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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3027 - יָד
1a) hand (of man)
1b) strength, power (figuratively)
1c) side (of land), part, portion (metaphorically) (figuratively)
1d) (various special, technical senses)
1d1) sign, monument
1d2) part, fractional part, share
1d3) time, repetition
1d4) axle-trees, axle
1d5) stays, support (for laver)
1d6) tenons (in tabernacle)
1d7) a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure)
1211) di (יד YD) AC: Throw CO: Hand AB: Thanks: The pictograph i is a picture of a hand, the d is a picture of door that allows movement in and out of the tent. Combined these mean "hand moves". The hand is the part of the body that enables man to perform many works. (eng: yard - with the addition of the r, a measurement equal to the length of the arm)
V) edi (ידה YDH) - I. Throw:[df: hdh]II. Praise:[Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Confess:In the sense of raising up the hands. KJV (117): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) praise, thank, confess, thanksgiving, cast, shoot, put - Strongs: H1911 (הָדָה), H3029 (יְדָה), H3034 (יָדָה)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
יָד const. יַד with suff. יָדִי, but יֶדְכֶם, יֶדְכֶן (for יַדְכֶם, יַדְכֶן), dual יָדַיִם const. יְדֵי. Plur. יָדוֹת; fem. (see however Ezekiel 2:9). [In Thes. this word is referred to the root יָדָה.]
(1) the human hand, once used of the feet of a lizard, as being like a human hand, Proverbs 30:28. (Syr. ܝܕܰ, Arab. يَدُ id., Eth. አዽ፡). The principal phrases in which the proper signification of hand is retained are the following:
(a) אֶת־פּ׳, יָדִי עִם “my hand (is) with some one;” i.e. I help him, I take his part. 1 Samuel 22:17; 2 Samuel 3:12; 2 Kings 15:19.
(b) יָדִי הָֽיְתָה בִּפְ׳ “my hand is upon some one,” i.e. against him (Genesis 16:12). I do violence and harm to him, Genesis 37:27; 1 Samuel 18:17, 21 1 Samuel 18:21, 24:13, 14 1 Samuel 24:14; Joshua 2:19. So יַד יְיָ הָֽיְתָה בְּ used of the hand of God in punishing and afflicting, Exodus 9:3; Deuteronomy 2:15; Judges 2:15; 1 Samuel 7:13, 12:15 rarely (in a good sense) aiding, favouring, 2 Chronicles 30:12; Ezra 9:2 to avoid the ambiguity of this medial phrase there is added לְרָעָה Judges 2:15. The following expressions are used only in a bad sense, נָתַן יָדוֹ בְּ (of God) Exodus 7:4 and יָצְֽאָה יַד יְיָ בְּ Ruth 1:13 in a good sense we find, Isaiah 25:10, תָּנוּהַ יַד יְיָ בָּהָר הַזֶּה “the hand of Jehovah shall rest on this mountain.”
(c) In either sense (but more often in a good one) is this phrase used. הָֽיְתָה יַד יְיָ עַל פּ׳ “the hand of God is upon some one,” i.e. as bringing aid. Ezra 7:6, כְּיַד יְיָ אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו “as the hand of Jehovah his God (was) upon him.” Verse 28 Ezra 7:28, 8:18, 31 Ezra 8:31. Twice it is expressly said, יַד אֱלֹהִים הַטּוֹבָה Ezra 7:9; Nehemiah 2:8 also there is added לִטוֹבָה Ezra 8:22. Also in a good sense there is said, Isaiah 1:25, אָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ, but in a bad, Amos 1:8, הֲשִׁיבֹתִי יָדִי עַל עֶקְרוֹן “I will turn my hand upon (against) Ekron;” and so followed by אֶל (for עַל) Ezekiel 13:9 and in New Test. Acts 13:11, χεὶρ Κυρίου ἐπί σε, καὶ ἔσῃ τυφλός κ. τ. λ.
(d) The phrase, the hand of God is upon (עַל) any one, is also used in this sense, the Spirit of God is upon a prophet, begins to move him, inasmuch as the Spirit of God was communicated to men with laying on a hand. Ezekiel 1:3, 3:14, 22 Ezekiel 3:22, 37:1 2 Kings 3:15 followed by אֶל (for עַל) 1 Kings 18:46. The same is חָֽזְקָה יְיָ עַל Ezekiel 3:14 (compare Isaiah 8:11) and נָֽפְלָה יַד יְיָ עַל Ezekiel 8:1 (compared with Ezekiel 11:5, where for יָד there is רוּחַ). Thus may be understood Jeremiah 15:17, מִפְּנֵי יָֽדְךָ “because of thy hand,” i.e. because of the Spirit of God by which I am moved.
(e) נָתַן יָד to give the hand, i.e. to pledge the fidelity of the giver, 2 Kings 10:15; Ezra 10:19 specially the vanquished giving the hand to the victor. Ezekiel 17:18; Jeremiah 50:15; Lamentations 5:6; 2 Chronicles 30:8, תְּנוּ יָד לַֽיהֹוָה “give the hand (submit) to Jehovah.” (For a similar usage in Syriac, see Acts 27:13, Pesh. Lud. de Dieu, on the passage. To this usage also belongs the gloss of Arabic Lexicographers, يَدُ security by pledge, rendering subjection, χείρωσις.) Similar is נָתַן יָד תַּחַת פּ׳ to subject oneself to any one, 1 Chronicles 29:24.
(f) the hand, κατʼ ἐξοχήν (הַיָּד) is sometimes used (a) of the hand of God (like הָרוּחַ for רוּחַ יְיָ, הַשֵּׁם for שֵׁם יְהֹוָה). So Isaiah 8:11, בְחֶזְקַת הַיָּד for בּח׳ יָד יְיָ (comp. letter d) and Job 23:3, יָדִי כָֽבְדָה for יַד יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁד בִי כָּֽבְדָח “the hand of God (inflicting punishment) which is against me is heavy;” comp. letter b.
(β) of the hand, i.e. the aid of man, human aid. לֹא בְיָד Job 34:20, and בְּאֶפֶס יָד Daniel 8:25, without any human power. Chald. לָא בִידַיִן Daniel 2:34, 45. Compare Lamentations 4:6.
(g) יָד לְיָד from hand to hand (von Hand zu Hand), i.e. through all ages and generations, and, when accompanied by, a negative particle, never. Proverbs 11:21, יָד לְיָד לֹא יִנָּקֶה רַע “through all generations the wicked shall not be unpunished;” 16:5. In Persic a similar phrase is used, دست بدست, Schultt. Animadverss. ad Prov. loc. cit., and Syr. ܐܺܝܕܐܳ ܒܺܐܝܕܐܳ is, one by one, one after another. To the same usage belongs the Arabic interpretation of يد by succession.
(h) יָד לְפֶה hand to the mouth, sc. place, i.e. be silent, remain silent, Proverbs 30:32 (compare Job 21:5, 29:9 40:4 Micah 7:16). Pers. دست بر دهان.
(1) שׂוּם יָד עַלּ רֹאשׁ 2 Samuel 13:19, die Hände über dem Kopf zufammenfchlagen, an action of one deeply bewailing, compare Jeremiah 2:37.
See other expressions under the verbs מִלֵּא, מָצָא, נָטָה, נָשָׂא, רָפָה, שָׁלַח, תָּמַךְ, תָּקַע, etc., and the adjectives רָם, חָזָק.
It is so used with prepositions as sometimes to lose altogether its force as a noun.
(aa) בְּיָדִי (a) in my hand, often for with me, after verbs of carrying or leading, as, to bring with oneself. 1 Samuel 14:34, וַיַּגִּשׁוּ כָל־הָעָם אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ “and all the people brought each one his ox with him.” Jeremiah 30:10, קַח בְּיָדְֽךָ מִזֶּה שְׁלשִׁים אֲנָשִׁים “take with thee from hence thirty men.” Genesis 32:14, 35:4 Numbers 31:49; Deuteronomy 33:3; 1 Samuel 16:2; 1 Kings 10:29. Because I possess the things which I bring or carry with me, hence it is applied to possession, like אֵת, עִם; Lat. penes. Ecclesiastes 5:13, “he begets a son וְאֵין בְּיָדוֹ מְאוּמָה who has nothing” (comp. Germ. etwas in der Hand haben, and Hebr. יָדִי מָֽצְאָה דָבָר under the word מָצָא). Chald. Ezra 7:25, “the wisdom of thy God which is in thy h and,” i.e. which thou possessest.
(β) “into my hand, i.e. into my power, after words of delivering, Genesis 9:2, 14:20 Exodus 4:21; 2 Samuel 18:2. Hence צֹאן יָדוֹ the flock delivered into his hand, 95:7 and to the same usage are the words to be referred, Isaiah 20:2, בְּיַד יְשַׁעְיָהוּ. LXX. πρὸς Ἠσαίαν, viz. being about to deliver a revelation to him.
(γ) through my hand, often for through me, by means of me, Numbers 15:23, “whatsoever God commanded you בְּיַד משֶׁה through Moses;” 2 Chronicles 29:25; 1 Kings 12:15; Jeremiah 37:2, etc. Often thus after verbs of sending, 1 Kings 2:25, “and king Solomon sent בְּיַד בְּנָיָהוּ.” Exodus 4:13; Proverbs 26:6; 1 Samuel 16:20 2 Sa. 12:25 comp. Act. 11:30 15:23.
(δ) at my hand, i.e. before me, in my sight, i.q. לְפָנַי. (In this sense the Arabs are accustomed to use بين يدين between any one’s hands; see Koran ii. 256, iii. 2; xx. 109. Schult. Opp. Min., p. 29, 30; ad Job. p. 391. In Greek ἐν χερσίν, Apollon., Rhod. i. 1113; comp. πρὸ χειρῶν, Germ. vorhanden, διὰ χειρῶν ἔχειν, Lat. hostes sunt in manibus, i.e. in sight. Cæs. Bell. Gall., ii. 19; Sallust. Jug., 94; Virg. Æn., xi. 311, ante oculos interque manus sunt omnia vestras, i.e. πρόχειρά ἐστι.) 1 Samuel 21:14, “he feigned himself mad בְּיָדָם in their sight.” Job 15:23, “he knows כִּינָכוֹן בְּיָדוֹ יוֹם חשֶׁךְ that the day of darkness is ready at hand to him.”
(bb) בֵּין יָדַיִם between the hands, on the breast, the front of the body, Zechariah 13:6. Comp. בֵּין עֵינַיִם on the forehead. [Is there no secret reason for making an especial rule as to Zechariah 13:6? It surely must be taken without gloss.]
(cc) כְּיַד according to the hand, in the phrase כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ according to the hand of the king, 1 Kings 10:13; Esther 1:7, 2:18, i.e. according to the bounty of the king. The liberal and open hand of the king is signified. Others have taken it less appropriately according to the power of the king; for it is not power and might which are here ascribed to him, but liberality.
(dd) מִיַּד פּ׳ out of the hand, i.e. out of the power of any one, often put after verbs of asking, Genesis 9:5, 31:39 Isaiah 1:12 of taking, Genesis 33:19; Numbers 5:25 of setting free, Genesis 32:12; Exodus 18:9; Numbers 35:25 whence it is said, out of the hands of the lion and the bear, 1 Samuel 17:37 of dogs, Psalms 22:21 of the sword, Job 5:20 of Hades, Psalms 49:16, 89:49 the flame, Isaiah 47:14.
(ee) עַל יַד פּ׳, עַל יְדֵי פ׳ (α) upon the hand, or hands, of any one, after verbs of delivering, commanding, Genesis 42:37; 1 Samuel 17:22; 2 Kings 10:24, 12:12 22:5, 2 Kings 22:9; Ezra 1:8. So, to deliver עַל יְדֵי חֶרֶב into the hands of the sword, Psalms 63:11; Jeremiah 18:21. But in the same sense is also said, יְדֵי פ׳ תַּחַת יַד, under any one’s hands, Genesis 16:9, 41:35 Isaiah 3:6.
(β) עַל יַד (Ezra 1:8), more often עַל יְדֵי on or at the hands of any one, i.e. some one taking the matter in hand, or under his guidance (an der Hand jemandes, jemandem zur Hand). 1 Chronicles 25:3, עַל יְדֵי אֲבִיהֶם “under the guidance (or superintendence) of their father,” verses 1 Chronicles 25:2, 1 Chronicles 25:6, 7:29. (As it is said in Latin, servus a manu, ad manum esse.) Also used of one absent and dead, whom others follow as a guide or director. 2 Chronicles 23:18, עַל יְדֵי דָוִיד “by the guidance of David;” i.e. as following David, according to the institution of David, Ezra 3:10. Used of things, 2 Chronicles 29:27, “the sounding of trumpets began עַל יְדֵי כְּלֵי דָוִיד according to the (musical) instruments of David;” i.e. the sounding followed the measures of the musical instruments appointed by David. Compare as to this idiom, Lud. de Dieu, on Jeremiah 5:31 Criticæ Sacræ, p. 240. (Arab. عَلَى يَدِهِ, عَلَى يدَيْهِ under any one’s care or auspices, a phrase often found on Arabic coins connected with the name of the artist.) See also under No. 5.
(ff) לְיָד see No. 1, let. g, and No. 5.
Dual יָדַיִם a person’s two hands, also used for the plural, Job 4:3; Proverbs 6:17; Isaiah 13:7.
(2) Plur. יָדוֹת artificial hands, or handles, also used of things which resemble handles.
(a) tenons of boards (Zapfen), Exodus 26:17, 19 Exodus 26:19, 36:22, 24 Exodus 36:24.
(b) the axles of a wheel, 1 Kings 7:32, 33 1 Kings 7:33. As to the distinction between the dual and plur. fem. in substantives which denote members of the body, see Lehrg. 540. (Arab. يَدُ handle, as of a handmill, or of an axe; Syriac plur. ܙܝܺܕܰܗ̈ܳܬܐܳ] handles, hinges.) Comp. כַּפּוֹת.
(3) The hand being the seat of strength, metaph. power, strength (the proper force of the word being for the most part lost in such cases; compare above
(1), dd). בְּיָד with force, or power, Isaiah 28:2 יַד אֵל the power of God, Job 27:11. Psalms 76:6, “and all the men of might have not found יְדֵיהֶם their hands,” i.e. have found themselves devoid of strength. (Vice versâ Vit. Tim. i. 44, “they found their hand and side,” i.e. “they had all their strength ready.”) Applied to one remarkable and wonderful work, Exodus 14:31 (comp. manus, Virg. Æn. vi. 688). Specially aid, assistance, Deuteronomy 32:36, אָֽזְלַת יָד “help is departed.” (So Arab. يد الصبا the power of the east wind, لا يد لك ب thou hast no power in such a thing, Syr. ܐܝܕܐ ܕܪܗܘܡܝܐ the power of the Romans, Pers. دست power. As to the expression a long or a short hand, see under the word קָעַר.
(4) The hand being used for smiting with, hence a stroke. Job 20:22, כָּל־יַד עָמֵל תְּבֹאֶנּוּ “every stroke of the wretched comes upon him;” whatever usually falls upon the wretched. (Compare Latin manus, for a blow, with regard to gladiators.)
(5) a side, properly used of the sides of a person, where the hands and arms are situated (comp. Lat. ad dextram, sinistram manum, ad hanc manum, Terent. Ad. iv. 2, 31). Hence the dual יָדַיִם properly both sides, especially in the phrase רְחַב יָדַיִם broad of both sides, i.e. long and broad, widely extending, Genesis 34:21; Psalms 104:25; Isaiah 33:21, etc. Used in the sing. of the side or bank of a river, Exodus 2:5; Deuteronomy 2:37 (Syr. ܝܰܕ ܝܰܡܐܳ shore). With prepositions, לְיַד 1 Samuel 19:3; 1 Chronicles 18:17, 23:28 Proverbs 8:3 בְּעַד יַד 1 Samuel 4:18 אֶל יַד 2 Samuel 14:30, 18:4 עַל יַד Joshua 15:46; 2 Samuel 15:2; 2 Chronicles 17:15, 31:15 Job 1:14; Nehemiah 3:2, seq.; עַל יְדֵי Numbers 34:3; Judges 11:26 by the side of, near (Syr. ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ near). 1 Chronicles 6:16, אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱמִיד דָּוִיד עַל יְדֵי שִׁיר בֵּית יְהֹוָה “whom David constituted for (by the side of) the singing of the temple;” like the German, er ftellte ihn an beh dem Gefange. See farther as to the particle עַל יְדֵי No. 1, cc.-Plur. יָדוֹת sides
(a) of a royal throne, arms as of a chair, lateral supports, 1 Kings 10:19.
(b) lateral projections on bases, 1 Kings 7:35, 36 1 Kings 7:36.
(6) a place, Deuteronomy 23:13; Numbers 2:17, אִישׁ עַל יָדוֹ “each one in his own place.” Isaiah 56:5 (compare No. 8). Isaiah 57:8, יָד חָזִית “thou didst look thee out a place.” Ezekiel 21:24. Dual id. Joshua 8:20, לֹא הָיָה בָהֶם יָדַיִם לָנוּם “they had no place to flee.”
(7) a part (perhaps properly a handful, a part of anything to be taken up whilst dividing). Jeremiah 6:3; Daniel 12:7. [Qu. as to the applicability of these two passages.] Plur. יָדוֹת 2 Kings 11:7, וּשְׁתֵּי הַיָּדוֹת בָּכֶס “and two parts of you,” opposed to the third part. Genesis 47:24, אַרְבַּע הַיָּדוֹת “four parts,” opposed to חֲמִישִׁית the fifth part. Nehemiah 11:1. (Compare פֶּה.) Also in the connection, Daniel 1:20, “and he found them עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת עַל כָּל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים ten parts (i.e. ten times) wiser than all the magicians.” Genesis 43:34 2 Sa. 19:44.
(8) a monument, trophy, i.q. שֵׁם (a hand being that which points and marks),-of victory, 1 Samuel 15:12, 2 Samuel 18:18. Isaiah 56:5, “I will give to them in my house יָד וָשֵׁם a memorial (or a portion) and a name.” This name in Hebrew for a monument may be connected with the ancient custom of sculpturing on cippi or sepulchral columns, an open hand and arm. See Hamackeri Diatribe de Monumentis Punicis (Humbertianis, Lugduni asservatis), p. 20, and Reuvensii ad eadem Animadverss. p. 5, seq.
As to the Dual, see Nos. 1, 3, 5, 6.
As to the Plural יָדוֹת Nos. 2, 5, 7.
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