the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5462 - סָגַר
1) to shut, close
1a1) to shut
1a2) to close, close up
1a3) closed up, closely joined, shut up
1b1) to be shut up
1b2) to be shut or closed
1c) (Piel) to shut up, deliver up
1d) (Pual) to be shut up
1e1) to deliver up
1e2) to shut up, imprison
V) rcx (סגר SGR) - Shut: To shut or clse. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: rkV] KJV (96): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Pual, Piel) shut, deliver, pure, give, inclose, repair, close, stop, strait, together - Strongs: H5462 (סָגַר), H5463 (סְגַר), H5534 (סָכַר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ס Genesis 19:6 +, 3 plural סָֽגְרוּ 2 Chronicles 29:7, סָֽגְר֑וּ Psalm 17:10 (compare Baer's n., Ges§ 29o Kö ii, 1,535 Anm.), סָגָר֑וּ Genesis 19:10; Joshua 2:7; Imperfect יִסְגֹּר Job 12:14; Malachi 1:10,1plural cohortative נִסְגְּרָה Nehemiah 6:10, etc.; Imperative masculine singular סְגֹר Psalm 35:3; Isaiah 26:20 (וּסֲגֹר Baer Ginsb), masculine plural סִגְרוּ 2 Kings 6:32; Infinitive construct לִסְגּוֺר Joshua 2:5; Participle active סֹגֵר Isaiah 22:22; feminine סֹגֶּרֶת Joshua 6:1 (but see below); passive סָגוּר 1 Kings 6:20 12t.; —
1 shut door (דֶּלֶת) Genesis 19:10 (J) 2 Kings 6:32; Malachi 1:10; Nehemiah 6:10; 2 Chronicles 28:24; 29:7; gate (שַׁעַר) Joshua 2:7 (JE) Ezekiel 46:12, compare Ezekiel 44:1,2(twice in verse); Ezekiel 46:1, לִסְגֹּר׳וַיְהִי הַשּׁ Joshua 2:5 (JE), also (שַׁעַר omitted) Joshua 6:1 (si vera 1.; סֹגֶרֶת dittograph according to Buhl Lex 13); door after one (אַחֲרֵי), on leaving room Genesis 19:6 (J); upon, behind, oneself, from within (בְּעַד q. v.) 2 Kings 4:4,5,33; Isaiah 26:20 (figurative), also (דֶּלֶת omitted) Judges 9:51; 2 Kings 4:21; with דֶּלֶת + בְּעַד upon one left inside Judges 3:23, and (דֶּלֶת omitted) Genesis 7:16 (J); figurative דַּלְתֵי בִטְנִי׳ס Job 3:10, compare רַחְמָהּ׳ס 1 Samuel 1:5, בְּעַד׳ס רַחְמָהּ 1 Samuel 1:6; absolute shut (opposed to מָּתַח) Isaiah 22:22 (twice in verse); metaphor ׳חֶלְבָּמוֺ ס Psalm 17:10 their fat (i.e. gross, unreceptive heart) they have closed.
2. a. close in upon (בְּעַד) Judges 3:22 (fat upon blade of sword), so possibly also וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה Genesis 2:21 (J) and flesh closed in, in place of it (usually and he closed flesh, i.e. closed the gap with flesh); עֲלֵיהֶם הַמִּדְבָּר׳ס Exodus 14:3 the wilderness hath closed in upon them; object omitted, יִסְגֹּר עַלאִֿישׁ Job 12:14 he closeth in upon a man, figurative of imprisonment.
b. close up breach (מֶּרֶץ) [in wall] of city 1 Kings 11:27; possibly close up [path] (si vera 1.) Psalm 35:3 Vrss Ol De Bae; JDMich DeW Ew Hup-Now Che take סְגֹר here as weapon, usually battle-axe [Greek σάγαρις] of Massagetae Herod i. 215 compare Lag Ges. Abh. 203, also Egyptian sagart· (loan-word) Bondi55; both improbable, text probably corrupt; Schw ZAW xi (1891), 258 reads חֲגֹר > Hal Rev. Sém. iii (1894), 47 עוּרָה (compare Psalm 59:5).
3 Passive participle, closed up = closely joined with tight seal, Job 41:7 (of scales of crocodile).
4 elsewhere only Passive participle in זָהָב סָגוּר (gold shut up, and so prized, rare, fine ?), only of temple adornment and utensils 1 Kings 6:20,21; 1 Kings 7:49,50; 1 Kings 10:21 = 1 Chronicles 9:20; 1 Chronicles 4:20,22; perhaps read סָגוּר (abbreviated for ׳ס׳ז) Job 28:15 (for ᵑ0סְגוֺר, so Hoffm Bu Du): compare Assyrian —urâƒu sakru, Dl HWB 499.
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נִסְגַּר 1 Samuel 23:7; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִסָּגֵר Ezekiel 46:2; 3 feminine singular jussive תִּסָּגֵר Numbers 12:14, וַתִּסָּגֵר Numbers 12:15; 3 masculine plural יִסָּנֵר֑וּ Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 60:11, וַיִּסָּֽגְרוּ Nehemiah 13:19; Imperative masculine singular הִסָּגֵר Ezekiel 3:24; —
1 subject person be shut up [in city] 1 Samuel 23:7, מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה Numbers 12:14,15 (E); בְּתוֺךְבַּיִת Ezekiel 3:24.
2 be shut, closed, of city gates Ezekiel 46:2; Isaiah 45:1; Isaiah 60:11 and (דלתות) Nehemiah 13:19.
Pi`el Perfect 3 masculine singular סִגַּר 1 Samuel 26:8; 2 Samuel 18:28; suffix סִגְּרַנִי 1 Samuel 24:19; Imperfect 3 masculine singular suffix יְסַגֶּרְךָ 1 Samuel 17:46; — deliver up to (leave no other opening for one, shut one up to), compare [מָגַן], מִגֵּן, p. 171 b above), only Samuel: with accusative of person + בְּיַד 1 Samuel 17:46; 1 Samuel 24:19; 1 Samuel 26:8; בְּיַד omitted 2 Samuel 18:28 (see also Hiph`il). p. 698
Pu`al Perfect 3 masculine singular סֻגַּר Isaiah 24:10; 3 plural סֻגְּרוּ Jeremiah 13:19, וְסֻגְּרוּ consecutive Isaiah 24:22; Participle feminine מְסֻגֶּ֫רֶת Joshua 6:1; — be shut up:
1 of cities Jeremiah 13:19 (opposed to מָּתַח), of beleaguered city Joshua 6:1 (JE), of houses Isaiah 24:10 (+ מִבּוֺא).
2 of prisoners עַלמַֿסְגֵּר Isaiah 24:22 = down into a dungeon.
3 of doors Ecclesiastes 12:14.
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular הִסְגִּיר Leviticus 14:46 +; 2 masculine singular suffix הִסְגַּרְתַּ֫נִי Psalm 31:9; 1 singular וְהִסְגַּרְתִּ֫י Amos 6:8, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יַסְגִּיר Job 11:10, וַיַּסְגֵּר Psalm 78:48; Psalm 78:62; 2 masculine singular תַּסְגִּר Deuteronomy 23:16, jussive תַּסְגֵּר Obadiah 14, etc.; Infinitive construct הַסְגִּיר Amos 1:6, suffix הַסְגִּירוֺ 1 Samuel 23:20, הַסְגִּירָם Amos 1:9; —
1 deliver up to (compare Pi`el), with accusative of person + בְּיַד 1 Samuel 23:11,12,20; 1 Samuel 30:15; Joshua 20:5 (D) Psalm 31:9; + לְ Amos 1:9; Psalm 78:50; Psalm 78:62, and (accusative of person omitted) Amos 1:6; + אֶלֿ Deuteronomy 23:16; Job 16:11; with accusative of animal + לְ Psalm 78:48; with accusative of person alone Deuteronomy 32:30; Obadiah 14, accusative omitted 1 Samuel 23:12; with accusative urb. alone Amos 6:8.
2 shut up (late; chiefly Leviticus 13,14, P):
a. with accusative of person Leviticus 13:5,11,21,26 compare Leviticus 13:4; Leviticus 13:31; Leviticus 13:33, so (absolute) = imprison Job 11:10; with accusative of thing Leviticus 13:54 compare Leviticus 13:50.
b. with accusative הַבַּיִת Leviticus 14:38 and (indefinite subject) Leviticus 14:46.
סְגַר verb shut (see Biblical Hebrew) —
Pe`al Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ס Daniel 6:23 shut the lions' mouth (accusative).
סָגַר fut. יִסְגֹּר (kindred to the verb סָכַר), to shut; followed by an acc. (a door, a gate), 1 Samuel 1:5; Job 3:10; Genesis 19:6, 10 Genesis 19:10; 1 Kings 11:27 followed by בְּעַר (prop. to shut around; see בְּעַד No. 3, ). 1 Samuel 1:6, כִּי־סָגַר יְהֹוָה בְּעַד רַחְמָהּ “for Jehovah had shut up her womb;” followed by עַל Exodus 14:3, סָגַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַמִּדְבָּר “the desert has shut them in,” or around (see עַל Job 26:9, 36:30 ). Job 12:14, יִסְגֹּר עַל־אִישׁ “he shuts over a man” (sc. a subterranean prison); followed by לִקְרַאת a pregnant construction, Psalms 35:3, “make bare the spear וּסְגֹר לִקְרַאת רֹדְפַי and shut up (the way) to my persecutors;” (in this passage not a few interpreters have taken סְגֹר or סְגוֹר to be a subst., signifying sagaris, by comparison with σάγαρις, Herod. vii. 64; and Arabic شجار a wooden spear; but for this there is no need). Absol. Genesis 7:16, “and Jehovah shut (the door) upon him,” Isaiah 22:22. Joshua 6:1, וִירִיחוֹ סֹגֶרֶת וּמְסֻגֶּרֶת “and Jericho had shut (the gates) and was bolted;” where Kal refers to the shut gates (opposed to open), Pu. as being intensitive, signifies their being fastened with bolts and bars. Vulg. Jericho autem clausa erat atque munita. Chald. “and Jericho was shut up with iron doors, and made strong with bars of brass.” Part. pass. סָגוּר shut, Ezekiel 44:1, Ezekiel 44:2, 46:1 hence precious; hence זָהַב סָגוּר precious gold, i.e. pure, genuine, as opposed to common or adulterated, 1 Kings 6:20, 21 1 Kings 6:21, 7:49, 50 1 Kings 7:50, 10:21 2 Chronicles 4:20, 22 2 Chronicles 4:22, 9:20. Vulg. aurum purum; Chald. good gold. Others take it as aurum dendroides, from شجر a tree; but the previous explanation is the better.
Niphal, pass. of Kal, to be shut up; used of gates or doors, Isaiah 45:1 to be shut up, inclosed; used of men, Numbers 12:14, 15 Numbers 12:15; 1 Samuel 23:7 and reflex. to shut up oneself, Ezekiel 3:24.
Piel, סִגַּר i.q. Hiph. No. 2.
(1) to deliver; followed by בְּיַד פּ׳ into any one’s power (prop. to shut up into the power of any one; compare συγκλείω, Romans 11:32; Galatians 3:22 Diod. and Dionys. Halic.), 1 Samuel 17:46, 24:19 26:8 absol. 2 Samuel 18:28.
Pual, to be shut, Joshua 6:1 (see Kal); Isaiah 24:10; Jeremiah 13:19.
(1) to shut up, e.g. a house, Leviticus 14:38 to shut any one up, Leviticus 13:4, Leviticus 13:5, 11 Leviticus 13:11.
(2) i.q. Pi. to deliver up, Obadiah 1:14 followed by אֶל Deuteronomy 23:16 and בְּיַד 1 Samuel 23:11; Psalms 31:9; Lamentations 2:7 absol. to deliver into the power of others (Dreis geben) Deuteronomy 32:30; Amos 6:8 followed by לְ of pers. Psalms 78:48.
Derivatives, סְגוֹר, סוּגַר, מַסְגֵּר, מִסְגֶּרֶת.
II. סָגַר an unused root, Arab. سجر to fill with water, pass. to be swollen with water. Hence סַגְרִיר.