the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3899 - לֶחֶם
1) bread, food, grain
1b) food (in general)
2305) mhl (לההמ LHhM) AC: Fight CO: Bread AB: ?: Flour an water are mixed together and kneaded. Also war in the sense of fighting with the bread when kneading. [from: mh- food]
V) mhl (לההמ LHhM) - I. Eat: II. Fight:KJV (177): (vf: Paal, Niphal) fight, war, eat, overcome, devour, prevail - Strongs: H3898 (לָחַם)
Nm) mhl (לההמ LHhM) - I. Bread:[Hebrew and Aramaic] II. |kjv: bread, food, meat, loaves, shewbread, victuals, feast, fruit, provision - Strongs: H3899 (לֶחֶם), H3900 (לְחֵם), H3901 (לָחֶם)
dm ) mfhl (לההומ LHhWM) - Meat: KJV (2): eating, flesh - Strongs: H3894 (לָחֻם)
hf1) emhlm (מלההמה MLHhMH) - |kjv: battle, war, fight - Strongs: H4421 (מִלְחָמָה)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1. a. bread, the ordinary food of early Hebrews (Benz Archaeology 84ff Now Archaeology i. 109 ff.) Exodus 21:14 (E), Numbers 21:5; Joshua 9:5,12 (JE), Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 23:5; Exodus 16:3 (P) +; ׳כִּכַּרלֿ loaf of bread 1 Samuel 2:36 + (see כִּכָּר below כרר), and without ככר (always with number) 1 Samuel 10:4; 1 Samuel 16:20 (see Dr), 1 Samuel 17:7; 1 Samuel 21:4; 1 Samuel 25:18; 2 Samuel 16:1; 1 Kings 14:3; 2 Kings 4:42; ׳חַלַת ל cake of bread 2 Samuel 6:19; Exodus 29:23 + (see חַלָּה below
I.חלל); made from barley (שְׂעֹרִים); Judges 7:13; 2 Kings 4:42 (see also לָחֶם above); from wheat-flour (סֹלֶת חִטִים) Exodus 29:2 (P); compare the mixture Ezekiel 4:9; made by baking (אפה) Isaiah 44:15,19; Leviticus 26:26 (H; compare Jeremiah 37:21); ׳מַּתלֿ a bit of bread 1 Samuel 2:36; 1 Kings 17:11; Proverbs 28:21, compare Ezekiel 13:19, as modest term for a hospitable meal Genesis 18:5 (J), Judges 19:5; 1 Samuel 28:22; distinguished from meat (flesh), Genesis 27:17 (J) 1 Samuel 25:11; 1 Kings 17:6 (twice in verse); Exodus 16:8,12 (also Exodus 16:3 above), Exodus 29:32,34; Leviticus 8:31 (all P), Leviticus 23:18 (H), 1 Chronicles 12:40; Psalm 78:20; Daniel 10:3; = a meal 1 Samuel 20:27, ׳אָכַל ל = take a meal Genesis 31:54 (twice in verse); Genesis 37:25; Genesis 43:25,32 +; אכל לַחְמִי Psalm 41:10 eat my bread, establishing an obligation, compare Obadiah 7 (read ׳אֹכְלֵי ל according to Marti Kau AT; strike out ׳לᵐ5 Hi We, compare VB) ׳עשׂה ל = make a feast Ecclesiastes 10:19; ׳מַטֵּה ל staff of bread (as support of life), only late Ezekiel 4:16; Ezekiel 5:16; Ezekiel 14:13; Leviticus 26:26 (H), Psalm 105:16; cf .׳מִשְׁעַן ל Isaiah 3:1 (gloss); leavened bread is חָמֵץ׳ל Leviticus 7:13; unleavened bread is מַצּוֺת׳ל Exodus 29:2 (both P); (הַ)מָּנִים׳ל bread of the face (of ׳י; i.e. in his presence, Di Leviticus 24:9 Dr 1 Samuel 21:7); in the sanctuary 1 Samuel 21:7; 1 Kings 7:48 2 Chronicles 4:19; Exodus 25:30; Exodus 35:13; Exodus 39:36, without ׳פ Exodus 40:23 (all P); = הַתָּמִיד׳ל Numbers 4:7 (P), קֹדֶשׁ׳ל 1 Samuel 21:5; in Chronicles הַמַּעֲרָ֑כֶת׳ל 1 Chronicles 9:32; compare 1 Chronicles 23:29; Nehemiah 10:34, ׳ל׳מ 2 Chronicles 13:11 opposed to חֹל׳ל 1 Samuel 21:5; תְּנוּפִה׳ל Leviticus 23:17 wave-loaf; (הַ)בִּכֻּרִים׳ל Leviticus 23:20; 2 Kings 4:42 bread of first-fruits.
b. = bread-corn, the material from which bread is made, i.e. wheat, barley, etc.: Genesis 41:54,55 (E), Genesis 47:13,15,17 (twice in verse); Genesis 47:19 (J), Genesis 49:20 (poem in J), Isaiah 28:28; Isaiah 30:23; Isaiah 55:10; Jeremiah 5:17; Ezekiel 48:18; Job 28:5; Proverbs 28:3; Psalm 104:14; הָאָרֶץ׳ל Numbers 15:19 (P), ׳ארץ ל 2 Kings 18:32 = Isaiah 36:17.
2 food in General:
a. of man, Judges 13:16 (kid, Judges 13:15) 1 Samuel 14:24 (twice in verse); 1 Samuel 14:28 (honey), 1 Samuel 28:20; 1 Samuel 30:12; Proverbs 22:9; Proverbs 27:27 (twice in verse) (goat's milk) +; ׳לְכָלבָּֿשָׂר נֹתֵן ל Psalm 136:25.
b. of animals, Proverbs 6:8; Proverbs 30:25; Proverbs 65:25; Job 24:5 + Psalm 147:9
c. of God (in sacrifices): אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׳ל (compare RS Semitic i. 207,2nd ed., 224) Leviticus 21:6 compare Leviticus 21:8; Leviticus 21:17; Leviticus 21:21; Leviticus 21:22, Leviticus 22:25 (all H), compare Numbers 28:2 (P), Ezekiel 16:19; Ezekiel 44:7, and מְגֹאָל׳ל Malachi 1:7, also (׳לי) אִשֶּׁה׳ל Leviticus 3:11,16; Numbers 28:24 (all P).
3 other phrases and figurative uses are:
a. רֶשַׁע׳ל Proverbs 4:17 (accusative of congnate meaning with verb with לָחַם), probably = food gained by wickedness ׅ "" (יִיִן חֲמָסִים, compare שָׁ֑קֶר׳ל Proverbs 20:17, כְּזָבִים׳ל Proverbs 23:3; עַצְלוּת׳ל Proverbs 31:27 = bread of idleness, i.e. unearned; חֻקִּי׳ל Proverbs 30:8 (opposed to riches and poverty, see חֹק); לַחַץ׳ל 1 Kings 22:27 2 Chronicles 18:26, vid לַחַץ below; הָעֲצָבִים׳ל Psalm 127:2 see II. עֶצָב; אוֺנִים׳ל Hosea 9:4, vid אָוֶן. p.20 a; אֲנָשִׁים׳ל Ezekiel 24:17,22of food offered to mourners, compare Jeremiah 16:7 (where insert ׳לᵐ5 Gf Gie); שַׁלַּח לחמך עלפֿני המים Ecclesiastes 11:1 usual interpration of benevolent giving (compare Now); De and others of sea-commerce in bread-stuffs, compare Proverbs 31:14.
b. figurative לַחְמֵנוּ הֵם Numbers 14:9 (JE) our food are they, i.e. we will devour, destroy, them (compare Deuteronomy 7:16); ׳דִּמְעָתִּי ל Psalm 42:4; compare Psalm 80:6 (see אכל above); ׳ל of evil deeds of wicked Job 20:14; עֵץ בְּלַחְמוֺ Jeremiah 11:19 apparentlyfig.of destroying the prophet and his house, but read probably בְּלֵחוֺ in its freshness (i.e. untimely), so Hi Gf Che Gie (see לֵחַ below לחח above).
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לֶחֶם of both genders (m. Numbers 21:5 f. Genesis 49:20).
(1) food, both of men and of beasts, Leviticus 3:11; Psalms 41:10, 102:5 Job 20:14 לֶחֶם אֱלֹהִים the food of God, used of sacrifice, Leviticus 21:8, 17 Leviticus 21:17. Jeremiah 11:19, עֵץ בְּלַחְמוֹ “the tree with its food,” i.e. its fruit (compare Arab. أُكْلُ food, used of fruit). לֶחֶם הַפֶּחָה the food of the governor, the provision for his table (Tafelgelder), Nehemiah 5:18 comp. verse 15 לַחְמְךָ Obadiah 1:7, ellipt. for אַנְשֵׁי לַחְמְךָ those who eat of thy table, thy household; used of banquets, or meals, in the phrases אָכַל לֶחֶם to eat food (see אָכַל 1, let. ); and עָשָׂה לֶחֶם to furnish a banquet or meal, Ecclesiastes 10:19.
(2) specially bread (as in Arab. لَحْمُ is specially flesh); לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים bread of the presence; LXX. ἄρτοι ἐνώπιοι; Vulg. panes propositionis; Luth. Schaubrodte; [Engl. Trans. shew-bread.] Twelve small loaves which were set out in the holy tabernacle before Jehovah every week (in the manner of lectisternia), Exodus 25:30, 35:13 39:36 called in the later books לֶחֶם הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת. When numerals are prefixed, כִּכְּרוֹת must be supplied; 1 Samuel 10:4, שְׁתֵּי לֶחֶם two (loaves) of bread; compare verse 1 Samuel 10:3, once even
(3) wheat, of the flour of which the Hebrews made their bread; bread-corn, Brotkorn (comp. Arab. طَعَامُ food; specially wheat; and on the other hand, Gr. σῖτος, wheat, then food of any kind). Isaiah 28:28, לֶחֶם יוּדַק וְגו׳ “wheat is threshed indeed, but they do not beat it hard,” etc.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.