the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #05437 - סָבַב
1) to turn, turn about or around or aside or back or towards, go about or around, surround, encircle, change direction
1a1) to turn, turn about, be brought round, change
1a2) to march or walk around, go partly around, circle about, skirt, make a round, make a circuit, go about to, surround, encompass
1b1) to turn oneself, close round, turn round
1b2) to be turned over to
1c) (Piel) to turn about, change, transform
1d1) to encompass, surround
1d2) to come about, assemble round
1d3) to march, go about
1d4) to enclose, envelop
1e1) to turn, cause to turn, turn back, reverse, bring over, turn into, bring round
1e2) to cause to go around, surround, encompass
1f1) to be turned
1f2) to be surrounded
1324) bx (סב SB) AC: Turn CO: Dizzy AB: ?: The pictograph x is a picture of a thorn representing a turning, the b is a picture of a tent or what is inside. Combined these mean "turning of the inside". One drunk from strong drink, turns from dizziness. The old, gray headed ones, easily become dizzy.
V) bbx (סבב SBB) - Surround: To be around something. KJV (154): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal, Piel) about, surround, turn, remove, return, round, side, turn, beset, driven - Strongs: H5437 (סָבַב)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ס Ezekiel 42:19 +; 1 singular סַבֹּ֫תִי 1 Samuel 22:22 (but see below), סַבּ֫וֺתִי Ecclesiastes 2:20; Ecclesiastes 7:25; 3 plural סָָֽבְבוּ Joshua 6:15 + 1 Samuel 14:21; 2 Samuel 24:6 (see below), suffix סְבָבוּנִי Psalm 18:6 +, סַבּוּנִי Psalm 88:18 2t., סַבֻּנִי 2 Samuel 22:6; 2 masculine plural וְסַבֹּתֶם consecutive Joshua 6:3, etc.; Imperfect יָסֹב 1 Kings 7:15 +, suffix יְסֻבֵּנִי Psalm 49:6; oftener יִסֹּב 1 Samuel 5:8 +, וַיִּסֹּב Genesis 42:24 +; 3 masculine plural יָסֹ֫בוּ Job 16:13, וַיָּסֹ֫בוּ Joshua 6:14 +, 3 feminine plural תְּסֻבֶּינָה Genesis 37:7, etc.; Imperative masculine singular סֹב 1 Samuel 22:18, feminine singular סֹ֫בִּי Isaiah 23:16, etc.; Infinitive construct לִסְבֹּב Numbers 21:4, סֹב Deuteronomy 2:3; Participle סוֺבֵב 2 Kings 6:15 +, הַסֹּבֵיב 2 Kings 8:21 (Ginsb הִסְבִּיב Kt, הַסֹּבֵב Qr), etc.; —
1 turn, intransitive (Imperfect of form יִסֹּב in this sense only):
a. turn about, often as preliminary to something else 1 Samuel 15:12,27 (followed by infinitive), 1 Chronicles 16:43 ( id.; וַ֫יָּשָׁב in "" 2 Samuel 6:20) + 1 Samuel 14:21 (read סָֽבְבוּ גַם for ᵑ0סָבִיב וְגַם, ᵐ5ᵑ6 ᵑ9 Th We, etc.), Jeremiah 41:14 a (+ שׁוב v b, but ᵐ5 omits v a compare Gie), Ecclesiastes 1:6 (twice in verse); of door, Proverbs 26:14 turn on (עַל) its hinge (compare Niph`al Ezekiel 26:2); turn (toward one) 1 Samuel 22:17,18 (twice in verse); 2 Samuel 18:30 (twice in verse); Song of Solomon 2:17 (see Bu); also with אֶלֿ 2 Samuel 14:24 (twice in verse); + 2 Samuel 24:6 (read סָֽבְבוּ for סָבִיב We Dr Bu Kit HPS; Klo יָסֹבוּ, compare Löhr), Ezekiel 42:19; Ecclesiastes 1:6, אֶלאַֿחֲרָ֑י 2 Kings 9:18,19; of cup of ׳י, it shall come round unto (עַלֿ, with hostile implication; עָבַר עַל Lamentations 4:22) Habakkuk 2:16; of Jordan, turn לְאָחוֺר Psalm 114:3; Psalm 114:5; turn about from (מֵעַל) Genesis 42:24, (מִן) 1 Samuel 18:11, + אֶלֿ 1 Samuel 17:30; so of inheritance Numbers 36:7 it shall not go about from (מִן) tribe to (אֶלֿ) tribe, also Numbers 36:9 (לְ for אֶלֿ); compare (absolute) וַתִּסֹּב הַמְּלוּכָה וַתְּהִי לְאָתִי 1 Kings 2:15 (compare Hiph`il 1 b); = be brought round, with accusative of location 1 Samuel 5:8 (of ark).
b. turn = change, only Zechariah 14:10 (of land, changed like [כְּ, i.e. into] a plain), compare Hiph`il 1c. c. figurative turn (in a new direction) to do something (infinitive) Ecclesiastes 2:20; Ecclesiastes 7:25. — Psalm 71:21 is dubious; Bae reads וְתָשֻׁב for וְתִסֹּב after ᵐ5ᵑ6 ᵑ9; Hup-Now Che and others below
a. above: turn, comfort me. — Job 10:8 read אַחַר תִּסֹּב for ᵑ0יחד סביב De and others
2. a. march, or walk, around, with accusative (city) Joshua 6:3,4,7,14,15 (twice in verse) (all J E), Psalm 48:13; possibly also נָסֹב 1 Samuel 16:11 (of marching about altar? so HPS; turn to do something else Th), but compare תסוב Sirach 32:1 sit about a table (see Schechter BS p. 56, and compare מֵסַב), or read נֵשֵׁב Weir in Dr Kit Bu Löhr (perhaps).
b. go partly round, circle about, skirt, with accusative (land) Numbers 21:4 (JE) Judges 11:18, also Deuteronomy 2:1,3; of rivers Genesis 2:11,13.
c. make a round, or circuit, go about to, with accusative of location 1 Samuel 7:16; go about in (בְּ) 2 Chronicles 17:9, compare also (with בְּ) 2 Chronicles 23:2; Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 5:7; Ecclesiastes 12:5, so with accusative Isaiah 23:16; = make a circuitous march 2 Kings 3:9 (with accusative דֶּרֶךְ). — See also 2 Samuel 5:23; 1 Chronicles 14:14 Hiph`il 2a. d. surround, encompass, absolute Genesis 37:7 (E); with accusative Job 40:22; with hostile purpose, 2 Kings 6:15; Ecclesiastes 9:14 (both of siege), compare 2 Kings 3:25; accusative omitted Judges 16:2, compare 2 Samuel 18:15; with accusative of thing + עַלֿ person Judges 20:5; with עַלֿ person alone Job 16:13; 2 Chronicles 18:31; with אֶלֿ person 2 Kings 8:21 2 Chronicles 21:9; often figurative in poetry, with accusative Hosea 7:2; 2 Samuel 22:6 = Psalm 18:6; Psalm 22:13; Psalm 22:17; Psalm 49:6; Psalm 88:18; Psalm 118:10; Psalm 118:11 (twice in verse); Psalm 118:12; so also Psalm 17:11 (Kt סְבָבוּנִי, Qr סְבָבוּנוּ; on text see especially Hup-Now); literally of cord surrounding (measuring circumference of), with accusative 1 Kings 7:15 = Jeremiah 52:21; 1 Kings 7:23 2 Chronicles 4:2; of ornaments, etc., surrounding something (accusative) 1 Kings 7:24; 2 Chronicles 4:3; surround one with something (2accusative) 1 Kings 5:17; Psalm 109:3; accusative + בְּ instrumental Hosea 12:1; לָעֹפֶל׳ס 2 Chronicles 33:14 (i.e. build a wall around it). — 1 Samuel 22:22 read חַבְתִּי (√ חוּב), ᵐ5ᵑ6 Th We Dr Kit Bu Löhr HPS.
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נָסַב Joshua 15:3 +; 3 feminine singular נָסֵ֫בָּה Ezekiel 26:2 (Ges§ 67t St§ 410 b Kö i. 342); וְנָָֽסְבָה Ezekiel 41:7 (but read וְנוֺסְפָה Ew Sm Co Toy Hpt, compare Berthol); 3 plural נָסַ֫בּוּ Genesis 19:4 +; Imperfect 3 masculine plural יִסַּ֫בּוּ Ezekiel 1:9 5t.; —
1. a. turn oneself against (עַלֿ), close round upon (עַל) Genesis 19:4 (J) Joshua 7:9 (JE); with accusative Judges 19:22.
b. turn round (from a direct course), of wheels Ezekiel 1:9,12,17; Ezekiel 10:11 (twice in verse), also Ezekiel 10:16 (but dubious, Co ישׁבו, Toy Hpt leave, Symm ἀπελείποντο); נָסֵ֫בָּה אֵלַי Ezekiel 26:2 of Jerusalem under figure of door (Sm Co Berthol Toy Hpt).
c. especially of boundary (Hexateuch only P): turn round from (מִן), toward (לְ) Numbers 34:4, + ה locative Joshua 18:14; with מִן + ה locative + אֶלֿ Joshua 15:10; with מִן alone Numbers 34:5; with ה locative alone Jeremiah 31:39; Joshua 15:3; Joshua 16:6; circle about, skirt, with accusative Joshua 19:14.
2 passive be turned over to (לְ), into the power of, Jeremiah 6:12.
Pi`el Infinitiveconstruct סַבֵּב אֶתמְּֿנֵי הַדָּבָר 2 Samuel 14:20 to change, transform, the aspect of the matter.
Po`. Imperfect 3 masculine singular suffix יְסֹבְבֵנִי Jonah 2:4; Jonah 2:6, יְסֹבְבֶנְהוּ Deuteronomy 32:10, יְסוֺבְבֶנּוּ Psalm 32:10; 3 feminine singular תְּסוֺבֵב Jeremiah 31:22, etc.; — encompass, surround (in poetry and chiefly late): —
1 encompass (with protection), with accusative Deuteronomy 32:10 ( ׳י subject), with 2accusative חֶסֶד יְסוֺבְבֶנּוּ Psalm 32:10, compare Psalm 32:7 (but 2nd object here dubious); similarly נְקֵבָהתְּסוֺבֵב גָּ֑בֶר Jeremiah 31:22i.e. either shall protect (so most) or (Che, compare Gf) the woman (figurative of Israel), instead of holding aloof (הַבַּת הַשּׁוֺבֵבָה Jeremiah 31:22), will, in the new future which ׳י creates, with affection press round her divine husband.
2 come about, assemble round (accusative of person ׳י) Psalm 7:8.
3 march or go about, city (accusative) Psalm 55:11; Psalm 59:7; Psalm 59:15; altar (in solemn procession) Psalm 26:6; go about in (בְּ) city Song of Solomon 3:2.
4 enclose, envelop, with accusative of person Jonah 2:4; Jonah 2:6 (of waters).
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular הֵסֵב 2 Kings 16:18 +; 2 masculine singular הֲסִבֹּ֫תָ 1 Kings 18:37; 3 plural הֵסַ֫בּוּ 1 Samuel 5:9,10, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular וַיַּסֵּב Exodus 13:18 +, suffix וַיְסִבֵּ֫נִי Ezekiel 47:2; 3 masculine plural וַיַּסֵּ֫בּוּ Judges 18:23 2t.; 1 plural נָסֵב 2 Chronicles 14:6, cohortative נָסֵ֫בָּה 1 Chronicles 13:3; Imperative masculine singular הָסֵב 2 Samuel 5:23; 1 Chronicles 14:14 (but see below); feminine singular הָסֵ֫בִּי Song of Solomon 6:5; Infinitive construct הָסֵב 2 Samuel 3:12; 1 Chronicles 12:33; Participle מֵסֵב Jeremiah 21:4; perhaps also plural suffix מְסִבָּ֑י Psalm 140:10 (Ginsb); —
1. a. turn (transitive), cause to turn: turn face (accusative) Judges 18:23; 1 Kings 8:14 2 Chronicles 6:3 (all = turn toward); = turn round face 1 Kings 21:4, + אֶלהַֿקִּיר 2 Kings 20:2 = Isaiah 38:2; + מִן Ezekiel 7:22 (subject ׳י), 2 Chronicles 29:6 (of neglect), 2 Chronicles 35:22 (of avoiding battle); turn away eyes from (מִן), Song of Solomon 6:5; turn (back), change heart 1 Kings 18:37 (recall from apostasy; + אֲחֹרַנִּית), Ezra 6:22 (+ עַלֿ); turn back, reverse (weapons) Jeremiah 21:4.
b. bring over (i.e. to allegiance), with accusative + אֶלֿ person, 2 Samuel 3:12; 1 Chronicles 12:24 (van d. H. v. 1 Chronicles 12:23); of ׳י, turn over kingdom to (לְ) 1 Chronicles 10:14 (compare Qal 1 a, 1 Kings 2:15).
c. turn into, of changing name, 2accusative 2 Kings 23:24 2 Chronicles 36:4; 2 Kings 24:14.
d. = bring round, with accusative 1 Samuel 5:8,9; + מִן 2 Samuel 20:12; + אֶלֿ 1 Samuel 5:10; 1 Chronicles 13:3; + accusative of location 2 Kings 16:18 (sense obscure).
2. a. cause to go around: of carrying ark around city (2accusative) Joshua 6:11 (J E; but
Qalᵐ5 ᵑ6ᵑ9); lead round , i.e. by a round-about way, accusative of person + accusative דֶּרֶךְ Exodus 13:18 (E) Ezekiel 47:2; with accusative + infinitive of purpose 2 Chronicles 13:13; accusative omitted, lead round toward (אֶלֿ) 2 Samuel 5:23, away from (מֵעַלֿ) "" 1 Chronicles 14:14 (where, however, perhaps read as Samuel, so Be Öttli, and, in both, סֹב for הָסֵב Dr Kit Kau Hpt Bu HPS Löhr).
b. surround with (accusative) wall, 2 Chronicles 14:6 (accusative of city omitted).
c. perhaps also encompass (as foe), מְסִבָּ֑י Psalm 140:10 those encompassing me (others below מֵסַב below).
Hoph`al Imperfect 3 masculine singular יוּסָּ֑ב Isaiah 28:27; Participle feminine plural construct מֻסַבֹּת Exodus 28:11; Exodus 39:6; מוּסַבֹּת Exodus 39:13; Numbers 32:38 (see below); מוּסַבּוֺת Ezekiel 41:24; —
1 be turned, of cart wheel, with עַלֿ upon, over; מוּסַבּוֺת דְּלָתוֺת Ezekiel 41:24 participle apparently as gerundive, that can be turned, movable (Ges§ 116e; Co reads ׳צלעות מ, compare Toy Hpt); שֵׁם׳מוּס Numbers 32:38 turned (i.e. changed) as to name, but gloss, see Di.
2 surrounded, i.e. set, of jewels (participle construct) Exodus 28:11; Exodus 39:6,13 (all P).
סָבַב pret. fully and defect. סָֽבְבוּ, סַ֫בּוּ, סַבּוֹתֶם, inf. סְבֹב and סֹב, fut. יָסֹב and יִסֹּב
(1) to turn oneself, e.g. Proverbs 26:14, “the door turns itself עַל צִירָהּ on its hinge.” 1 Samuel 15:27, וַיִּסֹּב שְׁמוּאֵל לָלֶכֶת “and Samuel turned himself to go away.” Followed by אֶל Ecclesiastes 1:6 לְ 1 Kings 2:15; Psalms 114:3, Psalms 114:5עַל Habakkuk 2:16; 2 Chronicles 18:31, of a person or place to which we turn, and מִן, מֵעַל, מִפְּנֵי of that from which we turn away, 1 Samuel 17:30, וַיִּסֹּב מֵאֶצְלוּ אֶל מוּל אַחֵר “and he turned himself from him to another.” 1 Samuel 18:11; Genesis 42:24 followed by אֶל אַחֲרֵי to turn oneself back to follow any one, 2 Kings 9:18, 19 2 Kings 9:19 and absol. to turn about, Song of Solomon 2:17 Psal. 71:21. Also, to turn is put absol. for to approach 1 Samuel 22:17, 18 1 Samuel 22:18; 2 Samuel 18:15, 30 2 Samuel 18:30. When used of things, it is i.q. to be brought to, to be be-stowed upon, al. 1 Ki. loc. cit.; Numbers 36:7 Hab. loc. cit.
(2) to go round (which is done by turning one-self continually) in any place; to go over a place, e.g. a city, or cities, followed by בְּ Song of Solomon 3:3, 5:7 2 Chronicles 17:9, 23:2 also, an acc. Isaiah 23:16, סֹבִּי עִיר “go about the city.” 1 Samuel 7:16, “and he went about (the cities) Bethel and Gilgal and Mizpah.” 2 Kings 3:9, “and they went about דֶּרֶךְ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים a way of seven days;” (the words דּ׳ שׁ׳ י׳ are really in this sentence the accusative, depending on the verb; compare Arab. نسرى ليلا let us go by night; Plin. H. xxiii. 1, “si statim bina stadia ambulentur”); also, to go round about a place (umgehen); followed by an acc. Deuteronomy 2:3; Joshua 6:3, Joshua 6:4, Joshua 6:7 in order to avoid it, Numbers 21:4; Judges 11:18.
(3) to surround, to encompass, followed by an acc. Genesis 2:11, 13 1 Kings 7:24; 2 Kings 6:15; Psalms 18:6, 22:17 in a hostile sense Ecclesiastes 9:14 also followed by אֶל 2 Kings 8:21 and עַל Job 16:13; Judges 20:5. Genesis 37:7, וְהִנֵּה תְסֻבֶּינָה אֲלֻמּוֹתֵיכֶם וַתּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ “and lo your sheaves surrounded and did reverence;” i.e. your sheaves standing around mine did reverence to it. Absol. to surround (a table) is i.q. to recline, or sit down at table. 1 Samuel 16:11, לֹא נָסִב “we will not sit down.” Compare מֵסַב. To these are to be added two figurative significations.
(4) to be turned, i.e. to be changed; followed by כְּ to be made like any thing, Zechariah 14:10.
(5) to be the cause of any thing [to bring it about] (comp. Arab. سَبَبُ cause, سَبَّبَ to be the cause, to effect; Talm. סִבָּח cause, pr. a thing or occasion on which something else depends; German Umftand, circonstance, from the signification of surrounding; compare אוֹדוֹת), 1 Samuel 22:22, אָנֹכִי סַבֹּתִי בְּכָל־נֶפֶשׁ בֵּית אָבִיךָ “I am the cause (sc. of the death) of all the persons of thy father’s house.” Vulg. ego sum reus omnium animarum.
Niphal נָסַב and נָסֵב Ezekiel 26:2 fem. נָֽסְבָה for נָסַבָּה (see Lehrg. p. 372; Gramm. ed. x. § 66 note 11); fut. יִסַּב, יִסַּבּוּ
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to turn oneself, Ezekiel 1:9, 12 Ezekiel 1:12, 17 Ezekiel 1:17, 10:11, 16 Ezekiel 10:16 often used of a boundary, Numbers 34:4, Numbers 34:5 i.q. to be transferred to any one, followed by לְ. Joshua 15:3 Jerem. 6:12, נָסַבּוּ בָּתֵּיהֶם לַאֲחֵרִים “their houses shall be transferred to others;” comp. in Kal, Numbers 36:7.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 2, to surround, Judges 19:22 followed by עַל in a hostile sense, Genesis 19:4; Joshua 7:9.
Piel סִבֵּב i.q. Kal No. 4, to turn about, i.e. to change, 2 Samuel 14:20.
(1) i.q. Kal No. 2, to go about in a place, followed by בְּ Song of Solomon 3:2. Followed by an acc., to go over a place (im Orte umhergehn), Psalms 59:7, 15 Psalms 59:15 to go round a place (einen Ort umgehn), Psalms 26:6. Followed by עַל in a hostile sense, Psalms 55:11.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 3, to surround, Jonah 2:4, Jonah 2:6; Psalms 7:8 followed by two acc. (any one with any thing), 32:7, 10 Psalms 32:10 especially to watch and defend, Deuteronomy 32:10 (compare Hom. Il. i. 37). Jeremiah 31:22, נְקֵבָהּ תְּסוֹבֵב גֶּבֶר “a woman protects a man.” [Qu. as to the application and rendering of this passage.]
Hiphil הֵסֵב fut. יַסֵּב
(1) causat. of Kal No. 1, to cause to turn, Exodus 13:18 trans. to turn. 1 Kings 8:14, וַיַּסֵּב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־פָּנָיו “and the king turned his face,” etc.; 21:4 2 Kings 20:2. הֵסֵב עֵינָיו מִן to turn away the eyes from, Song of Solomon 6:5. Figuratively, הֵסֵב לֵּב פּ׳ עַל to turn or direct any one’s heart to some person or thing, Ezra 6:22 compare 1 Kings 18:37 and without לֵב. 2 Samuel 3:12, לְהָסֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־בָּל־יִשַׂרָאֵל “to turn all Israel to thee.” From the idea of turning round, it is to transfer, followed by לְ of pers., to any one. 1 Chronicles 10:14, וַיַּסֵּב אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָה לְדָוִיד “and turned the kingdom to David;” followed by אֶל of place (into any place), 1 Samuel 5:8, 1 Samuel 5:9, 10 1 Samuel 5:10 acc. of place, 2 Samuel 20:12.
(2) causat. of Kal No. 2, to cause to go round, or about, i.e. to lead round, e.g. a person, Ezekiel 47:2 a host, Exodus 13:18 to surround with walls, 2 Chronicles 14:6.
(3) causat. of Kal No. 4, to turn, to change. 2 Kings 23:34, וַיַּסֵּב אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יְהוֹיָקִים “and he changed his name into Jehoiakim;” 24:17.
(a) i.q. Kal No.1, to turn oneself, 2 Samuel 5:23.
(b) i.q. Kal No. 2, to go round a place, with an acc., Joshua 6:11.
(c) i.q. Kal No. 3, to surround, Psalms 140:10.
Hophal הוּסַב fut. יוּסַּב
(1) to turn oneself, to turn, as a door, Ezekiel 41:24 the roller of a threshing wain, Isaiah 28:27.
(2) to be surrounded, inclosed, Exodus 28:11, 39:6, 13 Exodus 39:13.
(3) to be turned, changed, Numbers 32:38.
Derived nouns, סִבָּה, נְסִבָּה, סָבִיב, מוּסַב, מֵסַב.