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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #740 - ἄρτος
- food composed of flour mixed with water and baked
- the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round cake, as thick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or platter hence it was not to be cut but broken
- loaves were consecrated to the Lord
- of the bread used at the love-feasts and at the Lord's Table
- food of any kind
I cake or loaf of wheat-bread, mostly in pl., Od. 18.120, al.; ἄρτος οὖλος a whole loaf, 17.343; collectively, bread, δούλιον ἄρτον ἔδων Archil. Supp. 2.6; ἄ. τρισκοπάνιστος Batr. 35; opp. μᾶζα (porridge), Hp. Acut. 37. — Freq. in all writers.
II ἄρτος· βόλος τις, καὶ ὁ Ἀθηναίων ξένος, Hsch.
ἄρτος, ἄρτου, ὁ (from ἈΡΩ to fit, put together (cf. Etym. Magn. 150, 36 — but doubtful)), bread; Hebrew לֶחֶם;
1. food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round cake, as thick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or platter (cf. Winers RWB under the word Backen; (BB. DD.)); hence, it was not cut, but broken (see κλάσις and κλάω) Matthew 4:3; Matthew 7:9; Matthew 14:17, 19; Mark 6:36 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets), Mark 6:37; Luke 4:3; Luke 24:30; John 6:5ff; Acts 27:35, and often; ἄρτοι τῆς προθέσεως, loaves consecrated to Jehovah, see πρόθεσις; on the bread used at the love-feasts and the sacred supper (Winer's Grammar, 35), cf. Matthew 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke 22:19; Acts 2:42, 46; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:26-28.
2. As in Greek writings, and like the Hebrew לֶחֶם, food of any kind: Matthew 6:11; Mark 6:8; Luke 11:3; 2 Corinthians 9:10; ὁ ἄρτος τῶν τέκνων the food served to the children, Mark 7:27; ἄρτον φαγεῖν or ἐσθίειν to take food, to eat (לֶחֶם אֲכֹל) (Winer's Grammar, 33 (32)): Mark 3:20; Luke 14:1, 15; Matthew 15:2; ἄρτον φαγεῖν παρά τίνος to take food supplied by one, 2 Thessalonians 3:8; τόν ἑαυτόν ἄρτον ἐσθίειν, to eat the food which one has procured for himself by his own labor, 2 Thessalonians 3:12; μήτε ἄρτον ἐσθίον, μήτε οἶνον πίνων, abstaining from the usual sustenance, or using it sparingly, Luke 7:33; τρώγειν τόν ἄρτον μετά τίνος to be one's table-companion, his familiar friend, John 13:18 (Psalm 40:10
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ἄρτος , -ον , ὁ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H3899;]
bread, a loaf: Matthew 4:3-4, Mark 3:20, al.; ἄρτοι τ . προθέσεως , bread of the setting forth, i.e. the shewbread. Metaph., ὁ ἄ . τ . θεοῦ , τ . ζωῆς , ref. to Christ, John 6:33; John 6:35; in general, food: Matthew 6:11, al.; ἄ . φαγεῖν (Heb. H3899 H400), to eat (MM, s.v.), Luke 14:1, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
ἄρτος is frequently found with καθαρός = ";pure"; or ";white bread,"; e.g. P Tebt II. 468 οἴνου κε (ράμιον) α ̄, ἄρτων κα ̣(θαρῶν) χ (= 10 Choenices? Edd.). P Oxy IV. 736.26 (a lengthy private account, c. A.D. I) ἄρτου καθαροῦ παιδ (ῶν) ἡμιωβέλιον) ";pure bread for the children ½ obol,"; P Giss I. 14.5 (ii. A.D.) ἔγραψάς μοι περὶ ἄρτων καθαρῶν πεγμφθῆναἱ σοι διὰ Διοσκύρου. Other instances of the word are P Leid Bi. 12 (ii/B.C.) ἄρτων πεπτῶν (in provision claimed for the Serapeum Twins), P Oxy VI. 936.15 f. (iii/A.D.) σφυρίδιον Κανωπικὸν ὅπ ̣ου ζεύγη ἄρτων δ ̄, ";a Canopic basket with four pairs of loaves,"; P Gen I. 74.25 f. (probably iii/A.D.) λήκυθον ἐλαίου καὶ ἄρτους μεγάλο [υ ]ς τέσσαρας. In P Oxy VI. 908.22f. (A.D. 199) ἀρτοκοπεῖον = ";bakery";—ὥστε ὑφ᾽ ἑκάστου ὑμῶν ἀρτοκοπεῖον ἓν ἀπαρτισθῆναι. Ἄρτος is the common and only word for ";bread"; during the period we are concerned with : towards the end of it ψωμίον (q. v.) begins to acquire this meaning and takes its place.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.