the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #05800 - עָזַב
1) to leave, loose, forsake
1a) (Qal) to leave
1a1) to depart from, leave behind, leave, let alone
1a2) to leave, abandon, forsake, neglect, apostatise
1a3) to let loose, set free, let go, free
1b1) to be left to
1b2) to be forsaken
1c) (Pual) to be deserted
2) to restore, repair
2a) (Qal) to repair
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ע Genesis 24:27 +, suffix עֲזָבַנִי Isaiah 49:14; Psalm 38:11; 3 feminine singular עָזָ֑בָה Ezekiel 23:8; 1 singular suffix עֲזַבְתִּיךְ Isaiah 54:7; 2 feminine plural עֲזַבְתֶּן Exodus 2:20, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יַעֲזֹב Isaiah 55:7 +, יַעֲזָבֿ Genesis 2:24, suffix 1 singular וַיַּעַזְבֵנִי 1 Samuel 30:13, etc.; Imperative עֲזֹב Psalm 37:8, עָזְבָה Jeremiah 49:11, עִזְבוּ Jeremiah 48:28; Proverbs 9:6, etc.; Infinitive absolute עָזוֺב Jeremiah 14:5, עָזֹב Exodus 23:5; construct עֲזֹב Genesis 44:22 +, suffix עָזְבֵךְ Jeremiah 2:17 +, etc.; Participle active עֹזֵב Proverbs 10:17 +, construct עֹזְבִי (Ges§ 90l); feminine construct עֹזֶבֶת Proverbs 2:17 etc.; passive עָזוּב Deuteronomy 32:26 +, etc.; —
1 leave, with accusative (on order of meanings compare Nö ZMG. xl (1886). 726):
a. = depart from, accusative of person Genesis 44:22 (twice in verse) (J), 2 Kings 2:2,4,6; 2 Kings 4:30; Numbers 10:31 (P), Ruth 1:16; Jeremiah 9:1 ("" הָלַךְ מֵאֵת); accusative of location 1 Kings 8:6; Jeremiah 25:28 (׳י as lion leaving lair); with מִן local intransitive (strangely) Jeremiah 18:14 (of snow).
b. leave behind, accusative of person Exodus 2:20 (J), 2 Samuel 15:16 (+ infinitive), Ezekiel 24:21; accusative of thing + בְּיַד Genesis 39:12,13, + אֶצְלִי Genesis 39:15; Genesis 39:18 (all J); + ב location Genesis 50:8 (J); accusative of person and thing Exodus 9:21 (J).
c. leave in the presence of (לִפְנֵי) 1 Chronicles 16:37 (ל of accusative, compare ל 3 b above), 2 Chronicles 28:14.
d. leave in safety, וְאָ֫נָה חַעַזְבוּ כְּבוֺדְכֶם Isaiah 10:3.
e. leave in a given condition, situation, אֹתוֺ בְמַחֲלֻיִים׳ע 2 Chronicles 24:25 they left him in great suffering; with adverb accusative Ezekiel 23:29; a city מְּתוּחָה Joshua 8:17.
f. leave undisturbed, let alone Ruth 2:16.
g. leave unexercised, Genesis 24:27 pregnantly he hath not left his kindness and his faithfulness from (being) with (מֵעִם) my master; so חַסְדּוֺ אֶתֿ׳ע Ruth 2:20 (both of ׳י); חֵמָה׳ע Psalm 37:8 ("" הֶרֶף מֵאַף).
h. leave in the hand of, entrust to, accusative of thing + בְּיַד Genesis 39:6 (J), + אֶלֿ Job 39:11 ("" בָּטַח בְּ), + עַלֿ Psalm 10:14 (accusative omitted, his cause). — So also possibly (with לְ) Nehemiah 3:34 (reading לֵאלֹהִים for ᵑ0לָהֶם), but text probably otherwise corrupt.
i. leave to (ל) one (unaided), וְחָדַלְתָּ֫ מֵעֲזֹב לוֺ Exodus 23:5 a (E) thou shalt refrain from leaving it (that Isaiah , the affair) to him; compare תַּעֲזֹב לָאָרֶץ בֵּיצֶיהָ Job 39:14 (of ostrich).
j. leave over, remaining, accusative of person Joshua 2:21 (JE); accusative of thing + לְ person Leviticus 19:10; Leviticus 23:22 (H), Malachi 3:19.
k. leave = have nothing to do with Proverbs 9:6.
2 leave, abandon, forsake:
a. abandon, accusative of thing: (1) land, house, city, tent, etc., 1 Samuel 31:7 = 1 Chronicles 10:7; 2 Kings 7:7; Jeremiah 9:18; Jeremiah 48:28; Jeremiah 51:9; 2 Chronicles 11:14; Isaiah 17:9 (+ מִמְּנֵי of enemy); passive participle of cities Isaiah 17:2; Jeremiah 4:29; Zephaniah 2:4, compare עֲזוּבָה Isaiah 17:9 participle = substantive = deserted region. (2) oxen 1 Kings 19:20, idol-images (+ שָׁם) 2 Samuel 5:21 = 1 Chronicles 14:12, flock Zechariah 11:17; passive participle of eggs Isaiah 10:14.
b. forsake, (1) human subject and object: Genesis 2:24 (J; a man his parents), 1 Samuel 30:13; Joshua 22:3 (D), Jeremiah 49:11; Psalm 27:10 (parent a child), Proverbs 2:17 (wife her husband, אַלוּף), compare עֲזוּבָה אִשָּׁה Isaiah 54:6, and ׳ע of personified Zion Isaiah 60:15; Isaiah 62:4. (2) an animal its young Jeremiah 14:5 (object om).
c. = neglect, Levite Deuteronomy 12:19; Deuteronomy 14:27, poor Job 20:19.
d. especially (1) figurative of forsaking God (׳י), apostatizing, Judges 10:10; Deuteronomy 28:20; Deuteronomy 31:16; Jeremiah 1:16 38t. (often Jeremiah and later); + Jonah 2:9 (object חַסְדָּם, i.e. God, see חֶסֶד
II); with ל + infinitive only עָֽזְבוּ לִשְׁמֹר׳אֶתיֿ Hosea 4:10 (Oort We Now doubt לִשְׁמֹר). (2) object ׳י s law, commands, covenant, etc., Deuteronomy 29:24; 1 Kings 19:10,14 14t.; house of ׳י 2 Chronicles 24:18; Nehemiah 10:40. (3) forsake, fail to follow, obey advice, instruction, Wisdom of Solomon , reproof: 1 Kings 12:8,13 2 Chronicles 10:8,13; Proverbs 2:13; Proverbs 4:2,6; Proverbs 10:17; Proverbs 15:10; Proverbs 27:10. (4) but also of forsaking idols Ezekiel 20:8, sins of various kinds Ezekiel 23:8; Isaiah 55:7; Proverbs 28:13 (object omitted; + מוֺדֶה confess); הַמַּשָּׁא usury Nehemiah 5:10.
e. of God's forsaking, abandoning men: Deuteronomy 31:17; Isaiah 42:16; Isaiah 49:14; Isaiah 54:7; 2 Chronicles 12:5; Ezra 9:9; Psalm 9:11; Psalm 22:2 8t. Psalm; + בְּיַד Nehemiah 9:28; Psalm 37:33; Psalm 16:10 thou wilt not abandon my soul לִשְׁאוֺל; of temporary abandonment 2 Chronicles 32:31 (+ infinitive of purpose); etc. (34t. in all); + Jeremiah 12:7 (׳י abandoning his house).
f. of God's leaving, i.e. ceasing to regard, the earth, thus giving impunity to crime, Ezekiel 8:12; Ezekiel 9:9.
g. of strength (כֹּחַ) forsaking one Psalm 38:11, courage (לֵב) Psalm 40:13, kindness and faithfulness (חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת) Proverbs 3:3.
3 let loose, set free, let go עִמּוֺ עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב Exodus 23:5b (E) thou shalt by all means free it (that Isaiah , the beast) with him, (aid him to set it free; on sense, compare Deuteronomy 22:4; DHM below II.עזב); עָצוּר וְעָזוּב shut up and freed, proverb. phrase, = all classes of people Deuteronomy 32:36; 1 Kings 14:10; 1 Kings 21:21; 2 Kings 9:8; 2 Kings 14:26 (exact meaning dubious; probably either = bond and free, or [see RS Sem i. 437,2nd ed. 456] under taboo and free from it); let go Job 20:13 (c, accusative of wickedness as morsel in mouth); let loose my complaint Job 10:1 (עָלַי apud me, compare עַל
II:1 d); אֶעֶזְבָה פָנַי Job 9:27 I will loosen, relax, my face, (compare Thes De Me Stu Di Buhl Lex Bu; > abandon my [gloomy] countenance AV RV SS Bae Kau Du).
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine singular נֶעֱזַב Nehemiah 13:11; 3 feminine singular נֶעֱזָבָ֫ה Isaiah 62:12; Imperfect 3 feminine singular תֵּעָזֵב Isaiah 7:16; Leviticus 26:43, תֵּעָ֣זַב Job 18:4; 3 masculine plural יֵעָֽזְבוּ Isaiah 18:6; Participle נֶעֱזָב Isaiah 27:10; Psalm 37:25; feminine plural נֶעֱזָבוֺת Ezekiel 36:4; —
1 be left to (לְ), i.e. to the possession of, Isaiah 18:6.
2 be forsaken, of house of God Nehemiah 13:11, a city Ezekiel 36:4; Isaiah 27:10 ("" מְשֻׁלָּח), Isaiah 62:12; the earth Job 18:4, land Isaiah 7:16; Leviticus 26:43 (+ מִן of exiles); of man Psalm 37:25.
Qal passive, see Ges§ 52 e) be deserted, of city: Perfect 3 masculine singular הֲמוֺן עִיר עֻזָּב֫ Isaiah 32:14 ("" נֻטָּ֔שׁ); 3 feminine singular עֻזְּבָה Jeremiah 49:25.
II. [עָזַב] verb restore, repair (?) (compare perhaps Sabean עדֿב restore, SabDenkm90 DHMÖster. Monatsschr. f. d. Orient 1885,226; also Late Hebrew מַעֲזִיבָה restoration, erection Levy NHWB iii. 186, Arabic , building-stone Kremer Beitr. ii. 18); —
Qal Imperfect 3 masculine plural וַיַּעַזְבוּ Nehemiah 3:8 and they repaired (?) Jerusalem as far as the broad wall; > paved Gu ZPV viii (1885), 282f., or from √ I.עזב (see views in Be Ryle).
עַזְבּוּק, עַזְגָּד, עֻזָּה see עזז.
עָזַב fut. יַעֲזֹב.
(1) to loosen bands, and to let go a beast from its bonds. (As to this use of the Arabic verb عزب see Sypkens in Diss. Lugd. ii. p. 930, seqq.) Thus in the difficult passage, Exodus 23:5, “if thou see the ass of thy enemy lying down under its burden, וְחָדַלְתָּ מֵעֲזֹב לוֹ עָזֹב תַּעֲזֹב עִמּוֹ beware that thou leave him not, but that thou loose his (the ass’s) bonds with him.” There is a play of the words in the double use of the verb עָזַב which stands first in the common signification of forsaking, then in the primary one of loosing. It is applied to a servant set free; whence is the proverbial expression עָצוּר וְעָזוּב shut up and set free, i.e. the slave and the free man, or all men of every sort, Deuteronomy 32:36; 1 Kings 14:10, 21:21 2 Kings 9:8, 14:26. (Lud. de Dieu interprets this phrase, the married and the unmarried; comp. عَزَبُ an unmarried man, and أَعْصَرُ a married man; others, neutr. shut up and cast away, i.e. the precious and the vile, all together. But the former interpretation is preferable, and this latter cannot be received, because the expression always refers to men and not to things.) Metaph. Job 10:1, אֶעֶזְבָה שִׂיחִי “I will let loose my complaint,” I will let loose as it were the reins, I will not restrain it. Hence
(2) to leave a person, Genesis 2:24 a place, Jerem. 25:38 Ezekiel 8:12 also, to desert, as the wretched, the poor, Job 20:19; Psalms 27:10; Ezekiel 23:29 God, a people, Isaiah 42:16, 49:14 54:7 Psalms 9:11, 22:2 71:11 and Vice verŝ, a people, God, Judges 2:12; Deuteronomy 31:16; Jeremiah 5:19; Ezekiel 24:21 the law of God, Isaiah 58:2; Ezra 9:10 godliness, Job 6:14, etc. Strength, or mind, also are said to desert any one, Psalms 38:11, 40:13. Specially
(a) to leave any one any where, Genesis 50:8 followed by בְּיַד in any one’s hand (of one departing), ib. 39:12, 13; sometimes said for to commit to any one, leave in his charge (überlaffen, anvertrauen), Genesis 39:6 sometimes for to leave to any one’s will, 2 Chronicles 12:5. And in the signification of committing, it is construed also followed by אֶל Job 39:11, and עַל Psalms 10:14 (intrans.), עָלֶיךָ יַעֲזֹב חֵלֶ֑כָה “the poor committeth himself to thee.”
(b) of a person dying; to leave anything to heirs; followed by לְ Psalms 49:11.
(c) to leave anything to any one, so as not to take it away; followed by לְ Mal. 3:19. Part. pass. עֲזוּבָה left, deserted, applied to houses, which being forsaken by their inhabitants now lie deserted, i.q. ruins, Isaiah 6:12, 17:9, כַּעֲזוּבַת הַחֹרֶשׁ וְהָאָמִיר אֲשֶׁר עָֽזְבוּ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי ישׂ׳ “like ruins in the woods and summits (of Palestine), which (the Canaanites) left desert (fleeing) before the Israelites;” compare Isaiah 17:2; Jeremiah 4:29.
(3) to leave off, to cease from any thing; followed by an acc. Ezekiel 23:8 followed by a gerund, Hosea 4:10 to remit, cease from, wrath, Psalms 37:8 עָזַב חַסְדּוֹ מֵעִם פּ׳ to remit, i.e. to take away his favour from any one, Genesis 24:27; Ruth 2:20.
Niphal, to be left, forsaken, Nehemiah 13:11 often used of a country which has been forsaken by its inhabitants and lies desert, Leviticus 26:43; Isaiah 7:16; Job 18:4 followed by לְ to be left to any one, i.e. committed to him, Isaiah 18:6.
Pual עֻזַּב i.q. Niph. Isaiah 32:14.
Derived nouns, עֲזוּבָה and
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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