the First Week of Advent
Click here to join the effort!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5782 - עוּר
1) to rouse oneself, awake, awaken, incite
1a) (Qal) to rouse oneself, awake
1b) (Niphal) to be roused
1c) (Polel) to stir up, rouse, incite
1d) (Hithpolel) to be excited, be triumphant
1e1) to rouse, stir up
1e2) to act in an aroused manner, awake
1526) rg (גהר GhR) AC: Dark CO: City AB: ?: The pictograph g is a picture of a rope with the extended meaning of darkness. The r is a picture of a man. Combined these mean "dark man" or an enemy. (eng: jungle - with the exchange of the j and y and the l and r)
V) rfg (גהור GhWR) - I. Waken:To wake as to open the eyes from darkness. II. Blind:To become dark of site through blindness or the putting out of the eyes. KJV (86): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Piel) stir, awake, wake, raise, arise, master, put out, blind - Strongs: H5782 (עוּר), H5786 (עָוַר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Imperfect 3 masculine singular suffix יְעוּרֶנּוּ Job 41:2 Baer Ginsb, and Qr van d. H., but Kt יעירנו (Hiph`il), Babylonian Masora (see Baer p. 58), so Ginsb margin van d. H.; read thus, or יְעוֺרְרֶנּוּ (Po`l.) Bu; > contracted form of Po`l. Ges§ 72cc Di; compare Sta§ 484 e; Imperative masculine singular ע֫וּרָה Psalm 7:7 +, feminine singular ע֫וּרִי Judges 5:12 (twice in verse) + 3t., עוּרִ֫י Judges 5:12 (twice in verse) + 5t. (for rhythm); Participle עֵר Song of Solomon 5:2 + Malachi 2:12 (read probably עֵד We Now GASm, compare ᵐ5 ἕως = עַד); — rouse oneself to activity, of Deborah Judges 5:12 (4t. in verse); of ׳י Psalm 7:7 ("" קוּמָה, הִנָּשֵׂא), Psalm 59:5 (followed by infinitive), Psalm 44:24 (opposed to יָשֵׁן), of ׳י s arm Isaiah 51:9 (3t. in verse), of oneself Psalm 57:9, of Zion Isaiah 52:1 (twice in verse), of stone (idol) Habakkuk 2:19, sword Zechariah 13:7 (+ עַל against), wind Song of Solomon 4:16, harp and lyre Psalm 57:9 = Psalm 108:3; לִבִּי עֵר Song of Solomon 5:2 my heart waketh (opposed to יָשֵׁן). — Job 41:2; Malachi 2:12 see above
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נֵעוֺר Zechariah 2:17; Imperfect 3 masculine singularיֵעוֺר Jeremiah 6:22; Zechariah 4:1; 3 masculine plural יֵעֹרוּ Jeremiah 50:41; Job 14:12, יֵעוֺרוּ Joel 4:12; — be roused Zechariah 4:1 (from [מִן] sleep, in simile), so Job 14:12 (sleep of death, "" יָקִיצוּ, יָקוּם); be incited to activity, with מִן local: of ׳י Zechariah 2:17, of nation Jeremiah 6:22, kings Jeremiah 50:41, whirlwind Jeremiah 25:32; absolute of nations Joel 4:12.
Po`el. Perfect 3 masculine singular עוֺרֵר 2 Samuel 23:18 +, ׳וְע consecutive Isaiah 10:26,1singular וְעוֺרַרְתִּ֫י Zechariah 9:13, suffix עוֺרַרְתִּיךָ Song of Solomon 8:5; Imperfect 3 feminine singular תְּעֹרֵר Proverbs 10:12,2masculine plural תְּעוֺרְרוּ Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5, תְּעֹרְרוּ Song of Solomon 8:4 (feminine subject Ges§ 144 a); Imperative masculine singular עוֺרְרָה Psalm 80:3; Infinitive עֹרֵר Job 3:8; — rouse, incite to activity, with accusative of person Zechariah 9:13 (+ עַל against), accusative רְפָאִים Isaiah 14:9 (subject שְׁאוֺל see Ges§ 145t); ׳עאֶתגְּֿבוּרָתֶ֑ךָ Psalm 80:3 (of ׳י); הָעֲתִידִים עֹרֵר לִוְיָתָן Job 3:8; especially rouse, excite love Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 8:4 (all "" תָּעִירוּ; feminine subject see Ges§ 144 a); עוֺרַרְתִּיךָ Song of Solomon 8:5 is dubious, of exciting love Deuteronomy , arousing from slumber Bu, Song of Solomon , reading עוֺרַרְתִּיךְ, Siegf; מְדָנִים׳שִׂנְאָה תְּע Proverbs 10:12 hatred stirreth up strifes; with accusative of weapon 2 Samuel 23:18 rouse, awaken, i.e. wield, brandish (+ עַל against), so read also 2 Samuel 23:8 (see חֲנִית 1) = 1 Chronicles 11:11,20, so Isaiah 10:26. — Isaiah 23:13 see ערר.
Pilpel Imperfect 3 masculine plural זַעֲקַתשֶֿׁבֶר יְעֹעֵ֑רוּ Isaiah 15:5, usually explained as = יְעַרְעֵ֑רוּ (which some read), rouse (i.e. raise ?) a cry of destruction, Ges Comm. Thes. De Di Du Ges§ 72cc Kö i. 500; ii. 497; Pilpel not elsewhere, very dubious; read perhaps יְעוֺרֵ֑רוּ; Lag Proph. Chald. IL Che Gu Kau SS read יְרֹעָ֑עוּ shout, but improbable with זַעֲקַת.
Hithpo`lel Perfect וְהִתְעֹרַ֫רְתִּי כִּי consecutive Job 31:29 and I was (joyfully) excited, triumphant, that ("" אֶשְׂמַח), so perhaps Imperfect 3 masculine singular Job 17:8, reading וְחָנֵף עַלנָֿקִי יִתְעֹרָ֑ר Me Di Beer (ᵑ0׳וְנָקִי עַלחָֿנֵף יִתְע i.e. be excited with displeasure); rouse oneself to activity, Participle מִתְעוֺרֵר לְהַחֲזִיק בָּךְ Isaiah 64:6.
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular הֵעִיר Isaiah 41:2 +; 1 singular הַעִיר֫וֺתִי Isaiah 41:25 (see Kö i. 500 Ges§ 72 x), suffix הַעִירֹתִהוּ Isaiah 45:13; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יָעִיר Deuteronomy 32:11 +, וְיָעֵר Daniel 11:25, וַיָּ֫עַר Haggai 1:14 +, suffix וַיְעִירֵנִי Zechariah 4:1, etc.; Imperative masculine singular הָעִירָה Psalm 35:23; masculine plural הָעִירוּ Joel 4:9; Infinitive בָּעִיר (= בְּהָעִיר) Psalm 73:20 (Ges§ 53 q); Participle מֵעִיר Isaiah 13:17 +, suffix מְעִירָם Joel 4:7; —
1 rouse, with suffix Zechariah 4:1 (as if from sleep, see
Qal); rouse, stir up, to activity, כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֺ Deuteronomy 32:11; with accusative of person, or equivalent, expressed or implied, especially subject ׳י: Isaiah 45:13; with מִן local Isaiah 41:2,25; Joel 4:7; + עַל against Isaiah 13:17, compare Jeremiah 50:9; Jeremiah 51:1; Ezekiel 23:22; ׳הֵעִיר אֶתרֿוּחַ פ Jeremiah 51:11; Haggai 1:14; 1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Chronicles 21:16 (+ עַל against), 2 Chronicles 36:22 = Ezra 1:1, compare Ezra 1:5; ׳י subject also in following: יָעִיר קִנְאָה Isaiah 42:13, יָעִיר Isaiah 50:4 (twice in verse) (+ לִי אֹזֶן); יָעִיר כָּלחֲֿמָתוֺ <BIBLE: Psalm 78:39>; human subject, with accusative of person Joel 4:9, Daniel 11:2 (+ אֵת in conflict with, ᵑ9 de We Meinh Behrm, compare Bev who thinks יערך לקראת possibly); perhaps also, object crocodile Job 41:2 (reading יְעִירֶנּוּ see
Qal); וְיָעֵר כֹּחוֺ וּלְבָבוֺ Daniel 11:25 (+ עַל against); especially of rousing love Song of Solomon 2:7; Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 8:4 (all ""
Po`l. q. v.); figurative אָעִירָה שָׁ֑חַר Psalm 57:9 I will arouse the dawn ("" Imperative
Qal q. v.); participle absolute = stirring up (a fire) Hosea 7:4 (si vera 1.; compare Ges§ 120b; but text dubious compare We Now GASm).
2 declarative or exhibitive sense, act in an aroused manner, awake, הָעִירָה וְהָקִיצָה לְמִשְׁמָּטִי Psalm 35:23, compare Job 8:6 (+ עַל over = for; both subject ׳י); absolute Psalm 73:20.
עוּר prop. to be hot, ardent (cogn. with עִיר, which see); hence to be alert, watchful (in opposition both to sleep and to idleness). Specially
(1) to wake, to be awake, Song of Solomon 5:2; Malachi 2:12, עֵר וְעֹנֶה “one wakeful and one answering,” i.e. every one who is alive, a proverbial phrase (like עָצוּר וְעָזוּב), perhaps taken from the Levites keeping watch in the temple (Psa 134:1-3), one of whom watches and calls out, and the other answers. In the same sense the Arabs say, “no one crying out, and no one answering” (Vit. Tim. i. p. 108, ed. Manger). Jerome renders, magister et discipulus.
(2) to awake, to arouse from sleep. Only in imp. Psalms 44:24, עוּרָה לָמָּה תִּישַׁן אֲדֹנָי “awake! why sleepest thou, O Lord?” Psalms 7:7; Isaiah 51:9.
(3) causat. to cause to awake, i.q. Hiphil, Job 41:2, fut. קרי יָעוּר.
Niphal נֵעוֹר, fut. יֵעוֹר pass. of Piel and Hiphil.
(1) to be aroused, awaked (from sleep), Job 14:12; Zechariah 4:1.
(2) figuratively, to arise, as the wind, Jeremiah 25:32 a people, Jeremiah 6:22 Joel 4:12 God, Zec. 2:17. As to the passage, Habakkuk 3:9, see עוּר No. II.
Pilel עוֹרֵר (compare Gr. ὄρω=ὄρνυμι, pret. ὄρωρα).
(1) to awake, to arouse from sleep, Song of Solomon 2:7, 3:5 8:4 (5?); to arouse a serpent, and call forth from his hiding place, Job 3:8 figuratively, to excite a brawl, Proverbs 10:12 to rouse up one’s strength (feine Macht aufbieten), Psalms 80:3.
(2) to raise up (and brandish) a spear, 2 Samuel 23:18 a scourge, Isaiah 10:26.-But for Isaiah 23:13, see under the root עָרַר Pilel.
Hiphil הֵעִיר (ἐγείρω) i.q. Piel.
(1) to arouse, to awake, from sleep, Zechariah 4:1; Song of Solomon 2:7, 3:5 8:4 to incite any one to anything, Isaiah 45:13; Jeremiah 50:9, and in the same sense to incite any one’s spirit, 1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Chronicles 21:16 to arouse any one’s ear, Isaiah 50:4 to provoke, e. g. a crocodile, Job 41:2 to stir up young birds to fly, Deuteronomy 32:11, כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף “as the eagle stirs up her nest (i.e. her young ones, to fly, ad volandum, as rightly in the Vulg.) hovers over her young,” in the air, etc. The description is of a female eagle exciting her young ones, in teaching them to fly, and afterwards guarding with. the greatest care, lest the weak should receive harm.
(2) to watch (prop. Wache halten), Psalms 35:23 followed by עַל to watch over any one, Job 8:6.
(1) to arouse oneself, to rise up, Isaiah 51:17, 64:6 followed by עַל against any one, Job 17:8.
(2) to rejoice, to be glad (Germ. aufgeweckt fehn, used of one who is cheerful, glad), Job 31:29.
Derived nouns, Chald. עִיר watcher, and the pr.n. יָעִיר, עֵר, עֵרִי, עֵרָן.
II. עוּר i.q. עָרַה and עָרַר to be naked, to be made naked; whence the Arab. عَارُ, عَوْرَةُ nudity, verenda. Hebr. מְעוּרִים.
Niphal, Habakkuk 3:9, עֶרְיָה תֵעוֹר קַשְׁתְּךָ “with nakedness was thy bow made naked.”
Pilel עוֹרֵר, see the root עָרַר.
III. עוּר an unused root, cogn. חוּר to dig, to bore; whence غَارُ, Hebr. מְעָרָה a cavern. [In Thes. Piel עִוִּרִ is referred to this root with the idea of blinding by boring out the eyes.]
עוּר Ch. chaff, Daniel 2:35. Syr. ܥܘܽܖ̈ܶܐ id.; Arab. عُوَارُ, عَايِرُ a bit of chaff, or the like, which hurts the eye. Said to be so called from blinding (root עָוַר); but may not rather עוּר be the same as עָפָר dust, a particle of dust; whence עִוֵּר i.q. עִפֵּר to throw dust into the eye; (Sand in die Augen ftreuen, ftäuben)? [This conjectural derivation is rejected in Thes.]