exercise the inward force or faculty expressed by δύναμις (q.v.): 1 Corinthians 9:12; ἐ . ἔχειν , 2 Thessalonians 3:9; id. seq. inf., John 10:18, 1 Corinthians 9:4-5; c. gen. obj., Romans 9:21; seq. ἐπί , c. acc, Revelation 22:14; περί , 1 Corinthians 7:37.
2. Later (cf. Milligan, Th., 114; MM, Exp., xiv), of the power of right, authority: Matthew 21:23, Mark 11:28, Luke 20:2; of Messianic authority, Matthew 9:6, Mark 2:10, al.; of apostolic authority, 2 Corinthians 10:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10; of the authority of government: Matthew 8:9; Matthew 28:18, Judges 1:25, Re:, al.; esp. of judicial authority, Luke 20:20, John 19:10-11
(a) jurisdiction: Luke 23:7 (cf. 1 Maccabees 6:11, Isaiah 39:2);
(b) a ruler or magistrate: Romans 13:1-3; p1., Luke 12:11, Romans 13:1, Titus 3:1;
(c) of supramundane powers (syn. with ἀρχή , δύναμις , θρόνος , κυριότης ): 1 Corinthians 15:24, Ephesians 1:21; Ephesians 3:10, Colossians 2:10, 1 Peter 3:22, al. (Cremer, 236).
SYN.: see δύναμις G1411.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the primary meaning of this important word ";power of choice,"; ";liberty of action,"; cf. BGU IV. 1158.13 (B.C. 9), where it is joined with ἐγλογή —μένε (ιν) περὶ ε ̣̈̀ατ (ὴν) Κορν (ηλίαν) τὴν ἐξουσία (ν) καὶ ἐγλογὴ (ν) ἑαυτὸν πράσσειν τὸ κεφά [λ ]αιο (ν). Hence the common usage in wills, contracts, and other legal documents, to denote the ";claim,"; or ";right,"; or ";control,"; one has over anything, e. g. P Oxy II. 272.13 (A.D. 66) ὁμολογ [ο ]ῦμεν ἔχειν σε ἐξουσί [αν σε ]αυτῆι τὴν ἀπ [αί ]τη [σ ]ιν ποιεῖσθαι παρὰ τοῦ Ἡρακλήου τῶν προκειμένων ἀργ (υρίου) (δραχμῶν), BGU I. 183.25 (A.D. 85) ἔχειν αὐτὴν τὴν ἐξουσίαν τῶν ἰδίων πάντων, P Tebt II. 319.21 (A.D. 248) ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν τῶν ἑαυτοῦ ὑπαρχόντων : see also Milligan ad 2 Thessalonians 3:9. For the definite idea of right given by law, see P Oxy II. 237vi. 17 (A.D. 186) ἀξιῶ τοῦ νόμου διδόντος μοι ἐξουσίαν κτλ. and ib. vii. 27, viii. 4 : cf. also ib. 259.18 (A.D. 23) where a man undertakes to produce a prisoner within a month—μὴ ἔχοντός μου ἐκξουσίαν (l. ἐξ —) χρόνον ἕτερον [κ ]τ ̣η ̣[σ ]εσθαι, ";as I have no power to obtain a further period of time."; In Syll 328.6 (B.C. 84) π ]ρὸς ἐμὲ ἦλθ [εν ἐ ]ν Ἀπαμηᾳ ἠρώτησέν τε [ὅπως ἂν ] ἐξουσίαν αὐ [τ ]ῷ [π ]οιήσω ἐπὶ τοῦ συν [βο ]υλίο [υ, where we seem at first to have the same construction as in Revelation 14:18, the editor understands the last words as = ";coram consilio."; The meaning ";power of rule,"; ";authority,"; appears in BGU IV. 1200.20 (B.C. 2) Ἡρακλείδης καὶ Διονύ [σιος. . .. . .] ἐξουσίαν ἔχοντες τῶν Ἀσκληπιάδου ἀνόμως ἀποδέδωκαν κτλ., P Ryl II. 81.8 (c. A.D. 104) τὴν γ ̣ὰρ ὅλου τοῦ πράγματος ἐξουσίαν τοῖς κατασ [π ]ορεῦσι ἐπεθέμην, P Giss I. 11.18 (A.D. 118) (= Chrest. I. p. 524) οὐκ ἀγνοεῖς ὅτι ἄλλας ὀκτὸ μυριάδες ἔχω πλο ̣ίων ὧν ἐξουσίαν ἔχω, and Wünsch AF 4.21 (iii/A.D.) ὁρκίζω σε τὸν θεὸν τὸν ἔχοντα τὴν ἐξουσίαν τῆς ὥρας ταύτης. For the general sense of exhibiting weight and authority, as in Mark 1:22, cf. P Fay 125.6 (ii/A.D.) ἀντιλαβὼν ἣν ἐξουσίαν ἔχεις, ";using all the influence you have"; (Edd.), and on the bearing of this meaning in the difficult 1 Corinthians 11:10, see Ramsay Cities, p. 202 ff., where it is shown that, in accordance with the Oriental view, ";a woman’s authority and dignity vanish along with the all-covering veil that she discards."; In P Par 63.176 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 34) we have ἕτερός τις ἐμ βαρυ [τέ ]ραι κείμενος ἐξουσίαι, ";any other persons in high office"; (Mahaffy), and for the reference of the word to civil magistracy or rule, as in Romans 13:1, see P Lond 1178.9 (A.D. 194) (= III. p. 215, Selections, p. 98) δημαρχικῆς ἐξουσίας, the tribunicia potestas of Claudius, and cf. P Oxy VI. 904.7 ff. (petition to a preses—v/A.D.) ὅθεν τὰς ἱκεσίας προσφέρω τῇ ὑμετέρᾳ ἐξουσίᾳ. . . ἵνα κἀγὼ τούτου τυχὼν εὐχαριστήσω ταῖς ἀκλεινεῖς (l. ἀκλινέσι) ἀκοαῖς τῆς ὑμετέρας ἐξουσίας, ";accordingly I make my entreaties to your highness . . in order that having gained my request I may bless the impartial ears of your highness"; (Edd.).
In an interesting note in his Poimandres, p. 48 n..3, Reitzenstein claims that in the NT, as in the Hermes dialogue, the idea of ";knowledge"; is mingled with that of ";power.";
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