the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1093 - γῆ
- arable land
- the ground, the earth as a standing place
- the main land as opposed to the sea or water
- the earth as a whole
- the earth as opposed to the heavens
- the inhabited earth, the abode of men and animals
- a country, land enclosed within fixed boundaries, a tract of land, territory, region
occasionally in Hom., freq. in Hes., and the only form in Att. Prose for γαῖα: dual γαῖν A. Pers. 736: pl. rare, γαῖ Arist. Pr. 934b9, γέαι SIG 279.40 (Zelea), etc., AP 9.430 (Crin.): gen. γεῶν Hdt. 4.198, GDI 5755.14 (Mylasa); γῶν BGU 993 iii 10 (ii B. C.): acc. γέας [ Democr. ] 299, SIG 46.3 (Halic.), γᾶς PTeb. 6.31 (ii B. C.), Str. 2.5.26; Cypr. ζᾶς Inscr.Cypr. 135.30 H.: dat. pl. γέαις prob. in CIG 2693f9 (Mylasa), LW 415.9 (ibid.): —
1. earth (including land and sea, Sapph. Supp. 5.2) opp. heaven, or land opp. sea, Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες Il. 19.259, cf. 3.104; τίς γῆ; Od. 13.233; γῆς περίοδοι Hdt. 4.36, Arist. Mete. 362b12, title of work by Hecat.: personified, Il. l.c., A. Th. 69, Pers. 629, etc.; κατὰ γῆν on land, by land, opp. ναυσί, Th. 1.18; opp. ἐκ θαλάσσης, Id. 2.81; κατὰ γῆν στέλλεσθαι X. An. 5.6.5, etc.; ἐπὶ γῆς on earth, opp. νέρθε, S. OT 416; κατὰ γῆς below the earth, A. Ch. 377, 475, etc.; κάτω γῆς S. OT 968; ὑπὸ γῆς Id. Fr. 572; γᾶς ὑπένερθε Pi. Fr. 292: gen. with local Adverbs, ἵνα γῆς E. Andr. 168; ποῦ, ποῖ, ὅποι γ., S. OT 108, Ph. 1211, El. 922; ὅπου γ. Ar. Av. 9.
2. earth, as an element, Xenoph. 27, Anaxag. 4, Pl. Prt. 320d, Lg. 889b, Arist. Metaph. 989a5, Cael. 306a18, etc. γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ αἰτεῖν, as tokens of submission, Hdt. 5.18, Lycurg. 71; γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ διδόναι Hdt. 5.18, al.
1. land, country, καὶ γῆν καὶ πόλιν A. Eu. 993; γῆν πρὸ γῆς ἐλαύνεσθαι, διώκειν, from land to land, Id. Pr. 682, Ar. Ach. 235; ἡ ἁγία γῆ LXX Wi. 12.3; one's native land, Tyrt. 12.33, Thgn. 1213, A. Supp. 890 (lyr.), S. OC 441, E. Ph. 1090; freq. omitted with art., ἐκ τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ (sc. γῆς) δραπέτας Id. Heracl. 140, etc.
2. freq. in Trag., city, αὐτός τε καὶ γῆ δορὶ πεσοῦσ' Ἑλληνικῷ Id. Tr. 868.
1. the earth or ground as tilled, ἄροτον γῆς S. OT 270; γᾶ φθίνουσα ib. 665, etc.; τὴν γῆν ἐργάζεσθαι, θεραπεύειν, till the ground, Pl. R. 420e, X. Oec. 5.12; τὰ ἐκ τῆς γῆς φυόμενα Id. Mem. 4.3.10.
2. estate, farm, γῆν πρίασθαι Lys. 32.23; ἐπὶ γῇ δανείζειν lend on mortgage, D. 36.6. of particular kinds of earth or minerals, e.g. fuller's earth. Thphr. Char. 10.14, cf. Gal. 12.168; Κιμωλία γ. Ar. Ra. 712, cf. Hp. Mul. 2.189.
γῆ, genitive γῆς, ἡ (contracted from γεα, poetic γαῖα), the Sept. very often for אֶרֶץ and אֲדָמָה, earth;
1. arable land: Matthew 13:5, 8, 23; Mark 4:8, 20, 26, 28, 31; Luke 13:7; Luke 14:35 (34); John 12:24; Hebrews 6:7; James 5:7; Revelation 9:4; of the earthy material out of which a thing is formed, with the implied idea of frailty and weakness: ἐκ γῆς χοϊκός, 1 Corinthians 15:47.
2. the ground, the earth as a standing-place (German Boden): Matthew 10:29; Matthew 15:35; Matthew 23:35; Matthew 27:51; Mark 8:6; Mark 9:20; Mark 14:35; Luke 22:44 (L brackets WH reject the passage);
4. the earth as a whole, the world (Latinterrarum orbis);
a. the earth as opposed to the heavens: Matthew 5:18, 35; Matthew 6:10; Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18; Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 2:14; John 12:32; Acts 2:19; Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 3:5, 7, 10, 13; Revelation 21:1; τά ἐπί τῆς γῆς the things and beings that are on the earth, Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:16 (T WH omit; L Tr brackets τά); involving a suggestion of mutability, frailty, infirmity, alike in thought and in action, Matthew 6:19; τά ἐπί τῆς γῆς (equivalent to τά ἐπίγεια, Philippians 3:19) terrestrial goods, pleasures, honors, Colossians 3:2 (opposed to τά ἄνω); τά μέλη ὑμῶν τά ἐπί τῆς γῆς the members of your earthly body, as it were the abode and instruments of corrupt desires, Colossians 3:5; ὁ ὤν ἐκ τῆς γῆς ... λαλεῖ (in contrast with Christ as having come from heaven) he who is of earthly (human) origin, has an earthly nature, and speaks as his earthly origin and nature prompt, John 3:31.
b. the inhabited earth, the abode of men and animals: Luke 21:35; Acts 1:8; Acts 10:12; Acts 11:6; Acts 17:26; Hebrews 11:13; Revelation 3:10; αἴρειν ζωήν τίνος or τινα ἀπό τῆς γῆς, Acts 8:33; Acts 22:22; κληρονομεῖν τήν γῆν (see κληρονομέω, 2), Matthew 5:5 (4); πῦρ βάλλειν ἐπί (Rec. εἰς) τήν γῆν, i. e. among men, Luke 12:49, cf. Luke 12:51 and Matthew 10:34; ἐπί τῆς γῆς among men, Luke 18:8; John 17:4.
5. a country, land enclosed within fixed boundaries, a tract of land, territory, region; simply, when it is plain from the context what land is meant, as that of the Jews: Luke 4:25; Luke 21:23; Romans 9:28; James 5:17; with a gentile noun added (then, as a rule, anarthrous, Winer's Grammar, 121 (114f)): γῆ Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 2:20f; Ιουδα, Matthew 2:6; Γεννησαρέτ, Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53; Σοδομων καί Γομόρρων, Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:24; Χαλδαίων, Acts 7:4; Αἴγυπτος (see Αἴγυπτος); ἡ Ἰουδαία γῆ, John 3:22; with the addition of an adjective: ἀλλότρια, Acts 7:6; ἐκείνῃ, Matthew 9:26, 31; with the genitive of person one's country, native land, Acts 7:3.
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γῆ , γῆς , ἡ ,
1. the earth, world: Luke 21:35, Acts 1:8, Hebrews 11:13, Revelation 3:10, al.; opp. to οὐρινός , Matthew 5:18; Matthew 11:25, Mark 13:27, al.
(a) opp. to sea or water: Mark 4:1, Luke 5:3, John 6:21, al.;
(b) as subject to cultivation: Matthew 13:5, Mark 4:8, Luke 13:7, Hebrews 6:7, al.;
(c) the ground: Matthew 10:29, Mark 8:6, Luke 24:5, John 8:6, al.;
(d) a region, country: Luke 4:25, Romans 9:28, James 5:17; γῆ Ἰσραήλ , Matthew 2:20-21; Χαλδαίων , Acts 7:4; ἡ Ἰουδαία γῆ , John 3:22; c. gen. pers., Acts 7:3.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The rare plural forms of this word which are found in the LXX may be illustrated from the Ptolemaic papyri of ii/B.C., e.g. BGU III. 993iii. 10 (B.C. 128–7) γῶν τε καὶ οὶκιῶν , P Tor I. 1ii. 10 (B.C. 116) ἕνεκεν τοῦ καὶ τῶν γῶν μὴ μετεσχηκέναι αὐτήν , P Tebt I. 6.31 (B.C. 140–39) γᾶς τε καὶ ἕτερα : see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 143. In MGr, beside ἡ γῆ , we have the indeclinable ἡ γῆς , τῆς γῆς , etc. : see Thumb Handbook, p. 57. The familiar Biblical ἐπὶ γῆς appears in P Ryl II. 87.8 (early iii/A.D.) ὁ αὐτὸς ὁριοδείκτης ἐπέδειξα ἐπι ̣̣ γῆς (restored from l..2), ";I the said surveyor have verified it on the spot"; : the editors suggest that ἐπὶ γῆς should be read in P Thead 54.9 and 55.6. It may be observed that γῆ in papyri is regularly ";land"; in small or moderate quantities, a sense never found in NT, where γῆ is always antithetic to sky or sea, or denotes a district or country. The LXX and papyri, in their use which makes a plural possible, can go back to Ionic of v/B.C. : cf. Syll II.3 γέας καὶ οἰκίας , ib. 154.40 (a century later) δημόσιοι γέαι . Of course the antithesis of Οὐρανός and Γαῖα is older still, as is that illustrated by the formula κατὰ γῆν καὶ κατὰ θάλασσαν .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.