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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5704 - עַד
1) as far as, even to, until, up to, while, as far as (preposition)
1a) of space
1a1) as far as, up to, even to
1b) in combination
1b1) from...as far as, both...and (with ‘min’ — from)
1c) of time
1c1) even to, until, unto, till, during, end
1d) of degree
1d1) even to, to the degree of, even like
2) until, while, to the point that, so that even (conjunction)
1349) do (אהד AhD) AC: Repeat CO: ? AB: Witness: The pictograph o is a picture of the eye, the d is a picture of the door. Combined these mean "see the door". As coming to a tent a tent of meeting and entering in. A place, time or event that is repeated again and again.
Nf) do (אהד AhD) - I. Witness: II. Again:A repetition of time either definite or indefinite. [Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Until:A determinate period of time. KJV (269): witness, ever, everlasting, end, evermore, old, perpetually, by, as, when, how, yet, till, until, unto, for, to, but, on, within, filthy - Strongs: H1157 (בַּעַד), H5703 (עַד), H5704 (עַד), H5705 (עַד), H5707 (עֵד), H5708 (עִדָּה)
Nf1) edo (אהדה AhDH) - I. Company:A group with a common testimony. II. Witness:KJV (175): congregation, company, assembly, multitude, people, swarm, testimony, witness - Strongs: H5712 (עֵדָה), H5713 (עֵדָה)
V) edo (אהדה AhDH) - I. Adorn:To put on trappings which usually identify position or rank. II. Remove:[Unknown connection to root; Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (19): (vf: Paal, Hiphil) deck, adorn, take, pass, depart, alter, took, pass, remove - Strongs: H5709 (עֲדָה), H5710 (עָדָה)
V) doi (יאהד YAhD) - Meet: A coming together as two or an assembly. KJV (1): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hophal) meet, together, assemble, appoint, set, time, betroth, agree, gather - Strongs: H3259 (יָעַד)
am) dofm (מואהד MWAhD) - I. Appointment:A time that is repeated time after time. II. Company:A group that meet at specific times. KJV (224): congregation, feast, season, appointed, time, assembly, solemnity, solemn, days, sign, synagogue - Strongs: H4150 (מוֹעָדָה), H4151 (מוֹעָד)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
preposition as far as, even to, up to, until, while (Aramaic עד, Sabean עד, עדי, Mordtm ZMG xxx (1876), 27; DHM xxxvii (1883), 414, Assyrian adi Dl§ 81 a (Arabic is except); perh akin to pass on, advance to, Kö ii. 304,309: עֲדֵי probably from ground-form ±¦d¦y, Ol428,431 Kö ii. 309 ff.; but Lag Sym. ii. 101-3, Mitth. i. 231f., as plur. like אַחֲרֵי); — with suffix עָדַי Numbers 23:18 +, עָדֶיךָ Micah 4:8 +, etc., עָֽדיֵכֵם Job 32:12; 2 Kings 9:18 עַדהֵֿם occurs; — as far as, even to (differing from אֶל in that the limit is included, as in Arabic Fl Kl. Schr. i. 402f.):
I. preposition 1. of space; —
a. Genesis 11:31 ויבאועד חרן as far as Haran, Genesis 12:6; Genesis 13:3,12 + often, Isaiah 8:8 עד צואר יגעַ, Isaiah 15:4 עד יהץ נשׁמע קולם, Isaiah 25:12; Isaiah 26:5; Psalm 36:6 אמונתך עד שׁחקים, Psalm 69:2 דאו מים עד נפשׁ (compare Jonah 2:6; Micah 1:9; Jeremiah 4:10,18), Jeremiah 90:3תָּשֵׁד אֱנוֺשׁ עַד דַּכָּא Job 11:7, etc.; pregnantly Psalm 118:27 ׳אִסְדוּ חָג עַד וגו bind . . . (and lead) up to . . .; Isaiah 57:9 עַד מֵרָחוק even to afar (מִן
1 c); with the goal a person, Exodus 22:8 עדהאלהים יָבאֹ דְבַר שְׁנֵיהֶם, 1 Samuel 9:9; Psalm 65:3 עָדֶיךָ כָלבָּֿשָׂריָבאֹוּ Isaiah 45:24; Job 4:5, ׳שׁוּב עַד י Hosea 14:2 al. (see שׁוּב, stronger than ׳שׁוּב אֶליֿ); in poetry Numbers 24:20 וְאַחֲדִיתוֺעֲדֵי אֹבֵד shall be even unto destruction, shall issue in destruction, Numbers 24:24; rarely with verbs of attending, הֶאֱזִין עַד Numbers 23:18, הִתְבּוֺנֵן עַד Job 32:12; Job 38:18 (usually אֶל). Before another perp., 1 Samuel 7:11 ׳עַד מִתַּחַת ל 1 Kings 4:12 ׳עַד מֵעֵבֶר ל, עַד מֵעַל Ezekiel 41:20, עַד לִפְנֵי Esther 4:2, and even (si vera. l.) עַד אְלֵיהֶם 2 Kings 9:20:compare עַד נֶגֶד Nehemiah 3:16,26, עַד נֹכַח Judges 19:10 +.
b. In the combination מִן ֗֗֗ (וְ)עַד, as Genesis 10:19 מצידון ֗֗֗ עַד עַזָּה from Sidon . . . as far as Gaza + often (see מן
5a); and idiomatic, not of actual space, but of class of objects, to express the idea of both... and, as Genesis 19:4 מִנַּעַר וְעַד זָקִן from young to old (inclusively) = both young and old (see מִן
5b); withoutמִן, even to = including, Leviticus 11:42; Numbers 8:4 even to (i. e. including) it base and its flower, compare 1 Samuel 18:4.
2 Of time:
a. (a) even to, until Genesis 8:5 even to the 10th month, Exodus 12:6 unto the 14th day, etc., Exodus 12:15; Exodus 12:18, etc.; עד היום unto this day, Genesis 19:37,38, עד היום הזה Genesis 26:33; Genesis 32:33, both + often; עד יום followed by infinitive Exodus 40:37; Joshua 6:10; Judges 18:30; עד בקר till morning, Exodus 12:10 + (15t.), עד הבקר Exodus 16:23 + (11t.); so עד (ה)ערב Exodus 18:13,14 +, in poetry עֲרֵי ערב Psalm 104:23; עַד עוֺלָם Genesis 13:15 + often; עַד שֶׁבַע מְּעָמִים 2 Kings 4:35; עַד דּוֺר וָדוֺר Isaiah 13:20; see also בְּלִי, and בִּלְתִּי, near the end and followed by another preposition, Leviticus 23:16 עַד מִמָּחֳרַת הַשַּׁבָּת, Nehemiah 13:9 עַד אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. With the force of against, Judges 6:31 יוּמַת עַד הַבֹּקֶר; compare (b) end. (b) followed by infinitive, both of past time, as Genesis 8:7; Genesis 32:35 עַד עֲלוֺת הַשַּׁחַר, Genesis 33:3; Genesis 34:5, and especially future time, as Genesis 3:19 עַד שׁוּבְךָ until thy returning, Genesis 19:22; Genesis 27:45; Deuteronomy 7:20,23; Deuteronomy 20:20; Deuteronomy 22:2; Deuteronomy 28:20,22, — both + often; compare עַד בּוֺשׁ Judges 3:25 +; עַד תֹּם ֗֗֗ Leviticus 25:29 10t.; עַד תֻּמָּם Deuteronomy 2:15 +; עַד כַּלֵּה 2 Kings 13:17,19; Ezekiel 19:14; עַד כַּלּוֺתָ(םׅ 1 Samuel 15:18; Jeremiah 9:15 +; עַד אוֺר הַבֹּקֶר Judges 16:2 +; also in עַד הִשְׁמִדְךָ אֹתָם Deuteronomy 7:24 (compare Deuteronomy 28:48; Joshua 11:14; 1 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 3:25; 2 Kings 10:17; 2 Kings 24:20 ["" Jeremiah 52:3 הִשְׁלִיכוֺ]; on the anomalous ׳הִ, see Dr, read probably ׳הַ); and most probably compare Kö iii. 583) in עַד בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר לוֺ (לָהֶם) שָׂרִיד Deuteronomy 3:3 (see Dr), + 5t. (see above), read probably הַשְׁאִיר. With the force of towards the end of, against, especially in עַד בֹּאָ(םׅ, Genesis 43:25; Exodus 22:25; Numbers 10:21 והקימואת המשׁכן עַד בֹּאָם used to set up the tabernacle against their coming, 2 Kings 16:11; Ezekiel 33:22; compare 2 Samuel 17:22. Elliptical Judges 16:2 עַד אוֺד הַבֹּקֶד וַהֲרַגְנוּהוּ (wait) till the morning dawn, and we slay him! (GFM; Dr§ 115). (c) with various adverbs of time. (q. v.) as עַד אָנָה, עַדמָֿה, עַד מָתַי, עַד הֵנָּה, עַד כֹּה, עַד כֵּן, עַד עַתָּה, compare עַד כַּמֶּה פְעָמִים (see מָה
4 b). ( d) to suffest also degree (compare
3), עַד אֵין מָקוֺם until there is no place Isaiah 5:8, עַד אֵין מִסְמָּר Psalm 40:13; Job 5:9; Job 9:10; compare Leviticus 26:18 וְאִםעַֿדאֵֿלֶּה and if even up to these things, even the end of all these punishment, you do not hearken to me.
b. During (rare; prop, as far as the limit indicated, including the time previous, compare ἔως: so often Aramaic עַד, , while), 2 Kings 9:22 what is peace עַד זְנוּנֵי אִיזֶבֶל during, etc.,? Job 20:5 עֲדֵי רָ֑גַע during a moment; followed by infinitive Judges 3:26 עַד הִתְמַהְמְהָם during their delaying, Exodus 33:22; Job 7:19 עַד בִּלְעִי רֻקִּי Jonah 4:2.
3 Of degree, to suggest a higher or the highest; as עַד מְאֹד even to muchness, i.e. exceedingly (see מְאֹד), עַד מְהֵרָה even to haste Psalm 147:15; Esther 5:6 וּמַהבֻּֿקָּשָׁתֵךְ עַדחֲֿצִי הַמַּלְכוּתוְתֵעָשׂ, Esther 5:3; Esther 7:2. See also עַד לְ, below. With a negative, to express not even as much as, Deuteronomy 2:5 לא אתןלכם מארצם עַד מִדְרַךְ כַּף רָ֑גֶל, and with אֶחָד, Exodus 9:7 לֹא מֵת ֗֗֗ עַדאֶֿחָד, simil. Exodus 14:28; Judges 4:16; 2 Samuel 17:22 (read אֶחָד for ׃אַחַד see Dr). Sts. almost = Latin adeo, 1 Samuel 2:5 (si vera lectio) עַד עֲקָרָה ילדהשׁבעה even to the barren, she hath borne seven, i.e. even the barren hath, etc., Job 25:5 הן עדיָֿרֵחַולא יאהיל, Haggai 2:19. In comparisons, to the degree of, even like (rare), Nahum 1:10 עַד סִירִים סְבֻכִים (text dubious) entangled even like thorns, 1 Chronicles 4:27 לא הִרְבּוּ עד בני יהודה did not multiply to the degree of (i.e. like), etc. compare. 2 Samuel 23:19 עַד הַשְּׁלשָׁהלֹא בָא did not attain (in prowess) unto the three.
II. conjunction 1. until; —
a עַד אֲשֶׁר until that: (a) with perfect, of past time, Exodus 32:20 ויטחןעד אשׁר דָּק ( Deuteronomy 9:21), Deuteronomy 2:14 עד אשׁר עָבַרְנוּ, Joshua 3:17; Joshua 8:26; Judges 4:24; 1 Kings 10:7 ( 2 Chronicles 9:6), 2 Kings 17:20,23; 2 Kings 21:16; with suggestion of degree, 1 Samuel 30:4 (followed byאֵין), 1 Kings 17:17; rarely of future time (the 'future perfect,' Dr§ 17), 2 Samuel 17:13 (of degree), Ezekiel 34:21 Song of Solomon -עַד שֶׁ (often in Late Hebrew; see שֶׁ) Judges 5:7; Song of Solomon 3:4 (twice in verse); עַד כִּי Genesis 26:13 עַד כִּיגָֿדַל מְאֹד, Genesis 41:49; 2 Samuel 23:10; 2 Chronicles 26:15; and (of future time) עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11. ( b) with imperfect, usually of future time, Genesis 27:44 עַד אֲשֶׁר תָּשׁוּב חֲמַר אָחִיךָ, Genesis 29:8; Exodus 23:30; Exodus 24:14; Leviticus 22:4; Numbers 11:20; Numbers 20:17; 1 Samuel 22:3; Hosea 5:15 +; rarely of past time, Jonah 4:5 עד אשׁר יראה till he should see, Ecclesiastes 2:3. So (of the future) -עַד שֶׁ Song of Solomon 2:7,17; Song of Solomon 3:5; Song of Solomon 4:6; Song of Solomon 8:4; Psalm 123:2; and עַד כִּי Genesis 49:10 עַד כִּייָֿבאֹ שִׁילֹה.
b.עַד alone, until: ( a) with perfect, of past time, Joshua 2:22; Joshua 4:23 עַדעָֿבַרְנוּ, 1 Samuel 20:41 עַד דָּוִד הִגְדִּיל, 2 Samuel 21:10; 1 Kings 11:16; Ezekiel 28:15; of the future (rare), 2 Kings 7:3 עַד מָ֑תְנוּ, Ezekiel 39:15; Daniel 11:36 עַד כָּלָה זָ֑עַם. So עַד סִם (of the future), Genesis 24:19,33; Isaiah 30:17; Ruth 2:21. ( b) with imperfect, of future time, 1 Samuel 1:22 (elliptic: compare Judges 16:2,
12 a ( b) end), Isaiah 22:14; Isaiah 26:20; Isaiah 32:15; Isaiah 62:1,7; Psalm 57:2; Psalm 71:18; Job 27:5 +; of the past (rare), Exodus 15:16 עד יעבור עמך, Exodus 15:16; Joshua 10:13 (poetry) עַד יִקֹּם גּוֺיאוֺיְבָיו, Psalm 73:17. — N.B. In poetry, עַד is sometimes used to mark not an absolute close, but an epoch or turning-point, in the future, as Psalm 110:1 (see De) עַד אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ, Hosea 10:12; Job 14:6 (but see
3); after a negative clause, Genesis 49:10; Numbers 23:24; Isaiah 42:4; Psalm 71:18; Psalm 112:8; Job 8:21 (but read probably with Ew Hi Di Du al. עֹד he will yet, etc., understanding Job 8:20 as present, not future).
2 While (rare: compare 12 b): —
a. with perfect, 1 Samuel 14:19 עד דִּבֶּר שׁאול while Saul spake.
b. with imperfect, Psalm 141:10 יַחד אָנֹכִי עַד אֶעֱבֹר while I at the same time pass by.
c. with participle, Job 1:18 עַד זֶה מְדַבֵּר (but read probably עֹד, as Job 1:16; Job 1:17), Nehemiah 7:3.
d. -עַד שֶׁ (without verb) Song of Solomon 1:12. So עַד לֹא while not = ere yet (of past time) Proverbs 8:26 עד לא עשׂה אדץ (so עַד לָא, , often, e.g. Genesis 24:15 ᵑ7, Matthew 1:18); and עד אשׁר לא (of the future) Ecclesiastes 12:1,2,6 (compare Talmud עַד דְּלָא, Mishna שֶׁלּאֹ עַד).
3 Of degree, to the point that, so that even (rare), Isaiah 47:7 Thou saidst, I shall be for ever a lady, עַד לֹא שַׂמְתְּ אֵלֶּה עַל לִבֵךְ to the point that (going so far in thy pride that) thou didst not, etc. (but Hi Che Du al. join גְּבֶרֶת עַד I shall be for ever, a lady perpetually; see I. עַד); Job 14:6 (Di De Bu Du) to the point that he may enjoy, etc., Isaiah 22:14 (Du). In Joshua 17:14 עַד אֲשֶׁר׳עַד כֹּה ֵבּרְכַנִי י, read עַל אֲשֶׁר because that (Ges Buhl; compare Di).
III.עַד לְ, a strengthened form for עַד, found chiefly in Chronicles, Ezra , and occurring in most of the above senses. Thus
1 of space: לְבוֺא חֲמָת עַד Joshua 13:5; Judges 3:3; 1 Chronicles 13:5, מִדְבָּ֫רָה׳עד ל 1 Chronicles 5:9, מצרים׳עד ל 2 Chronicles 16:8; עַד לְמִזְרַהּ הַגָּ֑יְא 1 Chronicles 4:39, עַד לַמְצָד 1 Chronicles 12:17; עַד לִגְרָר 2 Chronicles 14:12; עַד לַשָּׁמַיִם 2 Chronicles 28:9; Ezra 9:6.
2 Of time: עד לעולם 1 Chronicles 23:25; 1 Chronicles 28:7; לְמֵרָחוֺק עַד 2 Chronicles 26:15; Ezra 3:13; Ezra 9:4 עד למנחת הערב; עַד לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה Ezra 10:14 probably during (Keil Ges Be with regard to, strengthened for לְ); followed by infinitive עַד לַעֲלוֺת הַמִּנְחָה 1 Kings 18:29; עַד לִכְלוֺת 1 Chronicles 28:20; 2 Chronicles 29:28; עַד לְכַלֵּה 2 Chronicles 24:10; 31:1; עד להשׁחית 2 Chronicles 26:16; עַד לָמוּת 2 Chronicles 32:24 ("" 2 Kings 20:1 לָמוּת alone); Ezra 10:14 עד להשׁיב.
3 Of degree: עַד לְמַחֲנֶה גָדוֺל even unto (till there was) a great camp, 1 Chronicles 12:23; עַד לְמַ֫עְלָה = exceedingly 2 Chronicles 16:12; 17:12; 26:8; עַד לִמְאֹד 2 Chronicles 16:14; עַד לְשִׂמְחָה 2 Chronicles 29:30 עַד לָרֹב 2 Chronicles 31:30; עַד לְאֵיןמַרְמֵּא 2 Chronicles 36:16.
עַד m. (from the foot עָדָה to pass over, to go on)
(1) pr. passing, progress, (in space), then duration (of time). Hence perpetuity of time, eternity, i.q. עוֹלָם. אֲבִי־עַד perpetual father (of his country), [?] Isaiah 9:5 [Christ]. הַרְרֵי עַד Habakkuk 3:6, and הוֹרַי עַד Genesis 49:26 eternal mountains, those which are to endure continually, לָעַד Psalms 9:19, 19:10 more fully לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד Psalms 9:6 עוֹלָם וָעֶד Psalms 10:16, 21:5 45:7 עֲדֵי־עַד Psalms 83:18 עַד־עוֹלְמֵי עַד Isaiah 45:17 for ever.
(2) prey, spoil (see the root No. 2, Ch. עֲדָא, עֲדִי, עֲדָאָה prey, spoil), Genesis 49:27; Zephaniah 3:8; Isaiah 33:22.
(B) prep. poet.עֲדֵי (like עֲלֵי, אֱלֵי), with suff. עָדַי, עָדֶיךָ, עָדָיו, also עָדֵיכֶם (the Kametz being retained which is unusual), Job 32:12 once עַד־הֵם for עֲדֵיהֶם 2 Kings 9:18.
(1) while so long as, ἕως (während). 2 Kings 9:22, עַד זְנוּנֵי אִיזֶבֶל “so long as the whoredoms of Jezebel (continue).” 1 Kings 18:45, עַד כֹּה וְעַד כֹּה “while so and while so (it was done),” i.e. meanwhile, gradually, little by little. Job 20:5, עֲדֵי רֶגַע “during a moment.” Followed by inf. Judges 3:26, עַד־הִתְמַהְמְהָם “while they waited.”
(2) to, even to some certain limit. It is used
(a) prop. of space (from the signification of passing on), as עַד הַנָּהָר הַגָּדוֹל even to the great river, Deuteronomy 1:7 עַד דָּן even to the town of Dan, Genesis 14:14. In opposition to one another are used, מִן … עַד, מִן … וְעַד (see מִן No. 3, let. ), and where there are many terms, and a transition from one to another וְעַד, … מִן … עַד … עַד Genesis 7:23; Numbers 8:4; Jeremiah 31:40; 1 Samuel 17:32, 52 1 Samuel 17:52In the later Hebrew there frequently occurs עַד לְ even to, Ezra 9:4; Esther 4:2 hence עַד לְמֵרָחוֹק even to afar off, Ezra 3:13; 2 Chronicles 26:13 (compare עַד מֵרָחוֹק Isaiah 57:9); once עַד אֲלֵיהֶם even to them, 2 Kings 9:20. The particle אֶל and this differ properly in this respect: that אֶל signifies nothing but motion and direction towards some limit. עַד on the contrary implies an actual arrival quite to such a limit; e.g. בּוֹא עַד (see בּוֹא No. 2,.); נָגַע עַד to attain unto, Job 4:5 מָצָא עַד Job 11:7 נָגַשׁ עַד Judges 9:52 but this distinction is not always observed, as is clearly shewn by the phrases הִתְבּוֹנֵן עַד to attend to, Job 32:12, 38:18 (in other places followed by עַל, אֶלּ); הֶאֱזִין עַד Numbers 23:18. עַר לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה Ezra 10:14 “with regard to this thing.” Followed by inf. even until (anything comes to pass), Numbers 32:13 in the later Hebrew עַד לְ Ezra 10:14; 1 Chronicles 5:3.
(b) of time. עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה even unto this day, i.e. (the limit being included; as to the distinction of the particles حتي=עַד and الى, the former of which includes the limit, the latter excludes it, compare De Sacy, Gramm. Arab. I. § 830, No.3); even this day, even now, Genesis 26:33, 32:33. עַד הַבֹּקֶר until the morning, Judges 6:31 עַד הָעֶרֶב until the evening, Leviticus 15:5 poet. עֲדֵי עֶרֶב Psalms 104:23. Often followed by adverbs of time; as עַד־אָנָה, עַד־מָה, עַד־מָתַי until when. i.e. how long? (see אָנָה, מָה, מָתַי ) עַד הֵנָּה (contr. עֲדֶנָּה) עַתָּה עַד כֹּה, עַד hitherto (see הֵנָּה, כֹּה, עַתָּה ); עַד בְּלִי, עַד בִּלְתִּי until (there is) none (or nothing); see בְּלִי, בִּלְתִּי.
(c) used of degree, especially with reference to a greater, and also to the highest, עַד מְאֹד, עַד לִמְאֹד even to the highest degree, i.e. exceedingly; עַד־מְהֵרָה unto the (greatest) haste, i.e. very fast; עַד לְמַעְלָה unto the highest degree, i.e. exceedingly (see מַעַל No. II.); עַד אֵין מִסְפָּר until there is no numbering, Psalms 40:13 (compare עַד לְאֵין מ׳ 2 Chronicles 36:16); עַד אֶפֶם מָקוֹם until there is no place left, Isaiah 5:8. Hence even, adeo, Numbers 8:4, and, with a negative particle following, not even. לֹא … עַד אֶחָד not even one, Judges 4:16; 2 Samuel 17:22; Haggai 2:19, עַד הַגֶּפֶן וְהַתְּאֵנָה … לֹא נָשָׂא “even the vine and the fig-tree … bear no fruit;” Job 25:5. Also its use is singular in comparisons, when it is properly, to attain even unto another who is distinguished in any thing (bis zu dem Grade wie), 1 Chronicles 4:27, “but their family did not multiply עַד בְּנֵי יְהוּדָה up to the children of Judah,” i.e. like the children of Judah; Nahum 1:10, עַד סִירִים נְבֻכִים “they are woven together, even as thorns,” i.e. like thorns. Compare בּוֹא No. 2, c.
(1) while (compare B, 1), followed by a pret. 1 Samuel 14:19 followed by a fut. Job 8:21 part. ib. 1:18, compare 16 Job 1:16, 17 Job 1:17. עַד שֶׁ id. Song of Solomon 1:12 עַד לֹא Proverbs 8:26 and עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא Ecclesiastes 12:1, Ecclesiastes 12:2, Ecclesiastes 12:6, “while (there was) not,” i.q. בְּטֶרֶם before that; Syr. ܥܰܕܥܳ Matthew 1:18, for the Gr. πρινή.
(2) until, so long as, used of a limit of time (compare letter B, 2, b), followed by a pret. Joshua 2:22, עַד שָׁבוּ הָרֹדְפִים “until the pursuers returned;” Ezekiel 39:15 followed by a fut. Genesis 38:11; Hosea 10:12. More fully עַד אֲשֶׁר until that, followed by a pret. Deuteronomy 2:14; Judges 4:24 followed by a fut. Numbers 11:20; Hosea 5:15 עַד שֶׁ Song of Solomon 3:4; Judges 5:7 עַד כִּי id. Genesis 26:13 עַד אִם Genesis 24:19; Isaiah 30:17 עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם Genesis 28:15; Numbers 32:17; Isaiah 6:11. The limit of time itself (not the interval of time up to the limit) is signified in these words, 1 Samuel 1:22, עַד יִגָּמֵל הַנַּעַר וַהֲבִיאֹתִיו “until the child be weaned [then] I will bring him,” for, when he shall have been weaned; compare Ch. עַד אָחֳרֵין and the idiom of the south and west of Germany, bis Sonntag reife ich, i.e. on next Sunday itself. There is properly an ellipsis in these examples, which may be thus explained, “until when the child be weaned (he shall remain with me), then I will bring him.” It has also been often observed (see Noldii Concord. Part. P. 534; Glassii Philol. S. p. 382, ed. Dathii, interpreters on Psalms 110:1, and on the other hand, Fritzsche on Matt. p. 853, seq.; Winer’s Lex. p. 695), that the particle עַד sometimes, also includes the times beyond the stated limit; but this is manifestly false, so far as this is supposed to lie in the power of this particle from any singular usage of the Hebrew language. But, on the other hand, it is not less certain that the sacred writers have not stated the extreme limit in places of this kind, but have mentioned a nearer limit without excluding the time beyond. When any one setting out on a journey says to a friend, “Farewell till we meet again” (lebewohl bis auf Wiederfehn!), he is now indeed resting on this nearer limit, although wishing well to his friend after his return as well. In the same manner are we to judge of the passages, Psalms 110:1 [?]; 112:8 Daniel 2:21; Genesis 28:15; 1 Timothy 4:13 compare Hengstenberg, De Authentia Libri Danielis, p. 66, 67.
(3) even to (a great) degree, i.e. even that, so that (compare Arab. حتى and Horst ad Motenabbii Carmen, Bonnæ 1823, verse 1) Isaiah 47:1, “thou hast said, I shall rule for ever, עַד לֹא שַׂמְתְּ אֵלֶּה עַל לִבֵּךְ even that (thou hast gone so far in insolence and pride, that) thou didst not lay these things to heart;” Job 14:6; 1 Samuel 2:5, 20:41 more fully עַד אֲשֶׁר Joshua 17:14 (unless it should be read עַל אֲשֶׁר).
עַד Chald. i.q. Heb.
(1) within, during (während). עַד יוֹמִין תְּלָתִין within thirty days, Daniel 6:8, 13.
(2) until, even until, used of time, e.g. עַד כְּעַן until now, Ezra 5:16 but עַד אָחֳרֵין until the last, is i.q. at last, Daniel 4:5.
(3) to, for, used of purpose and end. עַד־דּבְרַת דִּי to the end that, Daniel 4:14, i.q. עַל דִּבְרַת דַּי 2:30.
(B) עַד דִּי Conj.
(1) while, when meanwhile. Daniel 6:25, “they (the men cast into the den) had not yet reached the bottom of the den, when meanwhile (עַד דִּי) the lions seized them.”
(2) until that, Daniel 4:30, 7:22.