the Week of Proper 19 / Ordinary 24
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #0834 - אֲשֶׁר
1) (relative participle)
1a) which, who
1b) that which
2a) that (in object clause)
2e) conditional if
1480) rs (סהר ShR) AC: Tie CO: Cord AB: ?: The pictograph s is a picture of the teeth representing pressure, the r is a picture of the head representing the top or beginning. Combined these mean "press the beginning". Ropes and cords were usually made of bark strips such as from the cedar or from the sinew (tendon) of an animal. The rope is made by twisting two fibers together. A single fiber is attached to a fixed point (top) , and the two ends of the fiber are brought together. One fiber is twisted in a clockwise direction and wrapped over the other fiber in counter clockwise direction. The second fiber is then twisted in clockwise direction then wrapped around the first fiber in a counter clockwise direction. The process is repeated through the length of the rope. The twisting of the fibers in opposite directions causes the fibers to lock (press) onto each other making a stronger rope. The rope is used to tightly secure or support something, such as a load to a cart or the poles of the tent.
efjm/f ) nfiris (סהיריונ ShYRYWN) - Harness: An armor made from tightly wound cords of leather. KJV (11): habergeon, coat, harness, breastplate, brigadine - Strongs: H5630 (סִרְיוֹן), H8302 (שִׁרְיֹנָה)
Nm) rsa (אסהר AShR) - I. Happy:One who is happy is one whose life is lived straightly. II. Which:Or who, what or that. As a rope attaches two objects together, this word links the action of the sentence to the one doing the action. [The short form " s " is used as a prefix meaning "who" or "which"] KJV (156): blessed, happy, which, wherewith, because, when, soon, as, that, until much, whosoever, whom, whose - Strongs: H834 (אֲשֶׁר), H835 (אֶשֶׁר)
Nm) ras (סהאר ShAR) - I. Remnant:What is left behind. II. Kin:A near relative of another tribe. KJV (54): flesh, kinswoman, food, near, nigh, kin, body, kinsman, remnant, rest, residue, other - Strongs: H7605 (שְׁאָר), H7606 (שְׁאָר), H7607 (שְׁאֵר)
V) ers (סהרה ShRH) - Loose: To untie something or to let something go. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (9): (vf: Paal, Piel) loose, dissolve, dwell, began - Strongs: H8271 (שְׁרָא), H8281 (שָׁרָה), H8293 (שֵׁרוּת)
V) rfs (סהור ShWR) - I. Caravan:To travel as a group of merchants with loads. II. See:[Unknown connection to root] KJV (18): (vf: Paal, Participle) went, sing, behold, see, look, observe, wait, regard, perceive - Strongs: H7788 (שׁוּר), H7789 (שׁוּר)
Nm) rfs (סהור ShWR) - I. Ox:Used for pulling heavy loads. [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Wall:As tied around a city. [Hebrew and Aramaic] III. Enemy:As one who is to be tied up. KJV (93): ox, bullock, cow, bull, enemy, wall - Strongs: H7790 (שׁוּר), H7791 (שׁוּרָה), H7792 (שׁוּר), H7794 (שׁוֹר), H8450 (תּוֹר)
L) rsi (יסהר YShR) AC: ? CO: Cord AB: ?: A tight rope is straight. A righteous one is one who is straight and firmly holds up truth just as the cord is straight and firmly holds the wall of the tent upright.
V) rsi (יסהר YShR) - I. Straight:To be in a straight line, path or thought. II. Remnant:[df: rty] KJV (134): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Pual, Piel, Participle) please, straight, direct, right, well, fit, good, meet, upright, remain, leave, rest, remainder, remnant, reserve, residue, plenteous, behind, excel, preserve - Strongs: H3474 (יָשַׁר), H3498 (יָתַר)
Nm ) rsi (יסהר YShR) - I. Cord:The cord of the bow. [df: rty]II. Straight:A straight line, path or thought. III. Remnant:[df: rty] KJV (220): cord, string, right, upright, righteous, straight, convenient, equity, just, meet, well, rest, remnant, residue, leave, excellency, exceeding, excellent, plentifully - Strongs: H3477 (יָשָׁר), H3499 (יֶתֶר)
km) rsim (מיסהר MYShR) - I. Cord: II. Straight:What is straight. [df: rtym] KJV (28): cord, string, equity, uprightly, uprightness, right, agreement, aright, equal, sweetly - Strongs: H4339 (מֵישָׁרִים), H4340 (מֵיתָר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 according to Tsepreghi Diss. Lugd. p. 171 Mühlau Bö. Lb. ii. 79n. Sta Morg. Forsch. 1875,188; Lb. § 167 Hom ZMG 1878,708 ff. Müll§ 153 Sayce Hebraica. ii. 51 Lag M. i. 255 & especially Krae Hebraica. vi. 298 ff, originally a substantive 'place' = footstep, mark, (do.), אֲתַר, place, Assyrian ašru, used (see Kraetz.) both as a substantive 'there, where,' and as a relative of place 'where': in Hebrew this development has advanced further, and it has become a relative sign Generally. The chief objection to this explanation is that it would isolate Hebrew from the other Semitic languages, in which pronouns are formed regularly from demonstrative roots (compare also Nö ZMG 1886,738).
2 according to Phi St. C. 73 Sperling Nota Rel. im Hebr. 1876,15-22 for אֲשֶׁל, developed from the relative שׁ (q. v.) by (1) the prefixing of either a merely prosthetic א, or, better, a pronominal א (giving rise to אש, the form of the relative in Phoenician), and (2) the addition of the demonstrative root ל [found also in אֵל, אֵלָּה, הַלָּזֶה (q. v.), he who, who (plural)]: the main objection to this explanation is the change of ל to ר, which is hardly rendered probable by the compare of Syriac by side of ᵑ7הָלְכָּא. 1 seems preferable, the primitive root having acquired different significations in the different Semitic languages, and having been weakened in Hebrew to a mere particle of relation). A
sign of relation, bringing the clause introduced by it into relation with an antecedent clause. As a rule אֲשֶׁר is a mere
connecting link, and requires to be supplemented (see the grammars) by a pronominal affix, or other word, such as שָׁם, defining the nature of the relation more precisely: e.g. Genesis 1:11 אֲשֶׁר זַרֵעוֺבֿוֺ literally as to which, its seed is in it = in which is its seed, Psalm 1:4 like the chaff אֲשֶׁרתִּֿדְּפֶנּוּ רוּחַ as to which, the wind drives it = which the wind drives, etc.; & so אֲשֶׁרשָׁ֗֗֗ם = where, אֲשֶׁרמִ֗֗֗שָּׁם = whence, Genesis 2:11; Genesis 3:23; Genesis 20:13 etc. Sometimes also (see below) the relation expressed by it is specifically temporal, local causal, etc. More particularly
1 it includes its pronominal antecedent, whether in the nominative or oblique cases, as Numbers 22:6 וַאֲשֶׁר תָּאֹר יוּאָר and he whom thou cursest is cursed, Exodus 4:12 and I will teach thee אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר that which thou shalt say; and with particles or prepositions, as אֵת אֲשֶׁר (according to the context) him who . . ., those who . . ., that which . . .; לַאֲשֶׁר to him who . . . Genesis 43:16, to those who . . . Genesis 47:24, to that which Genesis 27:8; מֵאֲשֶׁר Judges 16:30; 2 Samuel 18:18 than those whom; Leviticus 27:24 לַאֲשֶׁרקָנָהוּ מֵאִתּוֺ to him from whom he bought it, Numbers 5:7; Isaiah 24:2 כַּאֲשֶׁר נשֶׁא בוֺ like him against whom there is a creditor.
2 instances of אֲשֶׁר followed by a pronominal affix, or by שָׁם, שָֽׁמָּה, מִשָּׁם, are so common that the examples cited above will be sufficient. Very rarely there occurs the anomalous construction עִם אֲשֶׁר Genesis 31:32 for אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֺ (see Genesis 44:9), בַּאֲשֶׁר Isaiah 47:12 for אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם, לַאֲשֶׁר for אֲשֶׁרלָ֗֗֗הֶם Ezekiel 23:40: Psalm 119:49 see under על אשׁר. It is followed by the pronoun in the nominative, in the following cases: — ( a) immediately, mostly before an adjective or participle, Genesis 9:3 all moving things אֲשֶׁר הוּאחַֿי which are living, Leviticus 11:26; Numbers 9:13; Numbers 14:8,27; Numbers 35:31; Deuteronomy 20:20; 1 Samuel 10:19 (see Dr) 2 Kings 25:19 ("" Jeremiah 52:25 היה) Jeremiah 27:9; Ezekiel 43:19; Haggai 1:9; Ruth 4:15; Nehemiah 2:18; Ecclesiastes 7:26; before a verb 2 Kings 22:13 (omitted 2 Chronicles 34:21). ( b) in a negative sentence, at the end: Genesis 7:2; Genesis 17:12; Numbers 17:5; Deuteronomy 17:15 אֲשֶׁר לֹא אָחִיךָ הוּא who is not thy brother, Deuteronomy 20:15; Judges 19:12; 1 Kings 8:41 "" 1 Kings 9:20 "". N.B. Psalm 16:3 אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ הֵ֑מָּה is an unparalleled expression for 'who are in the land'; read ׳אֲשֶׁר בָּאָ֑רֶץ הֵמָּה אַדִּירֵי וג 'the saints that are in the land, they (המה) are the nobles, in whom,' etc.
3 sometimes (though rarely) the defining adjunct is a pronoun of 1or 2person as well as of 3person. In such cases it is strictly to be rendered I who . . ., thou who, etc.; Hosea 14:4 אֲשֶׁרבְּֿךָ יְרֻחַם יָתוֺם thou by whom the fatherless is compassionated ! Jeremiah 31:32 I, whose covenant they brake, Jeremiah 32:19; Isaiah 49:23; Job 37:17f. thou whose garments are warm . . ., canst thou ? etc., Psalm 71:19; Psalm 71:20; Psalm 144:12 we whose sons, etc., Psalm 139:15 my frame was not hidden from thee, אֲ֯שֶׁרעֻֿשֵּׂיתִי בַסֵּתֶר I who was wrought in secret (= though I was wrought in secret), Exodus 14:13 for ye who have seen the Egyptians to-day, — ye shall not see them again for ever! (compare Psalm 41:9).
4 the defining pron. adjunct is dispensed with —
a. when אֲשֶׁר represents the simple subject of a sentence, or the direct object of a verb: so constantly, as Genesis 2:1 the work אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה which he made, Genesis 3:3 the tree אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֺךְ הַגָּן which is in the midst of the garden, etc.
b. after words denoting time, place, or manner, so that אֲשֶׁר then becomes equivalent to when, where, why: ( a) Genesis 6:4 אַחֲרֵי כֵן אֲשֶׁר afterwards, when, etc. (compare 2 Chronicles 35:20) Genesis 45:6 there are still 5 years אֲשֶׁר אֵין חָרִישׁ when there shall be no plowing, Joshua 14:10; 1 Kings 22:25; after יוֺם or הַיּוֺם Deuteronomy 4:10; Judges 4:14; 1 Samuel 24:5 (see Dr) 2 Samuel 19:25; Jeremiah 20:14 and elsewhere; similarly Genesis 40:13. (β) Genesis 35:13 בַּמָּקוֺם אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אִתּוֺ in the place where he spake with him, Genesis 35:14; Genesis 39:20; Numbers 13:27; Numbers 22:26; Deuteronomy 1:31 in the desert which thou sawest, where (accents Ke Di), Deuteronomy 8:15; 1 Kings 8:9 (unless לוּחוֺת הַבְּרִית has here fallen out: see ᵐ5 & Deuteronomy 9:9) Isaiah 55:11; Isaiah 64:10; Psalm 84:4. So (γ) in אֶל אֲשֶׁר to (the place) which (or whither) Exodus 32:34; Ruth 1:16; אֶלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר to every (place) whither Joshua 1:16; Proverbs 17:8; בַּאֲשֶׁר in (the place) where Judges 5:27; Judges 17:8,9; 1 Samuel 23:13; 2 Kings 8:1; Ruth 1:16,17; Job 39:30, once only with שָׁם Genesis 21:17; בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר wheresoever Joshua 1:7,9; Judges 2:15; 1 Samuel 14:47; 1 Samuel 18:5; 2 Samuel 7:7; 2 Kings 18:7; מֵאֲשֶׁר from (the place) where = whencesoever Exodus 5:11; Ruth 2:9; עַלאֲֿשֶׁר to (the place) whither (or which) 2 Samuel 15:20; 1 Kings 18:12; עַלכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר Jeremiah 1:7. (δ) זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר ֗֗֗ this is the reason that or why . . . Joshua 5:4; 1 Kings 11:27.
c. more extreme instances Leviticus 14:22,30,31; Numbers 6:21; Deuteronomy 7:19 (wherewith), Deuteronomy 28:20; 1 Samuel 2:32 (wherein), 1 Kings 2:26; Judges 8:15 (about whom), Isaiah 8:12 (where יאמר would be followed normally by לוֺ), Isaiah 31:6 turn ye to (him as to) whom they have deeply rebelled, Isaiah 47:15; Zephaniah 3:11; Ecclesiastes 3:9; 1 Kings 14:19 (= how).
d. it is dispensed with only in appearance after ׅ׳אֲשֶׁר אָמַר (אָמַרְתִּי וג followed by the words used, its place being really taken by a pronoun in the speech which follows, as Genesis 3:17 the tree as to which I commanded thee saying, Thou shalt not eat from it, Exodus 22:8; Deuteronomy 28:68; Judges 7:4 (זֶה) Judges 8:15 (where the noun repeated takes the place of the pronoun, compare Deuteronomy 9:2) 1 Samuel 9:17 (זֶה):23 +; compare 2 Samuel 11:16; 2 Kings 17:12; 2 Kings 21:4.
5אֲשֶׁר sometimes in poetry = one who, a man who ( men who), ὅστις, οἵτινες, Psalm 24:4; Psalm 55:20; Psalm 95:4; Psalm 95:5; Job 4:19; Job 5:5; Job 9:5 (Hi) Job 15:17.
6 אֲשֶׁר occasionally receives its closer definition by a substantive following it, in other words, its logical antecedent is inserted in the relative clause: ( a) in the phrase peculiar to Jeremiah , ׳אֶל יר׳אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר י that which came (of) the word of ׳י to Jeremiah Jeremiah 14:1; Jeremiah 46:1; Jeremiah 47:1; Jeremiah 49:34 (compare Ew§ 334); ( b) Exodus 25:9; Numbers 33:4; 1 Samuel 25:30; 2 Kings 8:12; 2 Kings 12:6 לְכֹלאֲשֶׁריִֿמָּצֵא שָׁם בָּֽדֶק׃ Ezekiel 12:25; compare the Ethiopic usage Di§ 201; ( c) (antecedant repeated) Genesis 49:30 = Genesis 50:13,1Samuel 25:30 (׳י repeated), Isaiah 54:9 (probably) as to which I sware that, etc., Amos 5:1 which I take up over you (as) a dirge.
7׳אֲשֶׁר ל that (belongs, belong, belonged) to, is used
a. either alone or preceded by כָּלֿ to express (all) that (belongs) to, as Genesis 14:23 מִכָּלאֲֿשֶׁרלְֿךָ of all that is thine, Genesis 31:1 מֵאֲשֶׁרלְאָבִינוּ of that which was our father's, Genesis 32:24 & sent over אֶתאֲֿשֶׁרלֿוֺ that which he had, + often
b. as a circumlocution of the Genitive, as Genesis 29:9 עִםהַֿצּאֹן אֲשֶׁר לְאָבִיהָ with the sheep that were her father's, Genesis 40:5; Genesis 47:4; Leviticus 9:8; Judges 6:11; 1 Samuel 25:7 הָרֹעִיםאֲשֶׁרלְֿךָ, 2 Samuel 14:31 אֶתהַֿחֶלְקָה אֲשֶׁרלִֿי, 2 Samuel 23:8; 1 Kings 1:8,33 עַל הַמִּרְדָּה אֲשֶׁרלִֿי upon mine own mule, 1 Kings 1:49; 1 Kings 4:2; 2 Kings 11:10; 2 Kings 16:13; Ruth 2:21; and especially in the case of a compound expression depending on a single Genitive, as Genesis 23:9; Genesis 40:5; Genesis 41:43 מִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁרלֿוֺ the chariot of the second rank which he had, Exodus 38:30; Judges 3:20; Judges 6:25; 1 Samuel 17:40; 1 Samuel 21:8 אֲבִיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁרלְשָׁאוּל the mightiest of Saul's herdmen, 1 Samuel 24:5 אֶתכְּֿנַףהַֿמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁרלְֿשָׁאוּל, 2 Samuel 2:8 Saul's captain of the host, 1 Kings 10:28; 1 Kings 15:20; 1 Kings 22:31; Jeremiah 52:17; Ruth 4:3.
c. with names of places (especially such as do not readily admit the stative construct) Judges 18:28; Judges 19:14 הַגִּבְעָה אֲשֶׁר לְבִנְיָמִין Gibeah (the hill) of Benjamin, Judges 20:4; 1 Samuel 17:1; 1 Kings 15:27; 1 Kings 16:15; 1 Kings 17:9; 1 Kings 19:3; 2 Kings 14:11. compare שֶׁל (q. v.) which in Rabb, like the Aramaic -דִּיל, , is in habitual use as a mark of the Genitive. — N.B. In Aramaic also דּי, , without ל, expresses the Genitive relation, as מִלְּתָא דִימַֿלְכָּא, literally the word, that of the king = the word of the king. The few apparent cases of a similar use of אשׁר are, however, too foreign to the General usage of the language to be regarded otherwise than as due to textual error: 1 Samuel 13:8 read אֲשֶׁר אָמַר (or שָׂם Exodus 19:5) שְׁמוּאֵל (ᵐ5 εἶπε); 1 Kings 11:25 supply עָשָׂה (ᵐ5 ἣν ἐποίησεν); 2 Kings 25:10 supply אֵת with (as "" Jeremiah 52:14); 2 Chronicles 34:22 read וַאֲשֶׁר אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ (compare ᵐ5) and those whom the king appointed (abbreviated from 2 Kings 22:14); compare Ew§ 292a, b with note.
8אֲשֶׁר becomes, like Aramaic דּי, , a
conjunction approximating in usage toכִּי: thus
a. = quod, ὅτι, that, subordinating an entire sentence to a verb of knowing, remembering, etc. ( a) with אֵת Deuteronomy 9:7 forget not אֵת אֲשֶׁר הִקְצַפְתָּ the fact that (= how) thou provokedst, etc., Deuteronomy 29:15; Joshua 2:10; 1 Samuel 24:11; 1 Samuel 24:19; 2 Samuel 11:20 know ye not אֵת אֲשֶׁריֹֿרוּ how they shoot from off the wall ? 2 Kings 8:12; Isaiah 38:3 #NAME? 1 Kings 14:19; 2 Kings 14:15; 2 Kings 20:20. Of time (peculiarly) 2 Samuel 14:15 עַתָּה אֲשֶׁר now (is it) that . . . Zechariah 8:20 (probably) yet (shall it be) that . . . Zechariah 8:23; compare כִּמְעַט שֶׁ Song of Solomon 3:4. (β) without אֵת (not very common, כִּי being usually employed): after יָדַע Exodus 11:7; Ezekiel 20:26 (very strange in Ezekiel: see Hi) Job 9:5 (Ew De Di) Ecclesiastes 8:12, רָאָה Deuteronomy 1:31 (RV) 1 Samuel 18:15, הִתְוַדָּה to confess Leviticus 5:5; Leviticus 26:40b, הִשְׁבִּיעַ 1 Kings 22:16 (caused to swear that . . .); after a noun Isaiah 38:7 הָאוֺת אֲשֶׁר the sign that . . . ("" 2 Kings 20:9 כִּי): with growing frequency in late Hebrew, 2 Chronicles 2:7, and especially Nehemiah , Esther: Nehemiah 2:5,10; Nehemiah 7:65 (= Ezra 2:63) Nehemiah 8:14,15; Nehemiah 10:31; Nehemiah 13:1,19,22; Esther 1:19; Esther 2:10; Esther 3:4; Esther 4:11; Esther 6:2; Esther 8:11; Ecclesiastes 3:22 (מֵאֲשֶׁר) Ecclesiastes 5:4; Ecclesiastes 7:18 (with טוֺב: contrast Ruth 2:22) Ruth 2:22; Ruth 2:29; Ruth 8:12; Ruth 8:14; Ruth 9:1; Daniel 1:8 (twice in verse). (γ) prefixed to a direct citation, like כִּי q. v. (= ὅτι recitativum) (rare) 1 Samuel 15:20; 2 Samuel 1:4; 2 Samuel 2:4 (see Dr) Psalm 10:6 (probably), Nehemiah 4:6.
b. it is resolvable into so that: Genesis 11:7 אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִשְׁמְעוּ so that they understand not, etc., Genesis 13:16; Genesis 22:14 אֲשֶׁר יֵאָמֵר so that it is said, Exodus 20:26; Deuteronomy 4:10,40 אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ Deuteronomy 6:3; Deuteronomy 28:27,51; 1 Kings 3:12,13; 2 Kings 9:37; Malachi 3:19.
c. it has a causal force, forasmuch as, in that, since: Genesis 30:18; Genesis 31:49 and Mizpah, אֲשֶׁר אָמַר for that he said, Genesis 34:13,27; Genesis 42:21 we are guilty, אֲשֶׁר רָאִינוּ we who saw (or, in that we saw), Numbers 20:13 Meribah, because they strove there, Deuteronomy 3:24; Joshua 4:7,23; Joshua 22:31; Judges 9:17; 1 Samuel 2:23; 1 Samuel 15:15; 1 Samuel 20:42 go in peace, אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְנוּ forasmuch as we have sworn, 1 Samuel 25:26 thou whom (= or, seeing that) ׳י hath withholden, 2 Samuel 2:5 blessed are ye of ׳י, אֲשֶׁר עֲשִׂיתֶם, who (οἵτινες) have done (or in that ye have done), 1 Kings 3:19; 1 Kings 15:5; 2 Kings 12:3; 2 Kings 17:4; 2 Kings 23:26; Jeremiah 16:13; Ecclesiastes 8:11,12 (Hi De Now). Here also belongs its use in אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה since why . . . ? (= lest) Daniel 1:10: see below לָמָּה. On אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן forasmuch as Job 34:27 see below כִּי עַל כֵּן.
d. it expresses a condition (rare & peculiar): Leviticus 4:22 אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא in (case) that = when (or if) a ruler sinneth ( Leviticus 4:3; Leviticus 4:13; Leviticus 4:37 אִם), Numbers 5:29 (explained differently by Ew§ 334 a), Deuteronomy 11:27 and the blessing אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְעוּ if ye hearken ( Deuteronomy 11:28 אִם), Deuteronomy 18:22 Ges, Joshua 4:21 אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁאָלוּן ֗֗֗ when they ask . . ., then . . . ( Joshua 4:6 כִּי), Isaiah 31:4. In 1 Kings 8:33 ("" 2 Chronicles 6:24 כִּי, compare Kings 2 Chronicles 6:35; 2 Chronicles 6:37) אֲשֶׁר may be rendered indifferently because or when. Once, similarly, אֵת אֲשֶׁר 1 Kings 8:31 ("" אִם).
e. perhaps (exceptionally) = כַּאֲשֶׁר, as, Jeremiah 33:22; Isaiah 54:9 (followed by כֵּן; but כֵּן q. v. sometimes stands without כאשׁר, & אשׁר may in these passages connect with what precedes); according to some also Jeremiah 48:8; Psalm 106:34 (in a connection where כַּאֲשֶׁר would be more usual: אֲשֶׁר may however be the object of אָמַר). In 1 Samuel 16:7 אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶההָאָדָם read כַּאֲשֶׁר, see Dr.
f. combined with prepositions, אֲשֶׁר converts them into conjunctions: see below, בַּאֲשֶׁר, כַּאֲשֶׁר, מֵאֲשֶׁר. On its use similarly with (אַחֲרֵי) אַחַר, מִבְּלִי, בַּעֲבוּר, עַל דְּבַר, יַעַן, לְמַעַן, כְּפִי, עַד, עַל, עֵקֶב, מִמְּנֵי, תַּחַת, see these words. — הַאֲשֶׁר, with ה interrogative, occurs once, 2 Kings 6:22. In Deuteronomy 15:14 also read כַּאֲשֶׁר: note ברכך before.
Note1אֲשֶׁר being a connecting link, without any perfectly corresponding equivalent in English, its force is not unfrequently capable of being represented in more than one way. See e.g. 2 Samuel 2:5 (above
8c), Isaiah 28:12 unto whom he said, or for that he said to them.
Note 2. The opinion that אֲשֶׁר has an asseverative force (like כִּי, q. v.), or introduces the apodosis, is not probably, being both alien to its General usage & not required by the passages alleged. Render Isaiah 8:20 either 'Surely according to this word will those speak who have no dawn,' or '. . . will they speak when (compare above
8d Deuteronomy 11:27; Joshua 4:21) they have no dawn.'
בַּאֲשֶׁר 19 a. in (that) which . . . Isaiah 56:4; Isaiah 65:12; Isaiah 66:4 (above
1); Ecclesiastes 3:9 in (that, in) which ( 4 c); Isaiah 47:12 (see
b. adverb in (the place) where: above 4 b (γ).
c. conjunction in that, inasmuch as, Genesis 39:9,23; Ecclesiastes 7:2; Ecclesiastes 8:4; compare .
d. Jonah 1:8 בַּאֲשֶׁרלְמִי on account of whom ? (בַּאֲשֶׁר לְ on account of, framed on model of Aramaic בְּדִיל: see below שֶׁל).
כַּאֲשֶׁר see below כְּ.
מֵאֲשֶׁר17 a. from (or than) that which ( him, them, etc., that . . .) Genesis 3:11; Exodus 29:27 (twice in verse); Numbers 6:11 (see Leviticus 4:26; Joshua 10:11; Judges 16:30; Isaiah 47:13 +; than that . . . Ecclesiastes 3:22; לְבַד מֵאֲשֶׁר Esther 4:11.
b. adverb from (the place) where: above 4 a (β).
c. conjunction from (the fact) that . . ., since Isaiah 43:4.
כַּאֲשֶׁר conjunction according as, as, when (compare for the combined Aramaic כְּדִי, כַּד) —
1 according to that which, according as, as:
a. Genesis 34:12 I will give כאשׁר תאמרו אלי according as ye shall ( or may) say unto me, Genesis 44:1; Exodus 8:23; Numbers 22:8; 1 Samuel 2:16; Genesis 34:22 if we are circumcised כאשׁר הם נמולים; Genesis 41:21 כאשׁר בתחלה as at the beginning, so ׳כבראשׁונה Joshua 8:5,6; 2 Samuel 7:10; Exodus 5:13 ׃כאשׁר בהיות התבן Genesis 7:9 they came in two by two כאשׁר צוה אלהִים, as God commanded Noah; Song of Solomon , or similarly, very often, especially in P, Genesis 7:16; Genesis 8:21; Genesis 12:4; Genesis 17:23; Genesis 21:1 (twice in verse); Exodus 16:24; Exodus 39:1,5,7; Numbers 3:16,42etc.; ׳כאשׁר דבר י Deuteronomy 1:21; Deuteronomy 2:1; Deuteronomy 6:3,19 #NAME? Deuteronomy.
b. answered, for increased emphasis, by כֵּן (compare כְּ 2 d), Genesis 50:12 ויעשׂו כן כאשׁר צִוָּם, Exodus 7:10,20; Genesis 18:5 (J) כן חעשׂח כאשׁר דברת, Exodus 10:10 (iron.), Amos 5:14 (do.); in opposed to order, Judges 1:7 כאשׁר עשׂיתי, כן שׁלם לי, Exodus 7:6 כן עשׂו׳כאשׁר צוה י, compare Exodus 12:28,50; Exodus 39:43; Numbers 5:4; Numbers 17:26; Numbers 36:10 (all P); with imperfect (frequently) Numbers 2:17 (P) כאשׁר יחנו כן יסעו; of degree = the more. . . the more, Exodus 1:12 וכאשׁר יענּו אתו כן ירבהוכן יפרץ, compare Exodus 17:11 (JE) ׳והיה כאשׁר יריםו֗֗֗גבר ישׁר according as he held up, etc., Israel prevailed; in an oath or solemn promise, Numbers 14:28 אם לאכאשׁר דברתם כן אעשׂה, Deuteronomy 28:63 ( Jeremiah 31:28), 1 Kings 1:30; Isaiah 10:11; Isaiah 14:24; Isaiah 52:14f. (see כֵּן 2 b).
c. answered byוַ (Dr§ 127 γ) Exodus 16:34; Numbers 1:19.
d. often in similes (followed by imperfect of habit) Exodus 33:11 כאשׁר ידבר אישׁ אלרעהו, Numbers 11:12; Deuteronomy 1:44; Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 66:20 +, answered by כֵּן Isaiah 31:4; Isaiah 55:10; Isaiah 66:22; Amos 3:12 +; a second verb Isaiah , in such cases, in the perfect with וְ consecutive (Dr§ 115) Deuteronomy 22:26; Isaiah 29:8 כאשׁר יחלםו֗֗֗הקיץ,
אֲשֶׁר (A) relat. pron. of both genders and numbers, who, which, that. (In the later Hebrew, and in the Rabbinic, is used the shorter form שֶׁ·, שְׁ; [“which was elsewhere used only by the Phœnicians;”] in the other cognate languages the relative takes its forms from the demonstrative זֶה, viz. Ch. דִּי, דְּ, Syr. ܕ, Samar., Arab. الذى, i.q. הַלָּזֶּה, Eth. ዘ፡ who, compare ዝ፡ this. As to the origin, see the note.) The varied use of the relative belongs in full to syntax, the following remarks only are here given.
(1) Before the relative, the pronoun he, she, it, is often omitted, e.g. Numbers 22:6, וַאֲשֶׁר תָּאֹר “and he whom thou cursest;” Ruth 2:2; Exodus 4:12; Joshua 2:10. The same pronoun has also to be supplied whenever prepositions are prefixed to the relative, לַאֲשֶׁר “to him who,” Genesis 43:16 “to those who,” Genesis 47:24 אֶת־אֲשֶׁר “him who,” “that which;” מֵאֲשֶׁר “from those who,” Isaiah 47:13. Sometimes the omitted pronoun applies to place, as אֶל־אֲשֶׁר “to that place which,” Exodus 32:34 בַּאֲשֶׁר “where” pr. “in that (place) which,” Ruth 1:17 Lehrg. § 198.
(2) אֲשֶׁר is often merely the sign of relation, which serves to give to substantives, adverbs, and pronouns, a relative power, as אֲשֶׁר אֶת־עָפָר “which dust,” Genesis 13:16 אֲשֶׁר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה “which field,” Genesis 49:30 אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם where (from שָׁם there), אֲשֶׁר מִשָּׁם whence (from מִשָּׁם thence), אֲשֶׁר לוֹ to whom (from לוֹ to him), אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ in whom, אֲשֶׁר מִמֶּנּוּ from whom, אֲשֶׁר לְשֹׁנוֹ whose tongue, Deuteronomy 28:49, and this is the regular way in Hebrew of expressing the oblique cases of the relative (Lehrg. p. 743), with the exception of a few examples which, as far as I know, have been noticed by no one, viz. בַּאֲשֶׁר, Isaiah 47:12, for אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם (Targ. בְּהוֹן-דְּ, Syr. ܒܗܘܽܢ-ܕ), and עִם אֲשֶׁר Genesis 31:32, for אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֹ with whom.
(3) אֲשֶׁר לְ is used as a circumlocution of the genitive (like the Talmudic שֶׁל), especially where many genitives depend upon one governing noun, and in the later Hebrew, as 1 Samuel 21:8, אַבִּיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל “the chief of the herdsmen of Saul;” Song of Solomon 1:1, שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים אֲשֶׁר לִשְׁלֹמֹה “the song of songs of Solomon.” See Lehrg. p. 672, 673.
(4) In the later Hebrew אֲשֶׁר is sometimes redundant, like the Aram. דִּי, דְּ e.g. Esther 1:12, דְּבַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר בְּיַד הַסָּרִיסִים, compare verse 13, where אֲשֶׁר is omitted. Comp. 2 Samuel 9:8. See below under the word דִּי.
(B) It becomes a conjunction like the Hebrew כִּי, Aram. דִּי, ܕ, Ethiop. ዘ፡ Gr. ὅτι, Lat. quod, Germ. daß, fo (which latter word had also in the ancient language, a relative power, as in Ulphilas, sa, so, thata, who, which). Its various significations, almost all of which are found in כִּי, are
(1) quod, that, after verbs of seeing, hearing, knowing (Exodus 11:7); finding (Ecclesiastes 7:29); saying (Esther 3:4); confessing (Leviticus 5:5); swearing (1 Kings 22:16), etc.; also after nouns of a like power, Isaiah 38:7; Ecclesiastes 5:4. How the neuter relative is used with this power may be seen by the following examples; Joshua 2:10, שָׁמַעְנוּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הוֹבִישׁ יְהֹוָה אֶת־מֵי יַם־סוּף “we have heard that which Jehovah dried up, the waters of the Red sea;” 1 Samuel 24:11, 19 1 Samuel 24:19; 2 Samuel 11:20; 2 Kings 8:12; Deuteronomy 29:15; Isaiah 38:7, “let this be for a sign to thee which” (that), etc. Comp. No. 11.
(2) ut, that, in order that, indicating design and purpose, followed by a future; Deuteronomy 4:40, “and his statutes which I command thee this day, observe diligently, אֲשֶׁר יִיטַב לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ that it may be well with thee and thy children after thee;” Deuteronomy 6:3; Ruth 3:1; Genesis 11:7, 22:14 2 Kings 9:37; Psalms 144:12. Also after a verb of asking, Daniel 1:8. More fully, לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר in order that (see מַעַן ); once אֶת־אֲשֶׁר Ezekiel 36:27. It is
(3) causal because that, because, followed by a pret., Genesis 30:18, 31:49 34:27 Joshua 4:7, 22:31 1 Kings 15:5; Ecclesiastes 4:9 rarely by a future, when used of an uncertain thing, 1 Kings 8:33 (comp. 2 Chronicles 6:24, where for it there is כִּי). More fully תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר, יַעַן אֲשֶׁר; see No.11. [“Like כִּי it is also put at the beginning of an answer, assigning a reason where one has been demanded; 1 Samuel 15:19, ‘wherefore then didst not thou obey the voice of the Lord, but didst fly upon the spoil …? 20, And Saul said unto Samuel because that (אֲשֶׁר) I have obeyed the voice of the Lord, … and have brought Agag … and have utterly destroyed the Amalekites,’ i.e. because in doing as I have done, I have obeyed (I think) the divine command. Vulgate ‘imo audivi vocem Domini.’ ” Ges. add.] Sometimes it may be more suitably rendered nam, for, Deuteronomy 3:24 (LXX., Vulg., Syr.). Here belongs אֲשֶׁר לָמָּה Daniel 1:10 (compare שַׁלָּמָה Song of Solomon 1:7); prop. nam quare? for why? wherefore? hence, i.q. ne, lest, Syr. ܕܰܠܡܐܳ; see under מָה.
(4) conditional, if (compare Germ. fo du geheft). Leviticus 4:22 (comp. אִם verses, 27 ); Deuteronomy 11:27 (comp. אִם verse 28 Deuteronomy 11:28); 18:22 1 Kings 8:31 (comp. 2 Chronicles 6:22); Ch. 6:29 followed by a future, Genesis 30:38; Isaiah 31:4; Joshua 4:21. Rarely it is concessive, etsi, although (Germ. fo auch, for wenn auch), Ecclesiastes 8:12.
(5) at what time, when, quum, ὅτε, followed by a pret., Deuteronomy 11:6, “when the earth opened its mouth;” 1 Kings 8:9; Psalms 139:15; 2 Chronicles 35:20, אֲשֶׁר הֵכִין יאֹשִׁיָּה אֶת־הַבַּיִת “when Josiah had repaired the temple” (compare Syr. ܕ; Mark 11:3; Matthew 26:54, 28:1 ).
(6) where, ubi, οὗ for אֲשֶׁר שָׁם. Numbers 20:13; Psalms 95:9; Isaiah 64:10 and for אֲשֶׁר שָׁמָּה whither, whithersoever, Numbers 13:27; Psalms 84:4; Isaiah 55:11. (Comp. Syr. ܕ; Hebrews 3:9 for οὗ.)
(7) i.q. כַּאֲשֶׁר as, like as (fo wie), in protasis, Exodus 14:13 (LXX. ὃν τρόπον); 1 Kings 8:24. Followed by כֵּן Jeremiah 33:22. Also how, in what way, Job 37:17, “(knowest thou) אֲשֶׁר בְּגָדֶיךָ חַמִּים in what way thy garments become warm?”
(8) As a sign of apodosis, like כִּי No. 6, Germ. fo, then, so. Preceded by אִם Isaiah 8:20, אִם לֹא יאֹמְרוּ כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ שַׁחַר “if they speak not according to this word, then there is to them no dawn.” Like כִּי and וְ (see Lehrg. 723), it is put also when there precedes a nominative absolute; 2 Samuel 2:4, “the men of Jabesh-Gilead אֲשֶׁר קָֽבְרוּ אֶת־שָׁאוּל (they) buried Saul;” and with other absolute cases, especially when denoting time and place. Zechariah 8:23, בַּיָּמִים הַהֵמָּה אֲשֶׁר יַחֲזִיקוּ “in those days then they shall take hold,” Germ. in jenen Tagen, da ergreifen, etc. Deuteronomy 1:31, בַּמִּדְבָּר אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתָ “in the desert, there thou sawest;” compare 2 Samuel 14:15, וְעַתָּה אֲשֶׁר בָּאתִי Germ. und nun, fo bin ich gekommen (Ch. כְּעַן דְּ).
(This usage of this particle has been altogether denied, and it has been stated to be entirely foreign to it, by Ewald in Heb. Gramm. p.650, who appears to have overlooked the particles כִּי, ܕ, דְּ, German fo, of altogether the same origin and signification; nor should he have given the passage in Isaiah without regard to the context, “let us turn to the law, so may they say, in whom there is no dawn,” i.e. those who despair. Also ellipsis of the words let there be, there are, is unsuitable, which is brought forward in other examples, as Zechariah 8:23; 2 Samuel 2:4.)
(9) It is prefixed to a direct citation of something said, like כִּי No. 7, דִּי, ὅτι. 1 Samuel 15:19, לָמָּה לֹא שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה “why hast thou not hearkened to the voice of Jehovah? 20, And Saul said to Samuel; אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהֹוָה Vulg. imo audivi vocem Domini, yea I have hearkened to the voice of Jehovah.” [But see above, No.3.] It seems to be strongly affirmative and even intensifying the sentence. There are also other examples in which
(10) it appears to mark gradation, yea, even, for the more full עַד אֲשֶׁר until that, ὧδε ὅτι, fogar. Job 5:5, אֲשֶׁר קְצִירוֹ רָעֵב יאֹכֵל “yea even his own harvest the hungry man eateth.” In the other member אֶל־מִצִּנִּים יִקָּחֵהוּ “not his posterity only (ver. Job 5:4), but he himself is threatened with destruction;” compare Job 9:15, 19:27 Psalms 8:2, 10:6.
(11) Prepositions to which it is joined are converted into conjunctions, as אַחַר אֲשֶׁר afterwards, עַד אֲשֶׁר until that, לְבַד מֵאֲשֶׁר besides that (Esther 4:11), לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר in order that, תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר, בַּעֲבוּר אֲשֶׁר, עַל אֲשֶׁר, עַל דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר, יַעַן אֲשֶׁר, מֵאֲשֶׁר, כְּפִי אֲשֶׁר, מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר, עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר in that, because; compare Lehrg. p.636. Once אֲשֶׁר is prefixed, אֲשֶׁר עַל כֵּן Job 34:27, i.q. עַל כֵּן אֲשֶׁר and כִּי עַל כֵּן because that, because.
It is compounded with prefixes
(1) where, wheresoever, Ruth 1:17; Judges 5:27, 17:9 followed by שָׁם there, Job 39:30. Fully בַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׁם Genesis 21:17, and בִּמְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר שָׁם 2 Samuel 15:21. The same sense maybe retained, 1 Samuel 23:13 Ki. 8:1, where it is commonly rendered whither, whithersoever, for אֲשֶׁר שָׁמָּה.
(2) in that, because, i.q. Syr. ܒܰܕ Genesis 39:9, 23 Genesis 39:23.
(3) בַּאֲשֶׁר לְ on account of, where it assumes the nature of a preposition, Jonah 1:8. Contractedly is used בְּשֶׁל Jonah 1:7, 12 Jonah 1:12. Both these answer to the Syriac ܒܕܝܺܠ on account of.
II. כַּאֲשֶׁר see under כְּ.
III. מֵאֲשֶׁר in that, Isaiah 43:4.
Note.-I have given some conjectures as to the origin of the relative in Thes. p. 165, referring it to the root אָשַׁר; Ewald, on the other hand, p. 647, regards אֲשֶׁר as i.q. אסר and as denoting conjunction. Now after a more extended comparison with the Indo-Germanic languages, it appears that it should be differently regarded. For, שַׁ·שֶׁ·אֲשֶׁר, שְׁ, equally with the other relative pronouns (see above, letter A), seem to have had anciently a demonstrative power, which is expressed in the languages both Phœnicio-Shemitic and Indo-Germanic, both by the letters d, or t, which may be called demonstrative (Deutelaut), especially sibilated and aspirated, and also by a mere sibilant and a mere aspiration, to which is commonly added a simple vowel, and sometimes, besides, a final consonant (1, n, r, s, t). Comp. a) דָּא, דִּי, דְּ, τό, Goth. tho, the, and with an added consonant; Sanscr. tad, Goth. that; Anglo-Sax. thœre (who), Swed. ther; der; Ch. דֵּן, דֵּךְ; τῆνος: also with a prefixed vowel אֵת (which see), אֹת, αὐτός: b) זֶה, זוֹ, זוּ, Arab. ذو, ذى, ذا, Eth. ዘ፡ c) Sanscr. sas, sa (tad); Goth. sa, so (that) = ὁ, ἡ, τὸ, Germ. fie, fo (quœ), Engl. she, Hebr. שֶׁ·שְׁ, אֲשֶׁר; d) הוּא, הִיא, هو, هى, Hebr. and Ch. הֵן, ܐܶܢ, הַךְ ; אִם art. הַל, أَلْ, (אֵלֶּה) אֵל, Engl. and lower Germ. he, Swed. and Iceland. aer, Germ. er, es, Lat. is, id.-These words might easily be added to and enlarged, compare under the word אֵת No. I. The forms beginning with a sibilant, as (א)שֶׁר, are given under letter (c), ר is added at the end in the correlatives der (thære, ther), er, mer. Therefore, as far as origin is concerned, the prefix שׁ· appears to be an older form than אשׁר; although it must be acknowledged that in the monuments of the Hebrew tongue which we have, the fuller form appears to be the more ancient, and the shorter almost peculiar to the later books. As to the signification, it appears to be an error to regard it (as I did myself in the larger Lex. first ed.) as primarily having the power of mere relation (see A, 2), for in all languages, relatives are taken from demonstratives (sometimes from interrogatives), with a slight change; see above letter A), also Arab. الذى.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.