the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #4603 - מָעַל
1) to act unfaithfully, act treacherously, transgress, commit a trespass
1a) (Qal) to act unfaithfully or treacherously
1a1) against man
1a2) against God
1a3) against devoted thing
1a4) against husband
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine singular מָעַל Joshua 22:20 4t.; 3 feminine singular מָֽעֲלָה Leviticus 5:21; Numbers 5:12 13t. Perfect; Imperfect יִמְעַל Proverbs 16:10; 2 Chronicles 26:16; 3 feminine singular תִּמְעֹל Leviticus 5:15; Numbers 5:27; 3 masculine plural יִמְעֲלוּ Joshua 7:1, וַיִּמְעֲלוּ 1 Chronicles 5:25; 2 masculine plural תִּמְעָ֑לוּ Nehemiah 1:8; Infinitive construct לִמְעֹל, so read for HCT למסר Numbers 31:16 Thes Di; — act unfaithfully, treacherously, usually
a. absolute בַּחֵרֶם in the matter of the devoted thing (the sin of Achan) Joshua 7:1 (JE), Joshua 22:20 (P), compare Leviticus 5:15 (P), 2 Chronicles 36:14; Ezekiel 14:13; Ezekiel 15:8; Ezekiel 18:24.
b. wife against (בְּ) husband Numbers 5:12,27 (P; marital infidelity).
c. elsewhere against (בְּ) God, Leviticus 26:40 (H), Leviticus 5:21; Numbers 5:6; Numbers 31:16 (?) Joshua 22:16,31 (all P), 1 Chronicles 10:13; 1 Chronicles 28:19; Ezekiel 17:20; Ezekiel 20:27; Ezekiel 39:26; Daniel 9:7.
2 usage withoutמַעַל (only late):
a. במשׁפט לא ימעל פיו Proverbs 16:10 let not his (the king's) mouth act treacherously against justice (RV in judgment).
b. elsewhere against God, withבְּ, Deuteronomy 32:51 (P), 1 Chronicles 5:25; 1 Chronicles 12:2; 1 Chronicles 26:22; 1 Chronicles 30:7; Ezra 10:2; Nehemiah 13:27; Ezekiel 39:23; without בְּ, 2 Chronicles 26:18; 29:6; Ezra 10:10; Nehemiah 1:8; בַּחֵרֶם 1 Chronicles 2:7.
מָעַל fut. יִמְעַל Proverbs 16:10, and יִמְעֹל Leviticus 5:15.
(1) to act treacherously, to be faithless, Proverbs 16:10; 2 Chronicles 26:18, 29:6, 19 2 Chronicles 29:19; Nehemiah 1:8. מָעַל בַּיהוָֹה to sin against Jehovah, to turn aside from him, Deuteronomy 32:51 often in this phrase, מָעַל מַעַלּ בַּיהוָֹח 1 Chronicles 5:25, 10:13 2 Chronicles 12:2.
(2) followed by בְּ of the thing, to take anything by stealth, Joshua 7:1, 22:20 1 Chronicles 2:7. (Simonis compares مَغَلَ to whisper, to backbite; the idea of which is too foreign to this verb; and مَغَالَةُ perfidy, fraud; which is from the root غال The signification No. 2, is more closely resembled by مَغَلَ to seize, to take by stealth. The primary signification of the root seems to be that of covering; whence מְעִיל; hence to act covertly, unless indeed it be regarded that מָעַל is a secondary root, taken from the noun מַעַל the upmost (compare under נַחַת, שַׁחַת), prop. therefore, to be over or above anything, to possess, to have in one’s power, den Oberherrn machen, fich bemächtigen; compare Ethiop. of similar origin, መዕለየ፡ to tyrannise, to rebel; and also the Hebrew בָּעַל.) [This latter conjectural formation is rejected in Thes.]
Hence מְעִילּ, and
I. מַעַל masc. perfidy, treachery (against God), sin, Job 21:34 elsewhere only in the phrase מָעַל מַעַל בְּ, see the examples cited above.
II. מַעַל masc. (formed from מַעֲלֶה, from the root עָלָח), prop. higher, the higher part; hence as an adv. above. (This word may be suspected to be the same as מַעַל No. I, see the etymological note on the root מָעַל.)
Only found with the prefixes and affixes
(1) מִמַּעַל from above, Isaiah 45:8, and above (comp. מִן No. 3, c), Deuteronomy 5:8; Amos 2:9; Job 18:16. Followed by לְ, מִמַּעַל לְ
(a) above, upon (oberhalb von etwas), as Genesis 22:9, מִמַּעַל לָעֶצִים “upon the wood.” Daniel 12:6, מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר “upon the water of the river.”
(b) near, by, Isaiah 6:2, “the seraphs stood מִמַּעַל לוֹ,” LXX. κύκλῳ αὐτοῦ. Comp. עַל used of people accompanying a leader, Exodus 18:13, 14 Exodus 18:14; Judges 3:19 especially Job 1:6.
(2) with ה local, מַעְלָה
(a) upwards, 1 Kings 7:31. מַעְלָה מַעְלָה upwards more and more, Deuteronomy 28:43.
(b) farther, more, 1 Samuel 9:2 used especially of time, Numbers 1:20 also, onward, 1 Samuel 16:13.
(a) upwards, Isaiah 7:11; Ecclesiastes 3:21; Ezekiel 1:27. לְמַעְלָה לְמַעְלָה 41:7. Followed by a noun, Ezra 9:6, לְמַעְלָה רֹאשׁ “over the head.”
(b) beyond, 1 Chronicles 23:27; 2 Chronicles 31:17. Opp. to לְמַטָּה. לְמַעְלָה מִן over any thing, i.e. besides that which, 1 Chronicles 29:3. עַד־לְמַעְלָה unto a high degree, i.e. in a higher degree, exceedingly, 2 Chronicles 16:12, 17:12 26:8.
(4) מִלְמַעְלָה from above, Genesis 6:16, 7:20 Exodus 25:21, 26:14 36:19 Joshua 3:13, 16 Joshua 3:16.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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