the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #444 - ἄνθρωπος
- a human being, whether male or female
- generically, to include all human individuals
- to distinguish man from beings of a different order
- of animals and plants
- of from God and Christ
- of the angels
- with the added notion of weakness, by which man is led into a mistake or prompted to sin
- with the adjunct notion of contempt or disdainful pity
- with reference to two fold nature of man, body and soul
- with reference to the two fold nature of man, the corrupt and the truly Christian man, conformed to the nature of God
- with reference to sex, a male
- indefinitely, someone, a man, one
- in the plural, people
- joined with other words, merchantman
ἄνθρωπος, ἡ, Att. crasis ἅνθρωπος, Ion. ὥνθρωπος, for ὁ ἄνθρ-: —
1. man, both as a generic term and of individuals, Hom. etc., opp. gods, ἀθανάτων τε θεῶν χαμαὶ ἐρχομένων τ' ἀνθρώπων Il. 5.442, etc.; πρὸς ἠοίων ἢ ἑσπερίων ἀνθρώπων the men of the east or of the west, Od. 8.29; even of the dead in the Isles of the Blest, ib. 4.565; κόμπος οὐ κατ' ἄνθρωπον A. Th. 425, cf. S. Aj. 761.
2. Pl. uses it both with and without the Art. to denote man generically, ὁ ἄ. θείας μετέσχε μοίρας Prt. 322a; οὕτω.. εὐδαιμονέστατος γίγνεται ἄ. R. 619b, al.; ὁ ἄ. the ideal man, humanity, ἀπώλεσας τὸν ἄ., οὐκ ἐπλήρωσας τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν Arr. Epict. 2.9.3.
3. in pl., mankind, ἀνθρώπων.. ἀνδρῶν ἠδὲ γυναικῶν Il. 9.134; ἐν τῷ μακρῷ.. ἀνθρώπων χρόνψ S. Ph. 306; ἐξἀνθρώπων γίγνεσθαι depart this life, Paus. 4.26.5, cf. Philostr. VA 8.31. joined with a Sup. to increase its force, δεινότατον τῶν ἐν ἀνθρώποις ἁπάντων D. 53.2; ὁ ἄριστος ἐν ἀνθρώποις ὄρτυξ the best quail in the world, Pl. Ly. 211e; freq. without a Pr, μάλιστα, ἥκιστα ἀνθρώπων, most or least of all, Hdt. 1.60, Pl. Lg. 629a, Prt. 361e; ἄριστά γ' ἀ., ὀρθότατα ἀ., Id. Tht. 148b, 195b, etc. τὰ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων πράγματα 'all the trouble in the world', ib. 170e; γραφὰς τὰς ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἐγράφετο Lys. 13.73; αἱ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων πληγαί Aeschin. 1.59; πάντα τὰ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων κακὰ ἔλεγε D.C. 57.23.
4. joined with another Subst., like ἀνήρ, ἄ. ὁδίτης Il. 16.263; πολίτας ἀ. D. 22.54; with names of nations, πόλις Μερόπων ἀνθρώπων h.Ap. 42; in Att. freq. in a contemptuous sense, ἄ. ὑπογραμματεύς, ἄ. γόης, ἄ. συκοφάντης, Lys. 30.28, Aeschin. 2.153,183; ἄ. ἀλαζών X. Mem. 1.7.2; ἄ. ὑφάντης Pl. Phd. 87b; Μενίππου, Καρός τινος ἀνθρώπου D. 21.175; ἄ. βασιλεύς Matthew 22:2.
5. ἅνθρωπος or ὁ ἄνθρωπος alone, the man, the fellow, Pl. Prt. 314e, Phd. 117e; ὡς ἀστεῖος ὁ ἄ., with slight irony, ib. 116d, al.; with a sense of pity, D. 21.91.
6. in the voc. freq. in a contemptuous sense, as when addressed to slaves, etc., ἄνθρωπε or ὤνθρωπε sirrah! you sir! Hdt. 3.63, 8.125, and freq. in Pl., but in Trag. only S. Aj. 791, 1154; simply, brother, POxy. 215.1, Diog.Oen. 2.
7. slave, ἂν ἄ. ᾖ Philem. 22; ἄ. ἐμός Gal. 14.649; ὁ ἄ. τῆς ἁμαρτίας or ἀνομίας 2 Thessalonians 2:3; ἄ. τοῦ Θεοῦ 1 Timothy 6:11; but τιθέναι τινὰ ἐν ἀνθρώποις make a man of, of a freed slave, Herod. 5.15.
8. ἄ. ἄ. any one, Hebraism in LXX Leviticus 17:3 (cf. ἀνήρ VI. 8); ἄ. like Germ. man 'one', 1 Corinthians 4:1,al.
9. Medic., name of a plaster, ἡ διὰ σάνδυκος ἄ. καλουμένη Aët. 15.43.
II as fem., woman, Pi. P. 4.98, Hdt. 1.60, Isoc. 18.52, Arist. EN 1148b20; contemptuously, of female slaves, Antipho 1.17, Isa 6.20, etc.; with a sense of pity, D. 19.197. — Prop. opp. θηρίον, cf. ἀνήρ; but opp. γυνή, Aeschin. 3.137; ἀπὺ ἀνθρώπου ἕως γυναικός LXX 1 Esdras 9:40, etc.
ἄνθρωπος, ἀνθρώπου, ὁ (perhaps from ἀνήρ and ὤψ, i. e. man's face: Curtius, § 422; Vanicek, p. 9. From Homer down); man. It is used
1. universally, with reference to the genus or nature, without distinction of sex, a human being, whether male or female: John 16:21. And in this sense a. with the article, generically, so as to include all human individuals: Matthew 4:4 (ἐπ' ἄρτῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος); Matthew 12:35 (ὁ ἀγαθός ἄνθρωπος every good person); Matthew 15:11, 18; Mark 2:27; Mark 7:15, 18, 20; Luke 4:4; John 2:25 (Winer's Grammar, § 18, 8); John 7:51; Romans 7:1, etc.
b. so that a man is distinguished from beings of a different race or order; α. from animals, plants, etc.: Luke 5:10; Matthew 4:19; Matthew 12:12; 2 Peter 2:16; Revelation 9:4, 7, 10, 15, 18; Revelation 11:13, etc. (beta). from God, from Christ as divine, and from angels: Matthew 10:32; Matthew 19:6; Mark 10:9; Luke 2:15 (T WH omit; L Tr brackets) (opposed to angels); John 10:33; Acts 10:26; Acts 14:11; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Galatians 1:10, 12; 1 Corinthians 3:21; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Philippians 2:7, 7 (8); 1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:2; Hebrews 13:6; 1 Peter 2:4, etc.
c. with the added notion of weakness, by which man is led into mistake or prompted to sin: οὐκ ἄνθρωποι; (R G σαρκικοί) ἐστε; 1 Corinthians 3:4; σοφία ἀνθρώπων, 1 Corinthians 2:5; ἀνθρώπων ἐπιθυμίαι, 1 Peter 4:2; κατά ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε ye conduct yourselves as men, 1 Corinthians 3:3; λαλεῖν or λέγειν κατά ἄνθρωπον, to speak according to human modes of thinking, 1 Corinthians 9:8; Romans 3:5; κατά ἄνθρωπον λέγω, I speak as a man to whom analogies from human affairs present themselves, while I illustrate divine things by an example drawn from ordinary human life, Galatians 3:15; κατά ἄνθρωπον θηριομάχειν, as man is accustomed to fight, urged on by the desire of gain, honor and other earthly advantages, 1 Corinthians 15:32: οὐκ ἐστι κατά ἄνθρωπον is not accommodated to the opinions and desires of men, Galatians 1:11; (for examples of κατά ἄνθρωπον in secular authors see Wetstein on Rom. as above); with the accessory notion of malignity: προσέχετε ἀπό τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 10:17; εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 17:22; Luke 9:44.
d. with the adjunct notion of contempt (as sometimes in Greek writings): John 5:12; the address ὦ ἄνθρωπε, or ἄνθρωπε, is one either of contempt and disdainful pity, Romans 9:20 (Plato, Gorgias, p. 452 b. σύ δέ ... τίς εἰ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε), or of gentle rebuke, Luke 22:58, 60. The word serves to suggest commiseration: ἴδε (T Tr WH ἰδού) ὁ ἄνθρωπος behold the man in question, maltreated, defenseless, John 19:5.
e. with a reference to the twofold nature of man. ὁ ἔσω and ὁ ἔξω ἄνθρωπος, soul and body: Romans 7:22; Ephesians 3:16; 2 Corinthians 4:16, (Plato, rep. 9, 589 a. ὁ ἐντός ἄνθρωπος; Plotinus Enn. 5, 1, 10 ὁ εἴσω ἄνθρωπος; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., 61f. (Meyer on Romans, the passage cited; Ellicott on Ephesians, the passage cited)); ὁ κρυπτός τῆς καριδας ἀνθρ. 1 Peter 3:4.
f. with a reference to the twofold moral condition of man, ὁ παλαιός (the corrupt) and ὁ καινός (ὁ νέος) ἄνθρωπος (the truly Christian man, conformed to the nature of God): Romans 6:6; Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:22, 24; Colossians 3:9f.
g. with a reference to the sex, (contextually) a male: John 7:22f.
2. indefinitely, without the article, ἄνθρωπος, a. someone, a (certain) man, when who he is either is not known or is not important: equivalent to τίς, Matthew 17:14; Matthew 21:28; Matthew 22:11; Mark 12:1; Mark 14:13; Luke 5:18; Luke 13:19, etc. with the addition of τίς, Matthew 18:12; Luke 10:30; Luke 14:2, 16; Luke 15:11; Luke 16:1, 19; John 5:5. in address, where the speaker either cannot or will not give the name, Luke 5:20; or where the writer addresses any and every reader, Romans 2:1, 3.
b. where what is said holds of every man, so that ἄνθρωπος is equivalent to the German indefinite man, one: Romans 3:28; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 11:28; Galatians 2:16. So also where opposed to domesties, Matthew 10:36; to a wife, Matthew 19:10; to a father, Matthew 10:35; to the master of a household, Luke 12:36f — in which passages many, confounding sense and signification, incorrectly say that the word ἄνθρωπος signifies father of a family, husband, son, servant.
3. in the plural οἱ ἄνθρωποι is sometimes (the) people, German die Leute: Matthew 5:13, 16; Matthew 6:5, 18; Matthew 8:27; Matthew 16:13; Luke 11:44; Mark 8:24, 27; John 4:28; οὐδείς ἀνθρώπων (nemo hominum) no one, Mark 11:2; 1 Timothy 6:16.
4. It is joined a. to another substantive — a quasi-predicate of office, or employment, or characteristic — the idea of the predicate predominating (Winer's Grammar, § 59, 1): ἄνθρωπος ἔμπορος a merchant (-man), Matthew 13:45 (WH text omits ἀνθρώπῳ); οἰκοδεσπότης, Matthew 13:52; Matthew 20:1; Matthew 21:33; βασιλεύς, Matthew 18:23; Matthew 20:2; φάγος, Matthew 11:19. (So in Hebrew סָרִיס אִישׁ a eunuch, Jeremiah 38:7f, כֹּהֵן אִישׁ a priest, Leviticus 21:9; also in Greek writings: ἄνθρωπος ὁδίτης, Homer, Iliad 16, 263, elsewhere; cf. Matthiae, § 430, 6; (Krüger § 57, 1, 1); but in Attic this combination generally has a contemptuous force; cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 48; in Latinhomo gladiator, Cicero, epistles ad diversos 12, 22, 1).
5. ὁ ἄνθρωπος, with the article, the particular man under consideration, who he is being plain from the context: Matthew 12:13; Matthew 26:72; Mark 3:5; Luke 23:6; John 4:50. οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Luke 14:30; John 9:16, 24 (L Tr marginal reading WH);
6. Phrases: ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἁμαρτίας (or with T Tr text WH text, τῆς ἀνομίας), 2 Thessalonians 2:3, see ἁμαρτία, 1, p. 30f ἄνθρωπος τοῦ Θεοῦ a man devoted to the service of God, God's minister: 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 3:17 (of the evangelists, the associates of the apostles); 2 Peter 1:21 (of prophets, like אֱלֹהִים אִישׁ often in the O. T.; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus i., p. 85). For ὁ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου and υἱοί τῶν ἀνθρώπων, see under υἱός.
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ἀνθρωπος , -ου , ὁ ,
1. generically, a human being, male or female (Lat. homo): John 16:21; c. art., Matthew 4:4; Matthew 12:36, Mark 2:27, John 2:25, Romans 7:1, al.; disting. from God, Matthew 19:6, John 10:33, Colossians 3:23, al.; from animals, etc., Matthew 4:19, Luke 5:10, Revelation 9:4, al.; implying human frailty and imperfection, 1 Corinthians 3:4; σοφία ἀνθρώπων , 1 Corinthians 2:5; ἀνθρώπων ἐπιθυμίαι , 1 Peter 4:2; κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖν , 1 Corinthians 3:3; κατὰ ἄ . λέγειν (λαλεῖν ), Romans 3:5, 1 Corinthians 9:8; κατὰ ἄ - λέγειν , Galatians 3:16 (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:32, Galatians 1:11); by meton., of man's nature or condition, ὁ ἔσω (ἄξω ) ἄ ., Romans 7:22, Ephesians 3:16, 2 Corinthians 4:16 (cf. 1Pe 34); ὁ παλαιὸς , καινός , νέος ἄ ., Romans 6:6, Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:22; Ephesians 4:24, Colossians 3:9-10; joined with another subst., ἄ . ἔμπορος , a merchant, Matthew 13:45 (WH, txt. om. ἄ .); οἰκοδεσπότης , Matthew 13:52; βασιλεύς , Matthew 18:23; φάγος , Matthew 11:19; with name of nation, Κυρηναῖος , Matthew 27:32; Ἰουδαῖος , Acts 21:39; Ῥωμαῖος , Acts 16:37; pl. οἱ ἄ ., men, people: Matthew 5:13; Matthew 5:16, Mark 8:24, John 4:28; οὐδεὶς ἀνθρώπων , Mark 11:2, 1 Timothy 6:16.
2. Indef., ἄ . = τις , some one, a man: Matthew 17:14, Mark 12:1, al.; τις ἄ ., Matthew 18:12, John 5:5, al.; indef. one (Fr. on), Romans 3:28, Galatians 2:16, al.; opp. to women, servants, etc., Matthew 10:36; Matthew 19:10, John 7:22-23
3. Definitely, c. art., of some particular person; Matthew 12:13 Mark 3:5, al.; οὗτος ὁ ἄ ., Luke 14:30; ὁ ἄ οὗτος , ἐκεῖνος , Mark 14:71, Matthew 12:45; ὁ ἄ . τ . ἀνομίας , 2 Thessalonians 2:3; ἄ . τ . θεοῦ (of Heb. H430 H376), 1 Timothy 6:11, 2 Timothy 3:17, 2 Peter 1:21; ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀ ., v.s. υἱός .
SYN.: ἀνήρ G435, q.v. (and cf. MM, VGT, 44; Cremer, 103, 635).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
ἄνθρωπος, like ἀνήρ, has kept its differentia practically unchanged from Homer to MGr. It is interesting to notice its philosophical abstract ἀνθρωπότης vouched for as fairly popular Greek by Vettius Valens (p. 346.29, in antith. to ἀθανασία), passing into Christian theology (see LS and Sophocles Lex.), and current in MGr. The NT has no trace of the curious misuse by which the principal difference between ἄ. and ἀνήρ is ignored : Tobit 6:8 ἀνθρώπον ἢ γυναικός. P Flor I. 61.60 (A.D. 86–8) ἄξιος μ [ὲ ]ν ἦς μαστιγωθῆναι, διὰ σεαντοῦ [κ ]ατασχὼν ἄνθρωπον εὐσχήμονα καὶ γυν [αῖ ]κας is not parallel, as ὰ. only means ";person"; : as little is John 7:22 f. (Grimm). Another case of ἄνθρωπος invading the sphere of ἀνήρ is the Matthæan locution α οἰκοδεσπότης, βασιλεύς, φαγός etc. As Grimm’s passages show, this is Greek, though not Attic : Mt may have got it from LXX (so Leviticus 21:9 ἀνθρώπου ἱερέως). Some papyrus passages may be cited, though little is needed. The antithesis with θεός has figured under ἀνθρώπινος : the complementary one comes out well in BGU IV. 1024iv. 6 (iv/v A.D.), where a judge pronounces sentence of death with the words σύ μοι δοκεῖς [ψυχὴν ἔ ]χειν θηρίου καὶ [ο ]ὐκ ἀνθρώπού [μᾶλλον δ ]ὲ οὐδὲ θηρίου —he proceeds to give reasons. Ib. 1030.7 (iii/A.D.) ἐπίγοντες τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ τοὺς τέκτονας —ἀ. is general and τ. special. For the purely unemphatic use cf. the illiterate note, ib. 1031.13 (ii/A.D.) ἔκδος ἀνθρώποις ἀσφα [λέσ ]ι. Its anaphoric use with the article (as Matthew 12:13 etc.) may be seen in ib. 1208i. 25 (B.C. 27–6)ἵνα δὲ εἰδῇς τὸ ὄρθριον ("; ‘sein Morgengruss,’ = seine erste Tat"; says Schubart) τοῦ ἀνθρώ (που), πέπομφά σοι ἣν τέθειται μίσθωσιν. This particular instance may perhaps serve as an illustration of ";the adjunct notion of contempt (John 5:12),"; on which Grimm remarks (1.d.). Under the same heading, with commiseration instead of contempt, will come πρεσβύτης ἄνθρωπός εἰμι, in P Strass I. 41.40 (A.D. 250). In the edict of Caracalla, P Giss I. 40i. 6 (A.D. 212–5) ὁσ ]άκις ἐὰν ὑ [π ]ε,σέλθ [ωσ ]ι ̣ν εἰς τοὺς ἐμοὺς ἀν [θρ ]ώπους the editor notes the tone as characteristic of his dynasty. The general sense in the plural may be illustrated by Syll 424.1 (A.D. 361–3) τὸν γῆς καὶ θαλάσσης καὶ παντὸς ἀνθρώπων ἔθνους δεσπότην —of the brief Emperor Julianus, ib. 890.22 (ii/A.D.) of a series of diseases κ ]α [ὶ ] ὅσα κακὰ κ [αὶ πά ]θη ἀνθρώποι [ς γί ]γνεται.
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Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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