the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
Click here to join the effort!
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #07673 - שָׁבַת
1) to cease, desist, rest
1a1) to cease
1a2) to rest, desist (from labour)
1b) (Niphal) to cease
1c1) to cause to cease, put an end to
1c2) to exterminate, destroy
1c3) to cause to desist from
1c4) to remove
1c5) to cause to fail
2) (Qal) to keep or observe the sabbath
Nf) tbs (סהבת ShBT) - Ceasing: A stopping of activity. Often used for the seventh day or special feast day as a day set aside for resting or celebrating. KJV (111): sabbath, another, lost time, still, cease - Strongs: H7674 (שֶׁבֶת), H7676 (שַׁבָּת)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal27 Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳שׁ Genesis 2:3 +; 3 plural שָׁבָ֑תוּ Lamentations 5:14, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִשְׁבּוֺת Hosea 7:4; יִשְׁבֹּת Proverbs 22:10 2t.; 3 feminine singular תִּשְׁבֹּת Leviticus 26:35; תִּשְׁבַּת Leviticus 26:34; Nehemiah 6:3 +, etc.; —
1 cease: (absolute 13t.) of seasons Genesis 8:22 (J); manna Joshua 5:12 (P), etc., Isaiah 14:4 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 6:3 +; with מִן Hosea 7:4 3t.
2 desist from labour, rest:
a. with מִן (of god) Genesis 2:2,3(P).
b.מִן omitted, ב temporal Exodus 23:12 (E), Exodus 16:30; Exodus 34:21 (J), Exodus 31:17 (P); ׳בֶּחָרִישׁ וּבַקָּצִיר שׁ Exodus 34:21 (J; i.e., even in these busy seasons).
c. land in 7th year Leviticus 26:34,35 (twice in verse) (H), 2 Chronicles 36:21. — Leviticus 23:32; Leviticus 25:2 see [ שָׁבַת] verb denominative below
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נִשְׁבַּת Isaiah 17:3 2t.; plural נִשְׁבְּתוּ Ezekiel 6:6; — cease: absolute Ezekiel 6:6; Ezekiel 30:18; Ezekiel 33:28; with מִן Isaiah 17:3.
Hiph`il40 Perfect 3 masculine singular הִשְׁבִּית Ruth 4:14 +; 2 masculine singular הִשְׁבַּתָּ Psalm 89:45; Psalm 119:119, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יַשְׁבִּיתּ Proverbs 18:18; Daniel 9:27; וַיַּשְׁבֵּת 2 Kings 23:11; 2 Chronicles 16:5, etc.; Infinitive construct הַשְׁבִּית Psalm 8:3; לַשְׁבִּית Amos 8:4 (Ges§ 53 q); Imperative masculine plural הַשְׁבִּ֫יתוּ Isaiah 30:11; Participle מַשְׁבִּית Jeremiah 16:9; Psalm 46:10; —
1 cause to cease, put an end to: with accusative mirth Hosea 2:13, work 2 Chronicles 16:5; Nehemiah 4:5; sacrifice Daniel 9:27; war Psalm 46:10, compare Isaiah 13:11; Ezekiel 7:24; Proverbs 18:18 6t., + קוֺל שָׂשׂוֺן מִן׳הִשׁ Jeremiah 7:34; Jeremiah 16:9, compare Jeremiah 48:33.
2 = exterminate, destroy: with accusative 2 Kings 23:5,11; Amos 8:4 (Now conjectures העשׁקים), Hosea 1:4; Psalm 8:3; Psalm 119:119; with accusative + מִן, Jeremiah 36:29, מִן הָאָרֶץ Leviticus 26:6 (H), Ezekiel 34:25; אלילים Ezekiel 30:13; Deuteronomy 32:26.
3 cause to desist from: with מִן Ezekiel 16:41; Ezekiel 34:10; Exodus 5:5 (E = give rest from); לְבִלְתִּי infinitive Joshua 22:25 (P).
4 remove ( = מִן הֵסִיר): with מִן Ezekiel 23:27,48; Psalm 89:45 (text dubious: read הִשְׁבַּתּוֺ [
3] ᵐ5 Du; מַטֵּה הֹדוֺ Herz Che, see also below טֳהָר); leaven מבתים Exodus 12:15 (P); מִמָּנֵינוּ׳ישׂר ׳אֶחקֿ׳הַשׁ Isaiah 30:11.
5 cause to fail, let be lacking: salt מֵעַל מִנְחָתֶ֑ךָ Leviticus 2:12 (P); accusative pers + ל person Jeremiah 48:35; Ruth 4:14.
[שָׁבַת] verb denominative keep, observe (sabbath); —
Qal, with accusative of congnate meaning with verb; Perfect 3 feminine singular וְשָֽׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ׳שַׁבָּת לי Leviticus 25:2; 2 masculine plural מֵעֶרֶב עַדעֶֿרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּשַׁבַּתְּכֶ֑ם Leviticus 23:32 (P).
שָׁבַת fut. יִשְׁבֹּת and יִשְׁבַּת Leviticus 26:34.
(1) to rest, to keep as a day of rest. (Arab. سبت IV. to take rest. The primary idea appears to be that of to sit down, to sit still; cognate on the one hand are יָשַׁב, inf. שֶׁבֶת, on the other to שׁוּת and שָׁפַת.) It is used of men (opp. to labour), Exodus 23:12, 34:21 of land which is not tilled, Leviticus 26:34, 35 Leviticus 26:35, compare 25:2. Followed by מִן to rest from labour, Genesis 2:2, Exodus 31:17.- Isaiah 33:8, שָׁבַת עֹבֵר אֹרַח “the traveller rests,” abstains from journeying; Isaiah 14:4; Lamentations 5:14, “the elders rest from the gate,” i.e. do not go to the forum.
(2) to cease, to desist, leave off, followed by מִן with an inf. (prop. to desist from doing any thing), Job 32:1; Jeremiah 31:36; Hosea 7:4 absol. to cease to be, to have an end, Genesis 8:22; Isaiah 24:8; Lamentations 5:15.
(3) to celebrate the sabbath, followed by שַׁבָּת Leviticus 23:32.
Niphal, i.q. Kal No. 2, prop. pass. of Hiphil, to have an end, Isaiah 17:3; Ezekiel 6:6, 30:18 33:28.
(1) to cause to rest, followed by מִן from work, Exodus 5:5, or to cause a work to cease, i.e. to interrupt, 2 Chronicles 16:5 to make an enemy to rest, i.e. to restrain, to still, Psalms 8:3.
(2) to cause to cease
(a) any person, followed by מִן before an inf. Ezekiel 34:10 followed by לְבִלְתִּי Joshua 22:25.
(b) any thing, i.e. to put an end to, e.g. war, Psalms 46:10 contention, Proverbs 18:18 exultation, Isaiah 16:10. Followed by לְ Jeremiah 48:35; Amos 8:4; Ruth 4:14, אֲשֶׁר הִשְׁבִּית לָךְ גֹּאֵל “who hath not left thee without a redeemer;” Leviticus 2:13.
(3) to remove, to take away, followed by מִן from any person or thing, i.q. הֵסִיר, Exodus 12:15 Levit. 26:6 Ezekiel 34:25, 23:27, 48 Ezekiel 23:48, 30:13 Isaiah 30:11; Jeremiah 7:34; Psalms 119:119.
Derivatives, שֶׁבֶת No. I, שַׁבָּת, שַׁבָּתוֹן, שַׁבְּתַי, מַשְׁבָּת.
I. שֶׁבֶת with suff. שִׁבְתִּי (from the root שָׁבַת), cessation, a ceasing, Proverbs 20:3 (compare 18:18 22:10 ); hence idleness, inactivity, Isaiah 30:7.
(2) interruption of work, time lost, Exodus 21:19.
II. שֶׁבֶת f. inf. from the root יָשַׁב to dwell, which see. [“Used as a subst. sitting, seat, 1 Kings 10:19; Amos 6:3 also place, 2 Samuel 23:7.”]