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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #03045 - יָדַע
1) to know
1a1) to know
1a1a) to know, learn to know
1a1b) to perceive
1a1c) to perceive and see, find out and discern
1a1d) to discriminate, distinguish
1a1e) to know by experience
1a1f) to recognise, admit, acknowledge, confess
1a1g) to consider
1a2) to know, be acquainted with
1a3) to know (a person carnally)
1a4) to know how, be skilful in
1a5) to have knowledge, be wise
1b1) to be made known, be or become known, be revealed
1b2) to make oneself known
1b3) to be perceived
1b4) to be instructed
1c) (Piel) to cause to know
1d) (Poal) to cause to know
1e1) to be known
1e2) known, one known, acquaintance (participle)
1f) (Hiphil) to make known, declare
1g) (Hophal) to be made known
1h) (Hithpael) to make oneself known, reveal oneself
1085) od (דאה DAh) AC: See CO: ? AB: Knowledge: The pictograph d is a picture of a door. The o is a picture of the eye. Through the eyes one experiences his world and learns from it. Combined these pictures mean "the door of the eye". The eye is the window into the mans very being. Experience is gained through visual observation. Knowledge is achieved through these experiences.
V) odi (ידאה YDAh) - Know: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (994): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Hophal, Pual, Piel, Participle) know, known, knowledge, perceive, shew, tell, wist, understand, certainly, acknowledge, acquaintance, consider, declare, teach - Strongs: H3045 (יָדַע), H3046 (יְדַע)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect יָדַע Genesis 4:1 +; יָדָ֑ע Leviticus 5:1 +; suffix יְדָעוֺ Deuteronomy 34:10; Job 28:7; יְדָעָהּ Genesis 24:16; 1 Kings 1:4; יְדָעָ֫נוּ Isaiah 63:16; 3 feminine singular יָָֽדְעָה Judges 11:39 4t.; 2 masculine singular יָדַעְתָּ Genesis 30:26 +; יָדַ֫עְתָּה 2 Samuel 2:26; יָדַ֫עַתְּ Ruth 2:11; 1 Kings 2:15; יָדָ֑עַתְּ Jeremiah 50:24; וְיָדַ֫עַתְּ consecutive Ruth 3:4 6t. (including Ezekiel 22:16, Co וִידַעְתֶּם, so ᵐ5ᵑ7) + Ezekiel 28:22 Co (for וְיָדְעוּ), so ᵐ5; יָדַ֫עְתִּי Genesis 4:9 +; suffix יְדַעְתִּ֫יךָ Exodus 33:12 2t.; יְדַעְתִּיו Genesis 18:19; יְדַעְתִּים Proverbs 30:18; יְדַעְתִּין Isaiah 48:7; יָָֽדְעוּ Genesis 19:8 +; יָדָ֑עוּ 2 Kings 4:39 +; יָָֽדְעוּן Deuteronomy 8:3,16 (Dr§ 6 n.); 2 masculine plural יְדַעְתֶּם Genesis 44:15 +; 2 feminine plural יְדַעְתֶּן Genesis 31:6; וִידַעְתֶּן consecutive Ezekiel 13:21,23, etc.; Imperfect יֵדַע Isaiah 7:16 +; יֵדָ֑ע Joshua 22:22 5t.; וְיֵדָ֑ע Psalm 138:6 (read probably יֵידָ֑ע see Ges§ 69, 2 R, 3); וַיֵּ֫דַע Genesis 4:17 +; suffix יֵדָעֶנּוּ Jeremiah 17:9; וְיֵדָעֵם Hosea 14:10 Imperative דַּע Genesis 20:7 10t.; דְּעֶה Proverbs 24:14; דָּ֑ע Ecclesiastes 11:19; suffix דָּעֵ֫הוּ Proverbs 3:6; דְּעִי Jeremiah 2:19 4t.; דְּעוּ Numbers 32:23 15t.; Infinitive construct דֵּעָה Exodus 2:4; דַּ֫עַת Genesis 3:22 +; דַּעְתִּי Deuteronomy 9:24, etc.; Infinitive absolute יָדוֺעַ Genesis 43:7; Joshua 23:13; יַדֹעַ Genesis 15:3 11t.; Participle active יֹדֵעַ Genesis 3:5 +; feminine יֹדַ֫עַת Numbers 31:17 2t.; יֹדְעִים 2 Kings 17:26 +; passive וִידוּעַ construct Isaiah 53:3; plural וִידֻעִים Deuteronomy 1:13,15; —
1. a. know, learn to know, good and evil Genesis 3:22 (J), followed by אֶתאֲֿשֶׁר 1 Samuel 28:9; מִסְמַּר הָעָם 2 Samuel 24:2; anything מְאוּמָה 1 Samuel 20:39; לֹא יָדַע אִתּוֺ מְאוּמָה Genesis 36:6 (see II. אֵךְ
1. b), so Genesis 36:8; כָּלדָּֿבָר 2 Samuel 15:11, subject God, knowing fowls Psalm 50:11; way to wisdom Job 28:23; etc.; of bird of prey נָתִיב לֹא יְדָעוֺ עָ֑יִט Job 28:7; the price of wisdom Job 28:13; something future יום מוֺתִי Genesis 27:2 (J); especially followed by clause Genesis 12:11 (J) I Know that thou art a woman of fair appearance, Genesis 22:12 (E), Ecclesiastes 1:17; לֹא ידעתי Genesis 28:16; answering question Where ? without other object, Genesis 4:9 (both J); followed by accusative + בְּ, in, in the matter of (see בְּ 12 b) לֹא יָדַע עַבְדְּךָ בְּכָלֿזֹאת דָּבָר קָטֹן אוֺ גדוֺל 1 Samuel 22:15 thy servant knoweth not of all this anything, little or much; followed by בְּ (rare), gain knowledge of, learn of or about, with infinitive הֲתֵדַע בְּשׂוּםאֱֿלוֺהַּ עֲלֵיהֶם Job 37:15 dost thou know about God's enjoining upon them? also with substantive אִישׁ אַליֵֿדַע בַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה Jeremiah 38:24 let not a man know of these words; similarly followed by עַל, only הֲתֵדַע עַלמִֿפְלְשֵׂיעָֿ֑ב Job 37:16 dost thou know concerning the balancings of clouds? (in Job 12:9 בְּ is instrumental, as Genesis 15:8; Psalm 41:12); followed by מִן, הַמַּחֲבֹאִים רְאוּ וּדְעוּ מִכָּלֿ 1 Samuel 23:23 observe and get knowledge of all the hiding-places; but followed by object clause + מִן of source, קֶדֶם יָדַעְתִּי מֵעֵדֹתֶ֑יךָ כִּי Psalm 119:152 long ago I gained knowledge out of thy testimonies that etc.; followed by לְ, have knowledge of, יָדַעְתָּ לְאִוַּלְתִּי Psalm 69:6 thou knowest my foolishness; especially יהוה וידע כי אני and he shall ( thou shalt, etc.) know that I am Yahweh Exodus 10:2 (R), Exodus 6:7; Exodus 14:4; Exodus 16:12; Exodus 29:46 (all P), Ezekiel 6:7,10,13 #NAME? Ezekiel; 1 Kings 20:13,28; followed by accusative, which is really subject of following clause, Genesis 18:19 (J) I know him that he will, etc. 2 Samuel 3:25 (Ges§ 117. 1, R. 6).
b. perceive Genesis 19:33,35 (J; object clause infinitive with בְּ); with added idea of observing, taking note of, a place, accusative Ruth 3:4; with בְּ, יָדַעְתָּ בְּצָרוֺת נַפְשִׁי Psalm 31:8 ("" רָאָה אֶתֿ).
c. "" ראה, imperative דע וראה perceive and see 1 Samuel 12:17; 1 Samuel 24:12; find out and discern 1 Samuel 14:38; 1 Samuel 23:22; in reverse order, ראו ודעו only 1 Samuel 23:23 (see a above), Jeremiah 5:1 (see Dr Sm). — Seealso
d. discriminate, distinguish הַאֵדַע בֵּיןטֿוֺב לְרָ֑ע 2 Samuel 19:36, compare Deuteronomy 1:29 (no בֵּין); לֹא יָדְעוּ בֵיןיְֿמִינוֺ לִשְׂמאֹלוֺ Jonah 4:11 they cannot distinguish between their right hand and their left.
e. know by experience, וִידַעְתֶּם בְּכָלֿלְבַבְכֶם וּבְכָלנַֿפְשְׁכֶם כִּי Joshua 23:14 (D) and know in all your hearts, and all your souls, that, etc.; learn to know ׳י Hosea 13:14; learn (a bitter lesson) Hosea 9:7; Isaiah 9:8; Psalm 14:4; experience ׳י s vengeance Ezekiel 25:14; Psalm 14:4 (absolute); quietness Job 20:20.
f. recognise, admit, acknowledge, confess Jeremiah 3:13; Jeremiah 14:20; Isaiah 59:12; Psalm 51:5.
g. consider דְּעוּ מַהתַּֿעֲשׂוּ Judges 18:14; "" ראה, imperative דע וראה, דעו וראו, 2 Samuel 24:13; 1 Kings 20:7,22; also וְיָדַעְתָּ עִםלִֿבָבֶ֑ךָ כִּי Deuteronomy 8:5 and thou shalt consider with ( in) thy heart, that, Deuteronomy 4:39.
h.לֹא ידע not know = not except Isaiah 47:11; Psalm 35:8.
2 know a person, be acquainted with Genesis 29:5 (J), Exodus 1:8 (E), Job 42:11, know ׳י Job 24:1; c לֹא, object especially other gods, strange land, etc. = have no knowledge of, or acquaintance with, have not heard of, especially Deuteronomy , Jeremiah: — Deuteronomy 11:28; Deuteronomy 13:3; Deuteronomy 13:7; Deuteronomy 13:14; Deuteronomy 28:64; Deuteronomy 29:25; Deuteronomy 32:17 (poem), Jeremiah 7:9; Jeremiah 9:15; Jeremiah 14:18; Jeremiah 16:13; Jeremiah 17:4; Jeremiah 19:4; Jeremiah 22:28; Jeremiah 44:3; participle active acquaintance Job 19:13; passive participle acquainted with אִישׁ מַכְאֹבוֺת וִידוּעַ חֹ֑לִי Isaiah 53:3 (literally known of sickness, see Thes Ew Che Di Du); well-known (with implied trustworthiness) Deuteronomy 1:13,15; of beasts knowing owner and master's crib Isaiah 1:3 (compare Jeremiah 8:7); especially of knowing God ׅ׳לֹא יָדַעְתִּי (י ׳אֶתיֿ Exodus 5:2 (J); involving intelligent worship, obedience, etc. Judges 2:10; 1 Samuel 2:12 (read יֵדַע for ᵑ0יָדַע Dr), 1 Samuel 3:7; Hosea 2:22; Hosea 8:2; Hosea 5:4; Job 18:21; Psalm 79:6 (see also דַּעַת
2 b); of God's Knowing persons etc., throughly Hosea 5:3; Job 11:11; knowing the heart 1 Kings 8:39; 2 Chronicles 6:30; Psalm 139:4; knowing his true servants, recognising and acknowledging them 2 Samuel 7:20; Nahum 1:7; 1 Chronicles 17:18 +; יְדַעְתִּיךָ בְּשֵׁם Exodus 33:12 (JE); = take notice of, regard Psalm 1:6; 31:7; 37:18; so of Israel as chosen people Amos 3:2; Hosea 13:5 (Assyrian idûšu, God regardeth him, Hpt BAS i, 15) compare Genesis 18:19 (J).
3 know a person carnally, of sexual intercourse, followed by accusative: man subject Genesis 4:1,17,25; Genesis 24:16; Genesis 38:26 (all J), 1 Samuel 1:19; Judges 19:25; 1 Kings 1:4; woman subject Genesis 19:8 (J), Numbers 31:17,18,35 (all P), Judges 11:39; יֹדַעַתמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר Judges 21:11; לֹא יָדְעָה אִישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר Judges 21:12; man subject and object (of sodomy) Genesis 19:5 (J), Judges 19:22.
4. a. know how to do a thing, be able to do it, often with לֹא and followed by infinitive לֹא יָדְעוּ עֲשׂוֺתֿנְכֹחָה Amos 3:10 they know not how to do right; לֹאיָדַעְתִּי דַבֵּר Jeremiah 1:6; Jeremiah 6:15; 1 Kings 3:7; Isaiah 56:11 (twice in verse), with לְ Isaiah 50:4; Ecclesiastes 10:15; לֹא יָדַע לְהִזָּהֵר Ecclesiastes 4:13 know not how to be admonished ( Ecclesiastes 4:17 know that); infinitive absolute ידע מָאוֺס בָּרָע וּבָחוֺרבַּטּוֺב Isaiah 7:15,16.
b. be skilful in,especially participle, followed by accusative יֹדֵעַ צַיִד Genesis 25:27 (J) skilled in hunting; ידע סֵפֶר skilled in a book, learned Isaiah 29:11,12 (twice in verse); as plural construct יוֺדְעֵי נֶ֑הִי Amos 5:16 knowers of lamentation,professional mourners; יֹדְעֵי הַיָּם 1 Kings 9:27 skilled in the sea, 2 Chronicles 8:18; especially followed by infinitive יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן 1 Samuel 16:18 skilled in playing, 1 Kings 5:20; 2 Chronicles 2:6; 2 Chronicles 2:7; 2 Chronicles 2:13: יֹדֵעַ מְנַגֵּןבַּכִנּוֺר 1 Samuel 16:16 knowing, (as) a player on the lyre (see Dr).
5 absolute have knowledge, be wise: לַֹיּדְעִים Ecclesiastes 9:11 ("" חֲכָמִים, נְבֹנִים); especially have knowledge of God and duty, or in practical affairs Isaiah 1:3 ("" בין), Isaiah 56:10; often with accusative of congnate meaning with verb: דַּעַת Proverbs 17:27; Proverbs 30:3; בִּינָה Isaiah 29:24; Proverbs 4:1; 2 Chronicles 2:12, compare יוֺדְעֵי בִינָה לָעִתִּים 1 Chronicles 12:33 (Baer), Esther 1:13; also יֹדְעֵי דָּת וָדִין Esther 1:13; יֹדְעֵי דַעַת וּמְבִינֵי מַדָּע Daniel 1:4; object שֶׂכֶל וּבִינָה 2 Chronicles 2:11 ("" בֵּן חָכָם); חָכְמָה וּמוּסָר Proverbs 1:2 ("" הבין אִמְרֵי בִּינָה); חָכְמָה Proverbs 24:14; Ecclesiastes 8:16.
Niph`al Perfect נוֺדַע Genesis 41:21 10t.; וְנוֺדַע consecutive 1 Samuel 6:3 2t.; 3 feminine singular וְנוֺדְעָה Leviticus 4:14; Isaiah 66:14, etc.; Imperfect יִוָּדַע Genesis 41:31 10t.; יִוָּדֵ֑עַ Proverbs 10:9; וַיִּוָּדַ֫ע Esther 2:22; 3 feminine singular תִּוָּדֵ֑עַ Proverbs 14:33; 2 feminine singular תִּוָּדְעִי Ruth 3:3; וָאִוָּדַע Ezekiel 20:5; Infinitive suffix הִוָּדְעִי Jeremiah 31:19; Participle נוֺדָע Psalm 76:2 2t.; —
1 be made known, be or become known,of things Genesis 41:31 (followed by בְּ), Exodus 2:14 (both E), Leviticus 4:14 (P), Judges 16:9; 2 Samuel 17:19; Nahum 3:17; Zechariah 14:7 (followed by לְ), Psalm 77:20; Psalm 79:10 (followed by בְּ); Psalm 88:13 (followed by בְּ); of hand of ׳י Isaiah 66:14 (followed by אֶת); with subject clause Exodus 21:36; Exodus 33:16 (both J E), Deuteronomy 21:1; 1 Samuel 6:3 (followed by לְ), 1 Kings 18:36; Ezekiel 36:32 (followed by לְ) Ruth 3:14; Ecclesiastes 6:10; Esther 2:22 (followed by לְ); of person, Proverbs 31:23 (followed by בְּ) Isaiah 61:9 (followed by בְּ and בְּתוֺךְ); of ׳י Psalm 76:2 (followed by בְּ); = be revealed, discovered, of person 1 Samuel 22:6; Jeremiah 28:9; Proverbs 10:9; of things Nehemiah 4:9; Proverbs 12:16; Proverbs 14:33.
2 make oneself known,of person, followed by לְ Ruth 3:3, usually of God (׳י) Exodus 6:3 (P; "" וָאֵרָא אֶלֿ), Isaiah 19:21; Ezekiel 20:5, followed by לְעֵינֵי Ezekiel 38:23; followed by אֶלֿ Ezekiel 20:9; followed by בְּ Ezekiel 35:11; Psalm 48:4; without preposition Psalm 9:17.
3 be perceived (passive of
Qal), of perception by the eye Genesis 41:21 (E), Psalm 74:5.
4 be instructed (passive of Hiph`il) Jeremiah 31:19, in spiritual sense, through chastisement.
Pi`el Perfect 2 masculine singular יִדַּ֫עְתָּ, only ידעתה שַׁחַר מקֹמוֺ Job 38:12 Kt; read with Qr יִדַּעְתָּ הַשַּׁחַר cause to know, followed by 2accusative; so Psalm 104:19 according to Bae, who reads יִדַּע, after Aq Symm.
Po. Perfect יוֺדַעְתִּי 1 Samuel 21:3 I have caused to know, i.e. directed, followed by accusative, but read יוֺעַדְתִּי or יָעַדְתִּי, from יעד, so ᵐ5 We Dr.
Pu`al Participle known מידעת Isaiah 12:5 Kt (Qr מוּדַעַת see
Hoph`al); elsewhere as substantive = acquaintance מְיֻדָּעִי Psalm 55:14; מְיֻדָּעָיו 2 Kings 10:11; מְיֻדָּעַי Psalm 88:9; Job 19:14 ("" קְרוֺבָ֑י), Psalm 88:19 ("" אֹהֵב and רֵעַ); מְיֻדָּעָ֑י Psalm 31:12, Kt מידע Ruth 2:1 (Qr מוֺדַע q.see below)
Hiph`il Perfect הוֺדִיעַ Psalm 98:2; הוֺדִיעַ֫נִי Jeremiah 11:18; הוֺדַ֫עְתָּ 1 Kings 1:27 2t.; הוֺדָ֑עְתָּ Job 26:3, etc.; Imperfect יוֺדִיעַ Psalm 103:7; Isaiah 38:19; jussive יֹדַ֫ע Numbers 16:5; וַיֹּדַע Judges 8:16; יוֺדִיעֶנּוּ Isaiah 40:13,14; 2 masculine singular תּוֺדִיעַ Habakkuk 3:2; תּוֺדִיעֵנִי Psalm 16:11; Psalm 51:8; 1 singular אוֺדִיעַ Psalm 89:2; Ezekiel 39:7; אוֺדִיעָה Proverbs 1:23; Isaiah 5:5; יוֺדִיעוּ Job 32:7; יוֺדִעֻם Ezekiel 44:23; נוֺדִיעָה 1 Samuel 14:12; Imperative הוֺדַע Proverbs 9:9 3t. (הוֺדַ֑ע Psalm 90:12); suffix הוֺדִיעֵנִי Job 10:2 6t., etc.; Infinitive construct הוֺדִיעַ 2 Samuel 7:21 3t.; הֹדִיעַ 1 Chronicles 17:19; הוֺדִיעֵנִי 1 Samuel 28:15, etc.; Participle מוֺדִיְעֲךָ Daniel 8:19; מוֺדִיעָם Jeremiah 16:21; מוֺדִיעִים Isaiah 47:13; 2 Chronicles 23:13; — make known, declare, with accusative of thing Numbers 16:5 (P), Ezekiel 39:7; 1 Chronicles 17:19; Job 26:3; Psalm 89:2; Psalm 98:2; Psalm 106:8; object omitted Habakkuk 3:2; teach, with accusative of thing Job 32:7; followed by infinitive Psalm 90:12 and (peculiarly) לְהַלֵּל׳מ 2 Chronicles 23:13i.e.led in praising; with לְ person Proverbs 9:9; with accusative of person Isaiah 40:13; Judges 8:16 (but read וַיָּ֫דָשׁ, see דושׁ); make known, declare, with accusative of thing, + לְ person Exodus 18:20; Deuteronomy 4:9; Nehemiah 8:12; Nehemiah 9:14; Psalm 78:5; Psalm 103:7; Psalm 145:12; Isaiah 38:19; Isaiah 64:1; with clause of thing, + לְ person 1 Samuel 10:8; make one know, with clause of thing and accusative (suffix) person Exodus 33:12; Deuteronomy 8:3; 1 Samuel 6:2; 1 Samuel 16:3; 1 Samuel 28:15; Job 10:2; Job 37:19; with accusative of thing + suffix person הוֺדִעֵנִי נָא אֶתֿדְּרָכֶ֔ךָ וְאֵדָעֲךָ Exodus 33:13 (JE) make me, I pray, to know thy ways, that I may know thee; Jeremiah 16:21; Ezekiel 20:4; Ezekiel 22:2; Ezekiel 43:11; Isaiah 40:14 ("" וַיְלַמְּדֵהוּ דַעַת, also v a וַיְבִינֵהוּ), Proverbs 22:21; Job 13:23; Psalm 16:11; Psalm 25:4 ("" לַמְּדֵנִי), Psalm 16:14 (on infinitive with לְ see Ges§158; 114,2, R. 2, Exx,), Psalm 39:5; Psalm 51:8; Psalm 143:8 ("" הַשְׁמִיעֵנִי); חַטָּאתִי אוֺדִיעֲךָ Psalm 32:5 ("" עֲוֺנִי לֹאכִֿסִּיתִי); followed by 2separate accusative Genesis 41:39 (E), 1 Samuel 14:12; Isaiah 5:5; Ezekiel 20:1; Ezekiel 16:2; Proverbs 1:23; Daniel 8:19; accusative of person omitted Exodus 18:16 (E); accusative of thing omitted Joshua 4:22 = teach one (D), so Isaiah 40:13; 2 Samuel 7:21; 1 Kings 1:27; = answer Job 38:2; Job 40:7; Job 42:4; with suffix person, accusative of thing omitted Jeremiah 11:18; Jeremiah 16:21; Proverbs 22:19; followed by accusative of thing + בְּ Psalm 77:15 thou hast made known thy might among the peoples, Isaiah 12:4; 1 Chronicles 18:8 = Psalm 105:1; followed by clause + בְּ person Hosea 5:9; followed by בֵּין, teach the difference between, to discriminate between בֵּיןהַטָּמֵא לְטָהוֺר Ezekiel 22:26; + suffix person Ezekiel 44:23 (compare Qal 1 d); followed by מִן partitive מוֺדִעִים לֶחֳדָשִׁים מֵאֲשֶׁר יָבוֺאוּ Isaiah 47:13 who declare, at the new moons, of (the things) which are to come.
Hoph`al Perfect הוֺדַע Leviticus 4:23,28 (see Kö i, 427); Participle מוּדַעַת Qr Isaiah 12:5 (> Kt מְידַֻּעַת); — made known (Participle) Qr Isaiah 12:5 let this be made known in (בְּ) all the earth (> Kt Punic Participle which is not elsewhere in this sense); followed by אֵלָיו if his sin be made known unto himself Leviticus 4:23,28 (P).
Hitph. Imperfect אֶתְוַדָּ֑ע Numbers 12:6 (E); sq: אֶלֿ make oneself known to, of ׳י; Infinitive הִתְוַדַּע אֶלֿ Genesis 45:1 (E), of Joseph.
יְדַע verb know (see Biblical Hebrew); —
Pe`al Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳י Daniel 5:21; Daniel 6:11,2masculine singular יְדַ֫עָתָּ Daniel 5:22,1s. יִדְעֵת Daniel 4:6; Imperfect 2 masculine singular תִּנְדַּע (K§ 11,4. b) β)) Ezra 4:15 +, etc.; Imu. דַּע masculine singular (K§ 11. 3 a)) Daniel 6:16; Participle active יָדַע Daniel 2:8 +; plural יָָֽדְעִין Daniel 5:23, etc.; passive יְדיעַ Daniel 4:12 +; — know, with accusative of thing Daniel 2:30; Daniel 5:22, accusative of thing omitted Ezra 7:25; ׳יָֽדְעֵי דָּתֵי א, Ezra 7:25, יָָֽדְעֵי בִינָה Daniel 2:21; with object clause Daniel 2:8; Daniel 2:9; Daniel 2:22; Daniel 4:6; Daniel 4:14; Daniel 4:23; Daniel 4:29; Daniel 5:21; Daniel 6:11; Daniel 6:16; Ezra 4:15, so (of God) Daniel 4:22; participle active absolute Daniel 5:23 having capacity of knowledge; passive in periphrase conjugation, subject clause + ל person Daniel 3:18; Ezra 4:12,13; Ezra 5:8. Haph`el Perfect 3 masculine singular הוֺדַע Daniel 2:15 +, suffix הוֺדְעָךְ Daniel 2:29,2masculine singular suffix הוֺדַעְתַּ֫נִי Daniel 2:23, תֶּ֑נָה- Daniel 2:23 1 plural הוֺדַ֫עְנָא Ezra 4:14; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יְהוֺדַע Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
Haph`el Perfect 3 masculine singular הוֺדַע Daniel 2:15 +, suffix הוֺדְעָךְ Daniel 2:29,2masculine singular suffix הוֺדַעְתַּ֫נִי Daniel 2:23, תֶּ֑נָה- Daniel 2:23 1 plural הוֺדַ֫עְנָא Ezra 4:14; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יְהוֺדַע Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon, Unabridged, Electronic Database.
יָדַע fut. יֵדַע, once יְיֵדַע (see Lehrg. 389), inf. absol. יָדוֹעַ, constr. דַּעַת, obviously corresponding to the Gr. εἶδον, οἶδα, to see; and hence, to perceive, to acquire knowledge, to know, to be acquainted. It includes the action of knowing both as commencing, das Kennenlernen, Erfahren, and as completed, das Kennen, Wiffen, Weifefehn. (The root is very widely extended in the Indo-Germanic languages, in the signification both of seeing and knowing; as Sanscr. wid, budh; Zend. weedem; Gr. εἴδω, ἴδω, οἶδα, δαέω; Lat. video; Goth. vitan; Engl. weet [Qu. to wit]; Germ. weten, wiffen, weife; and so also in the Sclavonic tongues, as the Polish, widze, to see; Bohem. wedeti, to see.) The original signification is found in the following examples, Exodus 2:4, “and his sister stood afar off לְדֵעָה מַה יֵּעָשֶׂה לוֹ to see what would happen to him.” 1 Samuel 22:3. Also, Isaiah 6:9, רְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל תֵּדָעוּ “seeing ye shall see, and not perceive” (in the other member is, hearing ye shall hear, and not understand). These examples may be added to the primary signification of seeing: Deuteronomy 34:10, אֲשֶׁר יְדָעוֹ יְיָ פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים (in the same connection elsewhere רָאָה Genesis 32:31; Judges 6:22; 2 Kings 14:8, 11 2 Kings 14:11); Ecclesiastes 6:4 יָדַע שְׁלוֹם פּ׳ Esther 2:11, i.q. רָאָה שְׁלוֹם פּ׳ Genesis 37:14. Sometimes יָדַע to see, to observe with the eyes, is opposed to what we hear or observe with our ears. Isaiah 40:21, הֲלֹא תֵדְעוּ אִם לֹא תִשְׁמָעוּ “have ye not seen? have ye not heard?” Ver. 28 Isaiah 40:28, 44:18, לֹא יָֽדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ “they see not, they do not understand, for their eyes are besmeared that they may not see, and that their hearts may not understand;” where יָדַע is applied to the eyes, just as הִשְׂכִּיל to the heart or mind. יָדַע then signifies that which results from seeing, unless any one be devoid of senses and mind, or has his understanding shut up. The following are its specific applications
(1) to know, to perceive, to be aware of (wahrnehmen, gewahr werden), whether by the eyes (Isaiah 6:9), or by the touch, Genesis 19:33 often by the mind, and hence to understand, Judges 13:21 with the addition of עִם לֵבָב Deuteronomy 8:5. Followed by בְּ of the thing through which any thing is understood, Genesis 15:8, בַּמָּה אֵדַע “whence shall I understand?” Genesis 24:14; Exodus 7:17.
(2) to get to know, to discover, whether by seeing (see Exodus 2:4; 1 Samuel 22:3) or by hearing, Genesis 9:24; Deuteronomy 11:2; Nehemiah 13:10 or, to know by experience, to experience, Job 5:25; Ecclesiastes 8:5. So often in threatenings (Germ. du wirft es fchon gewahr werden, erfahren, fühlen; Lat. tu ipse videbis, senties). Hosea 9:7, יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל “Israel shall see.” Job 21:19, יְשַׁלֵּם אֵלָיו וְיֵדַע “(God) recompenses him that he may see.” Exodus 6:7, “and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God.” Ezekiel 6:7, 7:5, 17 Ezekiel 7:17, 11:7 Isaiah 5:19, 9:8 Psalms 14:4. (In the Koran the expression is of frequent occurrence, سوف يعلمون then shall they understand, e.g. xxvi. 48; see Schult. Opp. Min. ad. Job 21:19.)
(3) to know, to become acquainted with any one (kennen lernen), Deuteronomy 9:24 any thing (as a country), Numbers 14:31. Often put by a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
(a) of a man; to know a woman, i.e. to lie with her, Genesis 4:17, 25 1 Samuel 1:19, etc.; also as applied to crimes against nature, Genesis 19:5. (Verbs of knowing are frequently employed for this euphemism in other languages, both oriental and occidental; see Syr. ܚܟܰܡ, Arab. راى, عرف, Eth. አእመረ፡ Greek γινώσκω, see Fesselii Adv. S. ii. 14; Pfochenius, De Purit. Styli N. Test. page 10; Lat. cognosco, Justin, v. 2; and thus Italian and French conoscere, connoître, although these have perhaps been borrowed from the phraseology of the Holy Scripture.)
(b) of a woman, יָֽדְעָה אִישׁ “to have lain with man,” Genesis 19:8; Judges 11:39 more fully יָֽדְעָה אִישׁ לְמִשְׁכַּב זָכָר Numbers 31:17. Compare Ovid., Heroid., vi. 133, “turpiter illa virum cognovit adultera virgo.”
(4) to know, to be acquainted with any one, with acc. of person, Genesis 29:5; Isaiah 1:3 of the thing, Genesis 30:29. יָדַע בְּשֵׁם to know by name, Exodus 33:12, 17 Exodus 33:17יָדַע פָּנִים אֶל פָּנִים to know face to face, Deuteronomy 34:10. Part. act. plur. יֹדְעִים “those who know me,” my acquaintances (meine Bekannten), Job 19:13. Part. Pass. יָדוּעַ known, followed by לְ Deuteronomy 1:13, “men יְדֻעִים לְשִׁבְטֵיכֶם who are known to your tribes,” without the dative, verse 15. Isaiah 53:3, יְדוּעַ חֹלִי “known to sickness,” i.e. bekannt, vertraut mit Krankheit, for the prose expression יָדוּעַ לָחֳלִי, according to others, known by sickness, as being remarkable for suffering sicknesses and calamities; an especial example of a man afflicted with calamities. (Compare Syr. ܝܺܕܝܺܥܐܳ known, illustrious.)
(5) to know, to have a knowledge of any thing, with an acc. like יָדַע בִּינָה (see בִּינָה ), יָדַע דַּעַת to know knowledge (to have knowledge, understanding), Proverbs 17:27, etc.; followed by the prepos. בְּ (German um etwas wiffen), Genesis 19:33, 35 Genesis 19:35; 1 Samuel 22:15; Jeremiah 38:24 עַל Job 37:16 followed by the naked inf. Jeremiah 1:6; 1 Samuel 16:18 by a gerund, Ecclesiastes 4:13, 10:15 Eccl. 4:17, “they know not לַעֲשׂוֹת רַע that they do evil;” like the Germ. fie glauben nicht übel daran zu thun; by a finite verb, Job 32:22, לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֲכַנֶּה “I know not how to flatter;” 23:3 1 Samuel 16:16; Nehemiah 10:29 conj. כִּי Genesis 3:5 also by a whole sentence, Genesis 43:22, “we do not know מִי שָׂם who put,” etc. Also the accusative of the object may be altogether omitted, as after verbs of calling. Song of Solomon 1:8, אִם לֹא תֵדְעִי לָךְ as in Lat. si nescis, wenn du es nicht weißt; לָךְ is here redundant, as Job 5:27. Specially the phrases are to be noticed
(a) מִי יוֹדֵעַ “who knows;” followed by a fut., 2 Samuel 12:22; Joel 2:14; Jonah 3:9 more fully מִי יֹדֵעַ אִם Esther 4:14, “who knows whether,” i.q. Lat. nescio an, haud scio an, for fortasse (comp. אִם B. 2). As to Proverbs 24:22, see No. 6.
(b) יָדַע טוֹב וָרָע “to know good and evil;” Genesis 3:5, 22 i.e. to be prudent, to be wise, [no one who really believes in the fall of man can admit this explanation], whence עֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע ib. 2:17, “the tree of wisdom [knowledge].” On this account little children are said not to know good and evil, Deuteronomy 1:39 compare Isaiah 7:15 and also decrepit old men, who have, as it were, sunk into second childhood, 2 Samuel 19:36. See Hom., Od., xviii. 223, οἶδα ἕκαστα, ἐσθλά τε καὶ χέρεια, παρὸς δέ τε νήπιος ἦα.
(6) to foresee, to expect any thing. Psalms 35:8, “let destruction come upon him לֹא יֵדַע not expecting it,” i.e. unexpected. Job 9:5, “(God) removes mountains,” לֹא יָדָעוּ (properly) “they expect it not,” unexpectedly, suddenly. (Kor. xvi. 28, “God overthrows them ولا يشعرون not expecting it.” Lokm. Fab. 28.) Song of Solomon 6:12 לֹא יָדַעְתִּי נַפְשִׁי שָׂמַתְנִי “I knew not,” i.e. “when I did not expect, my soul made me,” etc.; Jeremiah 50:24. So מִי יֹדֵעַ who foresees? i.e. no one knows, or foresees, for suddenly, unexpectedly, Proverbs 24:22 parall. פִּתְאֹם.
(7) Often used of the will, to turn the mind to something, to care for, to see about. Germ. nach etwas fehen. Genesis 39:6, לֹא יָדַע מְאוּמָה “he took care of none of his things;” Proverbs 9:13, 27:23 Job 9:21 (opp. to מָאַס). Job 34:4, נֵדְעָה בֵנֵינוּ מַה־טּוֹב “let us see to it amongst ourselves what is good?” i.e. let us attend to it, let us investigate. In the other hemistich נִבְחֲרָה. Followed by בְּ Job 35:15, לֹא יָדַע בַּפַּשׁ “he does not regard iniquity.” Specially used
(a) of God as caring for men; Psalms 144:3; Nehemiah 1:7 followed by מִן Amos 3:2, “you only have I known (especially cared for) of all the nations of the earth.” Genesis 18:19, יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה “him (Abraham) have I known (cared for, chosen) that he may command,” etc. Compare Psalms 1:6.
(b) of men regarding or worshipping God. Hosea 8:2, 13:4 Psalms 36:11, 9:11, יֹדְעֵי שְׁמֶךָ “those who know (regard or worship) thy name.” Job 18:21, לֹא יָדַע אֵל (אֲשֶׁר) “who regards not God,” an atheist, 1 Samuel 2:12.
(8) absol. to be knowing, or wise, Psalms 73:22; Isaiah 44:9, 18 Isaiah 44:18, 45:20 56:10. Part. יֹדְעִים i.q. חֲכָמִים Job 31:2; Ecclesiastes 9:11. Hence דַּעַת wisdom, or knowledge, which see.
(1) to be, or to become known, of persons, Psalms 76:2; Proverbs 31:23 of things, Exodus 2:14; Leviticus 4:14; Psalms 9:17. Followed by לְ of the person to whom any thing is known, 1 Samuel 6:3; Ruth 3:3; Esther 2:22. Genesis 41:21, וְלֹא נוֹדַע כִּי־בָאוּ אֶל־קִרְבֶּנָה “nor was it known (did it appear) that they had entered (been swallowed) into their bowels (belly).”
(2) pass. of Hiph. No. 2, to be taught by experience, i.e. to be punished, comp. Kal No. 2. Proverbs 10:9, מְעַקֵּשׁ דְּדְּרָכָיו יִוָּדֵעַ “he who perverts his ways (acts perversely) shall be made to know,” be taught, i.e. be punished. Jeremiah 31:19, אַחֲרֵי הִוָּֽדְעִי “after I was instructed.” Well rendered by Luther, nachdem ich gewißigt bin.
Piel, causat. to make to know, to shew anything to any one; with two accusatives, Job 38:12.
Pual, part. מְיֻדָּע known, with suff. מְיֻדָּעִי my acquaintance, Psalms 31:12, 55:14 88:9, 19 Ps8 8:19. Fem. something known. Isaiah 12:5 כתיב.
Poel יוֹדַע i.q. Piel, to shew, with acc. of pers. 1 Samuel 21:3. But should it not be read הוֹדַעְתִּי instead of יוֹדַעְתִּי?
Hiphil הוֹדִיעַ (imp. הוֹדַע
(1) to cause some one to know something, to shew something to some one,
(a) followed by two acc. Genesis 41:39; Exodus 33:12, 13 Exodus 33:13; Ezekiel 20:11, 22:2. Used in threatening, 1 Samuel 14:12, נוֹרִיעַ אֶתְכֶם דָּבָר “we will shew you this thing.”
(b) followed by acc. of the thing, and dat. of pers. Exodus 18:20; Deuteronomy 4:9; Psalms 145:12; Nehemiah 9:14.
(c) followed by an acc. of pers. and an entire sentence, Joshua 4:22; 1 Kings 1:27.
(d) followed by an acc. of the thing, Psalms 77:15, 98:2 Job 26:3.
(2) to teach, to acquaint, followed by acc. of pers. Job 38:3, 40:7 42:4 dat. Proverbs 9:9 specially, by experience, to teach any one by punishing, to punish. Compare Kal No. 2. Judges 8:16, “(he took) the thorns of the wilderness and threshing instruments וַיֹּדַע בָּהֶם אֵת אַנְשֵׁי סֻכּוֹת and with them he taught the men of Succoth;” i.e. crushed them with iron threshing instruments laid upon thorns (see דּוּשׁ ). LXX. Vulg. ἠλόησεν, contrivit, from the Hebrew וַיָּרֹעַ, which seems to me more suitable to the context than the common reading.
Hophal הוֹדַע to be made known. Leviticus 4:23, 28. Part. מוּדַעַת Isaiah 12:5 קרי.
Hithpael הִתְוַדַּע to make one’s self known, Genesis 45:1 to reveal one’s self, Numbers 12:6 followed by אֶל.
Derivatives יִדְעֹנִי, דֵּעַ, דֵּעָה, דַּעַת, מַדַּע, מַדּוּעַ, מוֹדַע, מוֹדַעַת, and the pr.n. יָדָע, יְדַעְיָה, יַדּוּעַ, יְדִיעֲאֵל.