the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #03027 - יָד
1a) hand (of man)
1b) strength, power (figuratively)
1c) side (of land), part, portion (metaphorically) (figuratively)
1d) (various special, technical senses)
1d1) sign, monument
1d2) part, fractional part, share
1d3) time, repetition
1d4) axle-trees, axle
1d5) stays, support (for laver)
1d6) tenons (in tabernacle)
1d7) a phallus, a hand (meaning unsure)
1211) di (יד YD) AC: Throw CO: Hand AB: Thanks: The pictograph i is a picture of a hand, the d is a picture of door that allows movement in and out of the tent. Combined these mean "hand moves". The hand is the part of the body that enables man to perform many works. (eng: yard - with the addition of the r, a measurement equal to the length of the arm)
V) edi (ידה YDH) - I. Throw:[df: hdh]II. Praise:[Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Confess:In the sense of raising up the hands. KJV (117): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) praise, thank, confess, thanksgiving, cast, shoot, put - Strongs: H1911 (הָדָה), H3029 (יְדָה), H3034 (יָדָה)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 hand of man Genesis 3:22; Genesis 4:11; Genesis 8:9 + often; תַּבְנִית יָד Ezekiel 8:3 the shape of a hand (of God in Ezekiel ,'s vision); of cherubim יַד אָדָם׳ת Ezekiel 10:8, דְּמוּת יְדֵי אָדָם V:21:
a. right hand יַדיְֿמִינ (וֺׅ Genesis 48:17 (JE), Judges 7:20; 2 Samuel 20:9; Jeremiah 22:24; Ezekiel 39:3; Psalm 73:23; Psalm 121:5; הַיְמָנִית[ ם]יד Exodus 29:20; Leviticus 8:23,24; Leviticus 14:14,17,25,28 (all P); a left-handed man is אִטֵּר יַדיְֿמִינוֺ Judges 3:15; Judges 20:16 (V.אטר); left hand יַד שְׂמאֹל(וֺׅ Judges 3:21; Judges 7:20; Ezekiel 39:8; both hands of one person are denoted by dual, יָדַיִם Genesis 27:22; 2 Kings 3:11 + often; occasionally + numeral, שְׁתֵּי יָדָ֑י Deuteronomy 9:15,17, so Leviticus 16:21 (P); dual also of hands of several persons Genesis 5:29; Exodus 29:10,15,19; Deuteronomy 31:29; 2 Kings 11:16 2 Chronicles 23:15; Ezekiel 21:12 +; yet sometimes singular of hand of several persons Genesis 19:16; Exodus 29:9; Leviticus 8:24; Deuteronomy 1:25; Deuteronomy 17:7 (twice in verse); Judges 7:20 (twice in verse) +
b.שְׁתֵּי כַּמּוֺת ידיו 1 Samuel 5:4 the two palms of his hands; כַּמּוֺת הידים 2 Kings 9:35; Daniel 10:10; אַצִּילוֺת יָדֶיךָ armpits Jeremiah 38:12; Ezekiel 13:18; בֹּהֶן יָדָיו Exodus 29:20 (P) = his thumbs (opposed to בֹּהֶן רַגְלָם); בְּהֹנוֺתיד(יו) ורגל(יוׅ Judges 1:6,7; bracelets were worn on hands, i.e. wrists Genesis 24:22,30,47 (J), compare thread bound on hand of Zerach Genesis 38:28 (twice in verse); Genesis 38:29,30 (J), and cords on hands of Samson Judges 15:14; the ring was worn on hand, i.e. finger Genesis 41:42 (E), Esther 3:10.
c. as to hands in use, note זְרֹעֵי ידיו Genesis 49:24 arms of his hands, i.e. arms which make his hands serviceable; מִלֵּא יָדוֺ בַּקֶּשֶׁת 2 Kings 9:24 he filled his hand with the bow, i.e. caused his hand to grasp it, seized it; הַרְכֵּב יָדְךָ עַלהַֿקֶּשֶׁת 2 Kings 13:16 (twice in verse); especially figurative of consecrating or installing (as priest), מִלֵּא יַד he filled the hand of any one (perhaps originally gave the selected portions of animal-sacrifices to, see Leviticus 8:25 ff, so Di), installed as priest Judges 17:5,12. 1 Kings 13:33 (followed by וְ subordinate); elsewhere only P and late: Exodus 28:41 ("" קִדַּשׁ), Exodus 29:9 also Exodus 29:29 ("" משׁח), Exodus 29:33 קדּשׁ, Exodus 29:35; Leviticus 8:33; 2 Chronicles 13:9; 16:33, followed by infinitive Leviticus 16:33 ("" משׁח), Leviticus 21:10 ("" יוּצַק שֶׁמֶן), Numbers 3:3("" משׁח); מִלֵּאתֶםיֶרְכֶם ליהוה 2 Chronicles 29:31 #NAME?׳י, is addressed apparently to the whole congregation (otherwise Be Öttli, and Di Exodus 32:29); so the same expression Exodus 32:29; so the same expression Exodus 32:29 (possibly) and 1 Chronicles 29:5 (certainly) of offering gifts to ׳י; מִלְאוּ יָד֯ו Ezekiel 43:26 of consecrating the altar ("" כִּמֶּר, טִהַר); שָׁלַח יַד לְ Judges 5:26 stretch out hand to, so ישׁלח אֶלֿ 2 Samuel 6:6 (insert ידו Vrss Dr); hence מִשְׁלַח יד(כ)ם that to which one puts the hand, figurative, = undertaking, Deuteronomy 12:7,18; Deuteronomy 15:10; Deuteronomy 23:21; Deuteronomy 28:8,20; שׁלח יד also in hostile sense, with בְּ, Exodus 22:7; 1 Samuel 24:7; 1 Samuel 24:11; 1 Samuel 26:11; Psalm 55:21 +; compare מוֺאָב מִשְׁלוֺחַ יָדָם Isaiah 11:14; אֶבֶןיָֿד Numbers 35:17 (P) a stone ( thrown from) the hand; כְּלִי עֵץיָֿד Numbers 35:18 a weapon in the hand; מַקֵּל יָד Ezekiel 39:9 a staff in the hand; idols are ׳מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי וגו Isaiah 2:8 #NAME?מַעֲשֶׂה; man is work of God's hand Job 14:15.
d. special phrases: kissing with the hand וַתִּשַּׁקיָדִי לְפִי Job 31:27; (in silence) יָדִי שַׂמְתִּי לְמוֺ פִי Job 40:4; Micah 7:16 (עַלמֶּֿה); the creditor is בַּעַל מַשֵּׁה יָדוֺ Deuteronomy 15:2; the debt מַשָּׁא כָליָֿד Nehemiah 10:32; תְּרוּמַת יֶדְכֶם Deuteronomy 12:6,11,17 heave-offering of your hand; the hand is placed תחת יָרֵךְ in taking an oath Genesis 24:2 (J); lifted (הרים) to ׳י Genesis 14:22; so perhaps יָד עַלכֵּֿס יָהּ Exodus 17:16 (E) hand on the throne of Yah ! (but difficult, see Di VB); often with ׃נשׂא the hand is lifted (נשׂא) to heaven Deuteronomy 32:40 (of ׳י's oath, poem); elsewhere chiefly Ezekiel and P: simply lift (נשׂא) the hand (= נשׁבע), sq, infinitive Exodus 6:8; Numbers 14:30 (both P), Ezekiel 20:28,42; Ezekiel 47:14; followed by לְ person Ezekiel 20:5 (twice in verse) (strike out Co as gloss); followed by לְ person + infinitive Ezekiel 20:6,15,23; absolute Ezekiel 36:7; hence (citations) Nehemiah 9:15; Psalm 106:26; compare Nehemiah 8:6 the people answered אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם; נשׂא יד(יםׅ elsewhere (of men) in prayer Psalm 28:2; compare Psalm 68:32, and יָדִי לַיְלָה נִגְּרָה Psalm 77:3. Also of God, to give a signal Isaiah 49:29; to rescue Psalm 10:12. יְנֹפֵף יָדוֺ Isaiah 10:32 he brandisheth his hand (Assyrian, in defiance); הֵנִיףיָדוֺ Isaiah 11:15 (of ׳י in judgment), compareIsaiah 19:16; Zechariah 2:13 (followed byעל); הֵנִיעַ יָדוֺ); Zephaniah 2:15 (in derision); הוֺשִׁיעַ ידלְ one's hand bringing deliverance to, gaining success, by force, for 1 Samuel 25:26 #NAME? 1 Samuel 25:31 (ᵐ5 We Dr); the hand is weary יָגְָֽעָה 2 Samuel 23:10, it cleaves (דבק) to the sword (אֶלהַֿחֶרֶב) 2 Samuel 23:10 (both omitted by accident in "" 1 Chronicles 11:13, see VB); שֶׁכֶר יָד Leviticus 21:9 (H) fracture of hand = arm ("" שֶׁבֶר רגל); after נָתַן: give a pledge וִיִּתְּנוּ יָדָם לְהוֺצִיא נְשֵׁיהֶם Ezra 10:19; submit נָתַן יַד תַּחַת שְׁלֹמֹה 1 Chronicles 29:24, i.e. they acknowledged him as their lord; תְּנויָֿד ליהוה; 2 Chronicles 30:8; other phrase with preposition see below
e. of hand as strong, helpful, etc.: — ( I) of man : עֹצֶם יָדִי Deuteronomy 8:17 ("" כֹּחִי); of fighting power of Edom בְּיָד חֲזָקָה Numbers 20:20 (J E; "" בְּעַם כָּבֵד; compare below of God); קִצְרֵייָֿד small in power 2 Kings 19:26 = Isaiah 37:27 (compare below of God); Israel went out of Egypt בְּיָד רָמָה according to P, Exodus 14:8; Numbers 33:3i.e. boldly, defiantly; same phrase of presumptuousness (against ׳י) Numbers 15:30 (P, compare יָדֵנוּ רָ֫מָה Deuteronomy 32:27). Phrases of strengthening are: חִזַּק יָדָתו Judges 9:24; Nehemiah 6:9; חִזֵּק בְּיָדַיִם Ezra 1:6; החזיק בְּיַדֿ Job 8:20 (see חזק); לִהְיוֺת יָדָיו אִתּוֺ 2 Kings 15:19 that his hands might be with him, to confirm the kingdom in his hand; note also מִיהֿוּא לְיָדִי יִתָּקֵעַ Job 17:3 who is he (that) will strike his hand into mine, i.e. give me a pledge (see below תקע); strength fails when hands drop: וַיִּרְמּוּ יָדָיו 2 Samuel 4:1 then his hands dropped down, he grew feeble, spiritless (see רפה); רְפֵי יָדַיִם 2 Samuel 17:2 weak-handed, weak ("" יָגֵעַ). (2) of (mighty) hand of God, pointing to earlier anthropomorphism; as strengthening Joseph Genesis 49:24 (poem in J); as stretched out (שׁלח) to smite Exodus 9:15 (J); so of ׳מַלְאַךְ י 2 Samuel 24:16, followed by accusative + לְ infinitive, opposed to הֶ֫רֶף יָדֶ֑ךָ 2 Samuel 24:16; as smiting (נָָֽגְעָה בְּ) 1 Samuel 6:9; Job 19:21; as against (בְ among, in) cattle, etc., Job 19:3 (J); city 1 Samuel 5:9; the murrain 1 Samuel 5:3 (J); יַדיֿהוה as heavy against (כבדה אֶל) 1 Samuel 5:6; שָׁם כָּֽבְדָה 1 Samuel 5:11; קָֽשְׁתה עַל 1 Samuel 5:7 of withdrawal of ׳י s chastising hand תָּסוּר יָדוֺ מִכֶּם 1 Samuel 6:3; and (׳י subject) יָקֵל אֶתיָֿדוֺ מֵעֲלֵיכֶם 1 Samuel 6:5; of ׳י s power to deliver his people: — חֹ֫זֶק יָד Exodus 13:3,14,16 (all J E); יָד חֲזָקָה Exodus 6:1 (twice in verse) (JE), Exodus 13:9 (JE), Deuteronomy 6:21; Deuteronomy 7:8; Joshua 4:24 (D); esp: in phrase (בְּ)יָד חֲזָקָה וּ(בִ)זְרוֺעַ נְטוּיָה Deuteronomy 4:34 + (see זְרוֺעַ p. 284); יד חזקה + כֹּחַ גָּדוֺל Exodus 32:11 (JE), Nehemiah 1:10; תִּקְצָ֑ר הֲיַד׳י Numbers 11:23 (JE) is the hand of ׳י shortened ? Isaiah 50:2; Isaiah 59:1 (both followed by מִן); יָד נְטוּיָה in judgment Isaiah 9:11; Isaiah 9:16; Isaiah 9:20; Isaiah 10:4; עלי(וׅ׳הָֽיְתָה יַדיֿ of grasp of ׳י s hand in prophetic inspiration Ezekiel 1:3; Ezekiel 3:22; Ezekiel 37:1; Ezekiel 40:1; 2 Kings 3:15; עָלַי חזקה׳יַדיֿ Ezekiel 3:14; so בְּחֶזְקַת הַיָּד֑ Isaiah 8:11; of God's (׳י's) good hand = favour, (late) אלה(יו) טוֺבָה על(יו) יַד Ezra 7:9; Ezra 8:18; Nehemiah 2:8,18; without טוֺבָה Ezra 7:6,28; Ezra 8:22,31; followed by inf, יַד האלהים לָתֵת לָהֶם 2 Chronicles 30:12; בְּיָָֽדְךָ לְגַדֵּל 1 Chronicles 29:12; in General כֹּחַ וּגְבוּרָה בְּיָָֽדְךָ 1 Chronicles 29:12; of protection בְּצֵל יָדוֺ Isaiah 49:2 in the shadow of his (׳י's) hand.
2 Figurative= strength, power: — לָנוּס לֹא הָיָה בָהֶם יָדָיִם Joshua 8:20 (JE) there was not in them strength to flee; לֹא מָֽצְאוּ כָלאַֿנְשֵׁיחַֿיִל יְדֵיהֶם Psalm 76:6 none of the men of might have found their hands, i.e. their powers are paralyzed in death ("" נָמוּ שְׁנָתָם); with reference to pecuniary ability: תַּ גִּיעַ יָדוֺ דֵּי שֶׂה Leviticus 5:7 (on this and others with דֵּי see דַּי p. 191); לִשְׁתֵּי תוֺרִים תַּגִּיעַ יָדוֺ Leviticus 5:11 if his hand do not reach to two turtledoves; אֵין יָדוֺ מַשֶּׂגֶת Leviticus 14:21 if his hand be unable to reach; so combinations with נשׂג Hiph`il: Leviticus 14:22; Leviticus 14:30; Leviticus 14:31; Leviticus 14:32; Numbers 6:21 (all foregoing P), Leviticus 25:26,47,49; Leviticus 27:8 (all H), Ezekiel 46:7; כְּמִתְּנַת יָדוֺ Deuteronomy 16:17 according to the giving of his hand, i.e. his ability; similarly מַתַּת יָדוֺ Ezekiel 46:5,11; on יֶשׁלְֿאֵל יָדִי Genesis 31:29, etc., see II. אֵל above; other phrase with preposition see below; of dominion of king לְהָשִׁיב יָדוֺ בְּ 2 Samuel 8:3 read probably as "" 1 Chronicles 18:3 לְהַצִּיב יָדוֺ בְּ to establish his dominion at; hand = display of strength, action of ׳י Psalm 78:42; Job 27:11; Deuteronomy 34:12; especially ׳הַיָּד הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה י Exodus 14:31 (J) = the great achievement which ׳י did.
3 Figurative= side:
a. of way יַד דֶּרֶךְ 1 Samuel 4:13 Qr (Kt יך; but read probably לְיַד השׁער see Dr.).
b. of gate בְּעַד יַדהַֿשַּׁעַר 1 Samuel 4:18 (text dubious, see Dr).
c. of stream or wady כָּליַֿד נַחַל יַבֹּק Deuteronomy 2:37. Especially dual:
d. of land, ארץ רַחֲבַת יָדַיִם Genesis 34:21 (P) the land is wide of (on) both hands, i.e. in both directions, Judges 18:10; Isaiah 22:18; 1 Chronicles 4:40; of city Nehemiah 7:4; of sea Psalm 104:25; of streams רַחֲבֵי יָדָ֑יִם Isaiah 33:21; מִיּד כִּתִּים Numbers 24:24 (JE) from the direction of Kittim. — Other phrase with preposition see below
e. side = place, properly place at one side לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָד תִּהְיֶה Deuteronomy 23:13; אִישׁ אֶתיָֿדוֺ Jeremiah 6:3 each (in) his place; so כָּלאִֿישׁ עַליָֿדוֺ Numbers 2:17 (P); — see other phrases with preposition below
4יָד is used in various special, technical senses: —
a. sign, monument 1 Samuel 15:12; 2 Samuel 18:18.
b. part, fractional part or share: of seed Genesis 47:24 (J); share in king 2 Samuel 19:44; of fighting men 2 Kings 11:17; of people Nehemiah 11:1
c. time, repetition Genesis 43:34 (J), Daniel 1:20. Also feminine plural (only in figure senses): —
d. axle-trees 1 Kings 7:32,33 (ᵑ6 ).
e. stays, supports for laver 1 Kings 7:35,36; stays at sides of throne 1 Kings 10:19 (twice in verse) = 2 Chronicles 9:18 (twice in verse).
f. tenons on sides of boards of tabernacle שְׁתֵּי יָדוֺת Exodus 26:17 (P), also Exodus 26:19; Exodus 26:19; Exodus 36:22,24 (twice in verse).
g.יָד חָזִית Isaiah 57:8 according to Hi De Che Or Brd Du and most = a phallus thou beholdest; this favoured by context but without support in Hebrew usage; Di a (beckoning) hand.
5 יַד with preposition: —
a.אֶליַֿד: — (1) after verb of motion, into the charge, custody, of Esther 2:3,8 (twice in verse); Esther 2:14; -2אֶליַֿד by the side of gate 2 Samuel 18:4; אֶליָֿדִי by my side, next to me 2 Samuel 14:30; אֶליַֿד דֶּרֶךְ Ezekiel 48:1 a; אֶליַֿד חֲמָת v b (but on text see Co); compare also לְיַד, עַליַֿד.
b.בְּיַד into the hand:-1נָתַן בְּיַד give into the hand of, literally, Genesis 27:17; -2 into the possession of נָתַן בְּיַד Exodus 10:25 (JE); especially (3) נתן ביד = give into the power of, deliver over to Joshua 6:2; Joshua 7:7 (both J E), Deuteronomy 1:27; Judges 2:14; a Judges 13:1; Judges 15:12; 1 Kings 22:6; 2 Kings 18:30; 2 Kings 19:10; מָכַר בְּיַד sell into the hand of Judges 2:14; b Judges 3:8; Judges 4:2,9; Judges 10:7; נפל בְּיַד) fall into the hand of Judges 15:18; 2 Samuel 24:14; וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם בְּיַד מִּשְׁעָם Job 8:4 and he delivered them into the power of their transgression, gave them over to it; also Isaiah 64:6, which read וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ for ᵑ0וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ; (4) נתן בְּיַד = entrust to Genesis 30:35; Genesis 32:17.
c.בְּיַד in the hand of: (1) literal מַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדֶ֑ךָ Genesis 38:18 (J) thy staff which is in thy hand, Exodus 7:17 (J), Exodus 17:9 (E), Exodus 32:15; Numbers 22:23,31; Joshua 5:13; Joshua 8:18 (all J E), 1 Samuel 13:22; 1 Samuel 14:27; 1 Samuel 17:50; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 20:10; 2 Kings 11:8,11 2 Chronicles 23:7; Amos 7:7; Isaiah 6:6; Ezekiel 40:3,5; Ezekiel 47:3; Zechariah 2:5; Zechariah 8:4; אֵין בְּיָדִי רָעָה וָפֶ֫שַׁע 1 Samuel 14:12 there is not in my hand evil or transgression (originally probably of stains of blood, or other evidences of crime); מַהבְּֿיָדִי רָעָה 1 Samuel 26:18; (2) figurative in the possession of, Exodus 21:16 (JE); נִמְצָא בְּיָדִי 1 Samuel 9:8 there is found in my hand, i.e. I happen to have (1/4shekel); (3) in the (physical) power of Genesis 16:6 (J; compare תִּתְעַנִּי תַּחַת יָדֶיהָ Genesis 16:9), Job 1:12; בְּיַד לָשׁוֺן Proverbs 18:21 in the power of a tongue; in the care or charge of, entrusted to, Genesis 39:23 (J); under the authority of 2 Samuel 18:2 (3t. in verse); Numbers 31:49 (P); — Jeremiah 41:9 (AV because of Gedaliah), read בּוֺר גָּדוֺל הוּא for ביד גדליהו הואᵐ5 Hi Kue Gf Che Gie Dr Sm 291; (4) בְּיַד also with verbs of taking, וַיִּקַּח בְּיָדוֺ אֶתהָֿאֵשׁ Genesis 22:6 and he took the fire in his hand, Exodus 4:17,20,21 (all E), 1 Samuel 17:40; 2 Kings 9:1; thence to denote accompaniment, taking or being with one Joshua 9:11 (JE), 2 Samuel 8:10; 1 Kings 14:3; 2 Kings 5:5; אִישׁ שׁוֺרוֺ בְּיָדוֺ 1 Samuel 14:34; compare 1 Samuel 16:2; קַח בְּיָָֽדְךָ שְׁלשִׁים אֲנָשִׁים Jeremiah 38:10.
d.בְּיַד by the agency or instrumentality of Genesis 38:20 (J), Judges 6:36; 1 Samuel 11:7; 1 Samuel 16:20; 2 Samuel 3:18; 2 Samuel 10:2; 2 Samuel 11:4; 2 Samuel 12:25; 2 Kings 14:27 (the original literal sense discernible in some of these); especially of ׳י's speaking by the agency of prophets Exodus 9:35 (R), Leviticus 8:36; Leviticus 10:11; Numbers 4:37,45; Numbers 9:23; Numbers 10:13; Numbers 17:5; Joshua 14:2; Joshua 20:2; Joshua 21:2,8 (all P), 1 Samuel 28:15,17; 1 Kings 16:7,12,34; 2 Kings 9:36; 2 Kings 17:13,23; 2 Chronicles 1:17; 7:6; 10:15; 33:8; 34:14; 35:6; Nehemiah 8:14; Nehemiah 9:14,30; ׳מוּת בְּיַד י Exodus 16:3 (P) die by the hand of ׳י; בְּיַד by or at the side of (very rare) Zechariah 4:12 olive-branches beside the two golden pipes; = near to, in time, נָכוֺן בְּיָדוֺ יוֺם חשֶׁךְ Job 15:23 ready at his hand is a day of darkness (i.e. near at hand).
e.כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ 1 Kings 10:13 according to the hand of the king, i.e. his royal munificence, so Esther 2:18; compare Esther 1:7.
f. לְיַד by the side of 1 Samuel 19:3; 1 Chronicles 18:17; 1 Chronicles 23:28; Nehemiah 11:24; Proverbs 8:3; Psalm 140:6.
g.מִיַּד out of the hand: — (1) out of power of, often nearly = מִן, used idomatically with many verbs: with הִצִּיל Psalm 32:12 (twice in verse) (J), Exodus 2:19; Exodus 18:9,10 (twice in verse) (all J E), 1 Samuel 17:37; מִתַּחַת יַד Exodus 18:10 (J E; so with פשׁע 2 Chronicles 21:8,10 (twice in verse); compare
i. below); of animals מִיַּד 1 Samuel 17:37 (twice in verse), מִיַּדכֶּֿלֶב Psalm 22:21; even of inanimate things הִצִּיל מִיַּד לֶהָבָה Isaiah 47:14; with לָקַח Numbers 21:26 (JE), 1 Kings 11:34,35; with קָרַע 1 Kings 11:12; 1 Kings 11:31; with מִלֵּט, מִיַּד שְׁאוֺל׳מ Psalm 89:49; with מָּדָה, מִיַּד שְׁאוֺל׳פ Hosea 13:14 ("" מִמָּ֫וֶת), Psalm 49:16; מִידֵי חֶרֶב׳פ Job 5:20; pregnantly יִשְׁמְּטֵנִי מִיָּדֶ֑ךָ 1 Samuel 24:16 may he (Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
יָד const. יַד with suff. יָדִי, but יֶדְכֶם, יֶדְכֶן (for יַדְכֶם, יַדְכֶן), dual יָדַיִם const. יְדֵי. Plur. יָדוֹת; fem. (see however Ezekiel 2:9). [In Thes. this word is referred to the root יָדָה.]
(1) the human hand, once used of the feet of a lizard, as being like a human hand, Proverbs 30:28. (Syr. ܝܕܰ, Arab. يَدُ id., Eth. አዽ፡). The principal phrases in which the proper signification of hand is retained are the following:
(a) אֶת־פּ׳, יָדִי עִם “my hand (is) with some one;” i.e. I help him, I take his part. 1 Samuel 22:17; 2 Samuel 3:12; 2 Kings 15:19.
(b) יָדִי הָֽיְתָה בִּפְ׳ “my hand is upon some one,” i.e. against him (Genesis 16:12). I do violence and harm to him, Genesis 37:27; 1 Samuel 18:17, 21 1 Samuel 18:21, 24:13, 14 1 Samuel 24:14; Joshua 2:19. So יַד יְיָ הָֽיְתָה בְּ used of the hand of God in punishing and afflicting, Exodus 9:3; Deuteronomy 2:15; Judges 2:15; 1 Samuel 7:13, 12:15 rarely (in a good sense) aiding, favouring, 2 Chronicles 30:12; Ezra 9:2 to avoid the ambiguity of this medial phrase there is added לְרָעָה Judges 2:15. The following expressions are used only in a bad sense, נָתַן יָדוֹ בְּ (of God) Exodus 7:4 and יָצְֽאָה יַד יְיָ בְּ Ruth 1:13 in a good sense we find, Isaiah 25:10, תָּנוּהַ יַד יְיָ בָּהָר הַזֶּה “the hand of Jehovah shall rest on this mountain.”
(c) In either sense (but more often in a good one) is this phrase used. הָֽיְתָה יַד יְיָ עַל פּ׳ “the hand of God is upon some one,” i.e. as bringing aid. Ezra 7:6, כְּיַד יְיָ אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו “as the hand of Jehovah his God (was) upon him.” Verse 28 Ezra 7:28, 8:18, 31 Ezra 8:31. Twice it is expressly said, יַד אֱלֹהִים הַטּוֹבָה Ezra 7:9; Nehemiah 2:8 also there is added לִטוֹבָה Ezra 8:22. Also in a good sense there is said, Isaiah 1:25, אָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ, but in a bad, Amos 1:8, הֲשִׁיבֹתִי יָדִי עַל עֶקְרוֹן “I will turn my hand upon (against) Ekron;” and so followed by אֶל (for עַל) Ezekiel 13:9 and in New Test. Acts 13:11, χεὶρ Κυρίου ἐπί σε, καὶ ἔσῃ τυφλός κ. τ. λ.
(d) The phrase, the hand of God is upon (עַל) any one, is also used in this sense, the Spirit of God is upon a prophet, begins to move him, inasmuch as the Spirit of God was communicated to men with laying on a hand. Ezekiel 1:3, 3:14, 22 Ezekiel 3:22, 37:1 2 Kings 3:15 followed by אֶל (for עַל) 1 Kings 18:46. The same is חָֽזְקָה יְיָ עַל Ezekiel 3:14 (compare Isaiah 8:11) and נָֽפְלָה יַד יְיָ עַל Ezekiel 8:1 (compared with Ezekiel 11:5, where for יָד there is רוּחַ). Thus may be understood Jeremiah 15:17, מִפְּנֵי יָֽדְךָ “because of thy hand,” i.e. because of the Spirit of God by which I am moved.
(e) נָתַן יָד to give the hand, i.e. to pledge the fidelity of the giver, 2 Kings 10:15; Ezra 10:19 specially the vanquished giving the hand to the victor. Ezekiel 17:18; Jeremiah 50:15; Lamentations 5:6; 2 Chronicles 30:8, תְּנוּ יָד לַֽיהֹוָה “give the hand (submit) to Jehovah.” (For a similar usage in Syriac, see Acts 27:13, Pesh. Lud. de Dieu, on the passage. To this usage also belongs the gloss of Arabic Lexicographers, يَدُ security by pledge, rendering subjection, χείρωσις.) Similar is נָתַן יָד תַּחַת פּ׳ to subject oneself to any one, 1 Chronicles 29:24.
(f) the hand, κατʼ ἐξοχήν (הַיָּד) is sometimes used (a) of the hand of God (like הָרוּחַ for רוּחַ יְיָ, הַשֵּׁם for שֵׁם יְהֹוָה). So Isaiah 8:11, בְחֶזְקַת הַיָּד for בּח׳ יָד יְיָ (comp. letter d) and Job 23:3, יָדִי כָֽבְדָה for יַד יְהֹוָה אֲשֶׁד בִי כָּֽבְדָח “the hand of God (inflicting punishment) which is against me is heavy;” comp. letter b.
(β) of the hand, i.e. the aid of man, human aid. לֹא בְיָד Job 34:20, and בְּאֶפֶס יָד Daniel 8:25, without any human power. Chald. לָא בִידַיִן Daniel 2:34, 45. Compare Lamentations 4:6.
(g) יָד לְיָד from hand to hand (von Hand zu Hand), i.e. through all ages and generations, and, when accompanied by, a negative particle, never. Proverbs 11:21, יָד לְיָד לֹא יִנָּקֶה רַע “through all generations the wicked shall not be unpunished;” 16:5. In Persic a similar phrase is used, دست بدست, Schultt. Animadverss. ad Prov. loc. cit., and Syr. ܐܺܝܕܐܳ ܒܺܐܝܕܐܳ is, one by one, one after another. To the same usage belongs the Arabic interpretation of يد by succession.
(h) יָד לְפֶה hand to the mouth, sc. place, i.e. be silent, remain silent, Proverbs 30:32 (compare Job 21:5, 29:9 40:4 Micah 7:16). Pers. دست بر دهان.
(1) שׂוּם יָד עַלּ רֹאשׁ 2 Samuel 13:19, die Hände über dem Kopf zufammenfchlagen, an action of one deeply bewailing, compare Jeremiah 2:37.
See other expressions under the verbs מִלֵּא, מָצָא, נָטָה, נָשָׂא, רָפָה, שָׁלַח, תָּמַךְ, תָּקַע, etc., and the adjectives רָם, חָזָק.
It is so used with prepositions as sometimes to lose altogether its force as a noun.
(aa) בְּיָדִי (a) in my hand, often for with me, after verbs of carrying or leading, as, to bring with oneself. 1 Samuel 14:34, וַיַּגִּשׁוּ כָל־הָעָם אִישׁ שׁוֹרוֹ “and all the people brought each one his ox with him.” Jeremiah 30:10, קַח בְּיָדְֽךָ מִזֶּה שְׁלשִׁים אֲנָשִׁים “take with thee from hence thirty men.” Genesis 32:14, 35:4 Numbers 31:49; Deuteronomy 33:3; 1 Samuel 16:2; 1 Kings 10:29. Because I possess the things which I bring or carry with me, hence it is applied to possession, like אֵת, עִם; Lat. penes. Ecclesiastes 5:13, “he begets a son וְאֵין בְּיָדוֹ מְאוּמָה who has nothing” (comp. Germ. etwas in der Hand haben, and Hebr. יָדִי מָֽצְאָה דָבָר under the word מָצָא). Chald. Ezra 7:25, “the wisdom of thy God which is in thy h and,” i.e. which thou possessest.
(β) “into my hand, i.e. into my power, after words of delivering, Genesis 9:2, 14:20 Exodus 4:21; 2 Samuel 18:2. Hence צֹאן יָדוֹ the flock delivered into his hand, 95:7 and to the same usage are the words to be referred, Isaiah 20:2, בְּיַד יְשַׁעְיָהוּ. LXX. πρὸς Ἠσαίαν, viz. being about to deliver a revelation to him.
(γ) through my hand, often for through me, by means of me, Numbers 15:23, “whatsoever God commanded you בְּיַד משֶׁה through Moses;” 2 Chronicles 29:25; 1 Kings 12:15; Jeremiah 37:2, etc. Often thus after verbs of sending, 1 Kings 2:25, “and king Solomon sent בְּיַד בְּנָיָהוּ.” Exodus 4:13; Proverbs 26:6; 1 Samuel 16:20 2 Sa. 12:25 comp. Act. 11:30 15:23.
(δ) at my hand, i.e. before me, in my sight, i.q. לְפָנַי. (In this sense the Arabs are accustomed to use بين يدين between any one’s hands; see Koran ii. 256, iii. 2; xx. 109. Schult. Opp. Min., p. 29, 30; ad Job. p. 391. In Greek ἐν χερσίν, Apollon., Rhod. i. 1113; comp. πρὸ χειρῶν, Germ. vorhanden, διὰ χειρῶν ἔχειν, Lat. hostes sunt in manibus, i.e. in sight. Cæs. Bell. Gall., ii. 19; Sallust. Jug., 94; Virg. Æn., xi. 311, ante oculos interque manus sunt omnia vestras, i.e. πρόχειρά ἐστι.) 1 Samuel 21:14, “he feigned himself mad בְּיָדָם in their sight.” Job 15:23, “he knows כִּינָכוֹן בְּיָדוֹ יוֹם חשֶׁךְ that the day of darkness is ready at hand to him.”
(bb) בֵּין יָדַיִם between the hands, on the breast, the front of the body, Zechariah 13:6. Comp. בֵּין עֵינַיִם on the forehead. [Is there no secret reason for making an especial rule as to Zechariah 13:6? It surely must be taken without gloss.]
(cc) כְּיַד according to the hand, in the phrase כְּיַד הַמֶּלֶךְ according to the hand of the king, 1 Kings 10:13; Esther 1:7, 2:18, i.e. according to the bounty of the king. The liberal and open hand of the king is signified. Others have taken it less appropriately according to the power of the king; for it is not power and might which are here ascribed to him, but liberality.
(dd) מִיַּד פּ׳ out of the hand, i.e. out of the power of any one, often put after verbs of asking, Genesis 9:5, 31:39 Isaiah 1:12 of taking, Genesis 33:19; Numbers 5:25 of setting free, Genesis 32:12; Exodus 18:9; Numbers 35:25 whence it is said, out of the hands of the lion and the bear, 1 Samuel 17:37 of dogs, Psalms 22:21 of the sword, Job 5:20 of Hades, Psalms 49:16, 89:49 the flame, Isaiah 47:14.
(ee) עַל יַד פּ׳, עַל יְדֵי פ׳ (α) upon the hand, or hands, of any one, after verbs of delivering, commanding, Genesis 42:37; 1 Samuel 17:22; 2 Kings 10:24, 12:12 22:5, 2 Kings 22:9; Ezra 1:8. So, to deliver עַל יְדֵי חֶרֶב into the hands of the sword, Psalms 63:11; Jeremiah 18:21. But in the same sense is also said, יְדֵי פ׳ תַּחַת יַד, under any one’s hands, Genesis 16:9, 41:35 Isaiah 3:6.
(β) עַל יַד (Ezra 1:8), more often עַל יְדֵי on or at the hands of any one, i.e. some one taking the matter in hand, or under his guidance (an der Hand jemandes, jemandem zur Hand). 1 Chronicles 25:3, עַל יְדֵי אֲבִיהֶם “under the guidance (or superintendence) of their father,” verses 1 Chronicles 25:2, 1 Chronicles 25:6, 7:29. (As it is said in Latin, servus a manu, ad manum esse.) Also used of one absent and dead, whom others follow as a guide or director. 2 Chronicles 23:18, עַל יְדֵי דָוִיד “by the guidance of David;” i.e. as following David, according to the institution of David, Ezra 3:10. Used of things, 2 Chronicles 29:27, “the sounding of trumpets began עַל יְדֵי כְּלֵי דָוִיד according to the (musical) instruments of David;” i.e. the sounding followed the measures of the musical instruments appointed by David. Compare as to this idiom, Lud. de Dieu, on Jeremiah 5:31 Criticæ Sacræ, p. 240. (Arab. عَلَى يَدِهِ, عَلَى يدَيْهِ under any one’s care or auspices, a phrase often found on Arabic coins connected with the name of the artist.) See also under No. 5.
(ff) לְיָד see No. 1, let. g, and No. 5.
Dual יָדַיִם a person’s two hands, also used for the plural, Job 4:3; Proverbs 6:17; Isaiah 13:7.
(2) Plur. יָדוֹת artificial hands, or handles, also used of things which resemble handles.
(a) tenons of boards (Zapfen), Exodus 26:17, 19 Exodus 26:19, 36:22, 24 Exodus 36:24.
(b) the axles of a wheel, 1 Kings 7:32, 33 1 Kings 7:33. As to the distinction between the dual and plur. fem. in substantives which denote members of the body, see Lehrg. 540. (Arab. يَدُ handle, as of a handmill, or of an axe; Syriac plur. ܙܝܺܕܰܗ̈ܳܬܐܳ] handles, hinges.) Comp. כַּפּוֹת.
(3) The hand being the seat of strength, metaph. power, strength (the proper force of the word being for the most part lost in such cases; compare above
(1), dd). בְּיָד with force, or power, Isaiah 28:2 יַד אֵל the power of God, Job 27:11. Psalms 76:6, “and all the men of might have not found יְדֵיהֶם their hands,” i.e. have found themselves devoid of strength. (Vice versâ Vit. Tim. i. 44, “they found their hand and side,” i.e. “they had all their strength ready.”) Applied to one remarkable and wonderful work, Exodus 14:31 (comp. manus, Virg. Æn. vi. 688). Specially aid, assistance, Deuteronomy 32:36, אָֽזְלַת יָד “help is departed.” (So Arab. يد الصبا the power of the east wind, لا يد لك ب thou hast no power in such a thing, Syr. ܐܝܕܐ ܕܪܗܘܡܝܐ the power of the Romans, Pers. دست power. As to the expression a long or a short hand, see under the word קָעַר.
(4) The hand being used for smiting with, hence a stroke. Job 20:22, כָּל־יַד עָמֵל תְּבֹאֶנּוּ “every stroke of the wretched comes upon him;” whatever usually falls upon the wretched. (Compare Latin manus, for a blow, with regard to gladiators.)
(5) a side, properly used of the sides of a person, where the hands and arms are situated (comp. Lat. ad dextram, sinistram manum, ad hanc manum, Terent. Ad. iv. 2, 31). Hence the dual יָדַיִם properly both sides, especially in the phrase רְחַב יָדַיִם broad of both sides, i.e. long and broad, widely extending, Genesis 34:21; Psalms 104:25; Isaiah 33:21, etc. Used in the sing. of the side or bank of a river, Exodus 2:5; Deuteronomy 2:37 (Syr. ܝܰܕ ܝܰܡܐܳ shore). With prepositions, לְיַד 1 Samuel 19:3; 1 Chronicles 18:17, 23:28 Proverbs 8:3 בְּעַד יַד 1 Samuel 4:18 אֶל יַד 2 Samuel 14:30, 18:4 עַל יַד Joshua 15:46; 2 Samuel 15:2; 2 Chronicles 17:15, 31:15 Job 1:14; Nehemiah 3:2, seq.; עַל יְדֵי Numbers 34:3; Judges 11:26 by the side of, near (Syr. ܥܰܠ ܝܰܕ near). 1 Chronicles 6:16, אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱמִיד דָּוִיד עַל יְדֵי שִׁיר בֵּית יְהֹוָה “whom David constituted for (by the side of) the singing of the temple;” like the German, er ftellte ihn an beh dem Gefange. See farther as to the particle עַל יְדֵי No. 1, cc.-Plur. יָדוֹת sides
(a) of a royal throne, arms as of a chair, lateral supports, 1 Kings 10:19.
(b) lateral projections on bases, 1 Kings 7:35, 36 1 Kings 7:36.
(6) a place, Deuteronomy 23:13; Numbers 2:17, אִישׁ עַל יָדוֹ “each one in his own place.” Isaiah 56:5 (compare No. 8). Isaiah 57:8, יָד חָזִית “thou didst look thee out a place.” Ezekiel 21:24. Dual id. Joshua 8:20, לֹא הָיָה בָהֶם יָדַיִם לָנוּם “they had no place to flee.”
(7) a part (perhaps properly a handful, a part of anything to be taken up whilst dividing). Jeremiah 6:3; Daniel 12:7. [Qu. as to the applicability of these two passages.] Plur. יָדוֹת 2 Kings 11:7, וּשְׁתֵּי הַיָּדוֹת בָּכֶס “and two parts of you,” opposed to the third part. Genesis 47:24, אַרְבַּע הַיָּדוֹת “four parts,” opposed to חֲמִישִׁית the fifth part. Nehemiah 11:1. (Compare פֶּה.) Also in the connection, Daniel 1:20, “and he found them עֶשֶׂר יָדוֹת עַל כָּל־הַחַרְטֻמִּים ten parts (i.e. ten times) wiser than all the magicians.” Genesis 43:34 2 Sa. 19:44.
(8) a monument, trophy, i.q. שֵׁם (a hand being that which points and marks),-of victory, 1 Samuel 15:12, 2 Samuel 18:18. Isaiah 56:5, “I will give to them in my house יָד וָשֵׁם a memorial (or a portion) and a name.” This name in Hebrew for a monument may be connected with the ancient custom of sculpturing on cippi or sepulchral columns, an open hand and arm. See Hamackeri Diatribe de Monumentis Punicis (Humbertianis, Lugduni asservatis), p. 20, and Reuvensii ad eadem Animadverss. p. 5, seq.
As to the Dual, see Nos. 1, 3, 5, 6.
As to the Plural יָדוֹת Nos. 2, 5, 7.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.