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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Titus 2

Verse 1

Speak thou [λαλει] . See on Matthew 28:18; John 8:26. Become [πρεπει] . Originally, to stand out; be conspicuous. Thus Homer, Obadiah 1:8 Obadiah 1:172 : meta de prepei ajgromenoisin he is conspicuous among those who are assembled. Eurip. Hel. 215; Zeuv prepwn dij aijqerov Zeus shining clearly through the aether. Hence, to become conspicuously fit; to become; beseem. In N. T. in the impersonal forms prepon ejstin it is becoming (Matthew 3:15); prepei it becometh (Ephesians 5:3); eprepen it became (Hebrews 2:10). With a subject nominative, 1 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 7:26.

Verse 2

Aged men [πρεσβυτας] . Only here, Luke 1:18; Philippians 1:9. To be understood of natural age, not of ecclesiastical position. Note that 1 Timothy 3:0, in treating of church officers, deals only with Bishops and Deacons. Nothing is said of Presbyters until chapter verse, where Timothy's relations to individual members of the church are prescribed. These church members are classified in this and the following verses as old men, old women, younger men, servants. In LXX presbuthv is occasionally interchanged with presbeuthv ambassador. See 2 Chronicles 32:31; 2 Chronicles 1:0 Macc. 13 : 21; 14 : 21, 22; 2 Macc. 11 34.

Verse 3

Aged women [πρεσβυτιδας] . N. T. o. See on presbuterai, 1 Timothy 5:2.

Behavior [καταστηματι] . N. T. o. See on katastolh apparel, 1 Timothy 2:9. It means, primarily, condition or state. Once in LXX, 3 Macc 5 45, katasthma maniwdev the maddened state into which the war - elephants were excited. Hence the state in which one habitually bears himself - his deportment or demeanor.

As becometh holiness [ιεροπρεπεις] . N. T. o. LXX, 4 Macc. 9 25; 11 20. In the Theages (wrongly ascribed to Plato), tw uiJei to onoma eqou kai iJeroprepev you have given your son (Theages) an honorable and reverend name (122 D). It means beseeming a sacred place, person, or matter. Thus Athenaeus, seven, of one who had given a sacred banquet, says that the table was ornamented iJeroprepestata in a manner most appropriate to the sacred circumstances. The meaning here is becoming those who are engaged in sacred service. This is the more striking if, as there is reason to believe, the presbutidev represented a quasi - official position in the church. See on 1 Timothy 5:3, and comp. 1 Timothy 2:10; Ephesians 5:3. Ephesians 5:1 Ephesians 5:51 False accusers [διαβολους] . Better, slanderers. See on Matthew 4:1, and 1 Timothy 3:6, 1 Timothy 3:11.

Given to much wine [οινω πολλω δεδουλωμενας] . More correctly, enslaved to much wine. The verb only here in Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 3:8.

Teachers of good things [καλοδιδασκαλους] . N. T. o. o LXX, o Class.

Verse 4

They may teach [σωφρονιζωσι] . Better, school or train. N. T. o. o LXX The verb means to make sane or sober - minded; to recall a person to his senses; hence, to moderate, chasten, discipline.

To love their husbands, to love their children [φιλανδρους ειναι, φιλοτεκνους] . Lit. to be husband - lovers, children - lovers. Both adjectives N. T. o. o LXX Filandrov in Class. not in this sense, but loving men or masculine habits; lewd. In the better sense often in epitaphs. An inscription at Pergamum has the following : Iouliov Bassov Otakilia Pwllh th glukutath gunaiki, filandrw kai filoteknw sumbiwsash ajmemptwv eth l, Julius Bassus to Otacilia Polla my sweetest wife, who loved her husband and children and lived with me blamelessly for thirty years.

Verse 5

Keepers at home [οικουργους] . Wrong. Rend. workers at home. N. T. o. o LXX, o Class.

Good [αγαθας] . Not attributive of workers at home, but independent. Rend. kindly. The mistress of the house is to add to her thrift, energy, and strict discipline, benign, gracious, heartily kind demeanor. Comp. Matthew 20:15; 1 Peter 2:18; Acts 9:36. See on Acts 11:24; Romans 5:7. Romans 5:1 Romans 5:53 Obedient [υποτασσομενας] . Better, subject or in subjection. Frequent in Paul, but not often in the active voice. See on James 4:7; Romans 8:7; Philippians 3:21; and comp. 1 Corinthians 14:34; Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18.

Verse 7

In all things [περι παντα] . Lit. concerning all things. The exact phrase, N. T. o. For analogous use of peri comp. Luke 10:40, Luke 10:41; Acts 19:25; 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:4, 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 3:8.

Shewing thyself [σεαυτον παρεχομενος] . See on 1 Timothy 1:4. The phrase N. T. o. but occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; parecein to make himself scarce. 154 Incorruptness [αφθοριαν] . Const. with shewing. N. T. o. o Class. LXX once, Haggai 2:18. Omit sincerity.

Verse 8

Sound speech [λογον υγιη] . Ugihv sound, only here in Pastorals. The usual form is the participle, as uJgiainontwn logwn, 2 Timothy 1:13; uJgiainousi logoiv, 1 Timothy 6:3.

That cannot, be condemned [ακαταγνωστον] . N. T. o. o Class. See 2 Macc. 4 47.

He that is of the contrary part [ο εξ εναντιας] . The phrase N. T. o. See Mark 14:39. The heathen opposer is meant. Comp. blasphemed, verse 5, and 1 Timothy 6:1. Enantiov contrary, in Paul only 1 Thessalonians 2:15.

May be ashamed [εντραπη] . Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:14; 2 Thessalonians 3:14, see notes on both, and on Matthew 21:37.

Evil thing [φαυλον] . Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Romans 9:11; 2 Corinthians 5:10. See on John 3:20.

Verse 9

To please them well in all things (ejn pasin eujarestouv einai). Wrong. Const. in all things with to be in subjection. Note the position of ejn pasin in 1 Timothy 3:11; 1 Timothy 4:15; 2 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 4:5, and comp. uJpakouein kata panta obey in all things, Colossians 3:20, Colossians 3:22; and uJpotassetai - ejn panti is subject in everything, Ephesians 5:24. Euarestov well pleasing, only here in Pastorals. Almost exclusively in Paul. See also Hebrews 13:21. Euarestwv acceptably, Hebrews 12:28.

Verse 10

Purloining [νοσφιζομενους] . Only here and Acts 5:2, Acts 5:3. LXX, Joshua 7:1; Joshua 2:0 Macc. 4 32. Often in Class. From nosfi apart. The fundamental idea of the word is to put far away from another; to set apart for one's self; hence to purloin and appropriate to one's own use. Purloin is akin to prolong : prolongyn or purlongyn "to put fer awey." Old French porloignier or purloignier.

Shewing all good fidelity [πασαν πιστιν ενδεικνομενος αγαθην] . The phrase N. T. o. This is the only instance in N. T. of ajgaqov with pistiv.

Adorn the doctrine (thn didaskalian kosmwsin). The phrase N. T. o. For kosmwsin adorn, see on 1 Timothy 2:9.

Verse 11

This teaching or doctrine which is to be adorned by the lives of God 's servants - the teaching of the gospel - is now stated in vv. 11 - 15. The grace of God [η χαρις του θεου] . A common Pauline phrase. The exact phrase only here in Pastorals. It is the ultimate ground of salvation. Comp. 2 Timothy 1:9; Ephesians 2:5, Ephesians 2:8; Galatians 1:15.

That bringeth salvation [σωτηριος] . Lit. saving. N. T. o. Const. with cariv grace. The saving grace of God.

Hath appeared [επεφανη] . Only in Pastorals, Luke, and Acts. In the active voice, to bring to light, show. See on ejpifaneia appearing, 1 Timothy 6:14.

To all men. Const. with that bringeth salvation, not with hath appeared. The grace of God which is saving for all men. Comp. 1 Timothy 2:4.

Verse 12

Teaching [παιδευουσα] . Better, instructing or training. The saving economy of God is educative. Comp. Hebrews 12:4-11, and see on 1 Timothy 1:20.

Ungodliness [ασεβειαν] . In Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 2:16. The contrary of eujsebeia, for which see on 1 Timothy 2:2. Worldly lusts [κοσμικας επιθυμιας] . The phrase N. T. o. Kosmikov worldly, only here and Hebrews 9:1. On the ethical sense in kosmov the world, see on Acts 17:24, and John 1:9

Verse 13

Looking for [προσδεχομενοι] . In Pastorals only here. Comp. Mark 14:43; Luke 2:25; Luke 12:36. In this sense not in Paul. Primarily, to receive to one's self, admit, accept. So Luke 14:2; Romans 16:2; Philippians 2:29. That which is accepted in faith, is awaited expectantly.

That blessed hope [την μακαριαν ελπιδα] . The phrase N. T. o.

Makariov blessed, very often in the Gospels. See on Matthew 5:3. In Pastorals, with the exception of this passage, always of God. In Paul, only of men, and so usually in the Gospels. Elpida hope, the object of hope. Why the hope is called blessed, appears from 2 Timothy 4:8; Philippians 3:20, etc. Comp. Jude 1:21, and 1 Peter 1:13.

And the glorious appearing [και επιφανειαν της δοξης] . Kai is explanatory, introducing the definition of the character of the thing hoped for. Looking for the object of hope, even the appearing, etc. Glorious appearing is a specimen of the vicious hendiadys by which the force of so many passages has been impaired or destroyed in translation. Rend. appearing of the glory.

Of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ [του μεγαλου θεου και σωτηρος ημων χριστου ιησου] . For Jesus Christ rend. Christ Jesus. Megav great with God, N. T. o, but often in LXX According to A. V. two persons are indicated, God and Christ. Revelations with others rend. of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus, thus indicating one person, and asserting the deity of Christ. I adopt the latter, although the arguments and authorities in favor of the two renderings are very evenly balanced. 155

Verse 14

Gave himself for us [εδωκεν εαυτον υπερ ημων] . See on 1 Timothy 2:6, and comp. Galatians 1:4. Uper on behalf of; not instead of. Might redeem [λυτρωσηται] . Only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18. See on 1 Timothy 2:6. Neither lutron ransom, lutrwsiv redemption, nor lutrwthv redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase [αγοραζεσθαι, εξαγοραζεσθαι] , 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:5. Comp. Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3, Revelation 14:4; 2 Peter 2:1.

Iniquity [ανομιας] . Only here in Pastorals. Lit. Lawlessness. See on 1 John 3:4.

Might purify [καθαριση] . In Pastorals only here. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels and Hebrews. In Paul, 2 Corinthians 7:1; Ephesians 5:26. o Class. Often in LXX

A peculiar people (laon periousion). Laov people only here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Periousiov N. T. o. A few times in LXX, always with laov. See Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. 1 Peter 2:10. Periousiov is from the participle of perieinai to be over and above : hence periousia abundance, plenty. Periousiov also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Ephesians 1:14, where believers are said to have been sealed eijv ajpolutrwsin thv peripoihsewv with a view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus = acquisition. So 1 Peter 2:9, where Christians are styled laov eijv peripoihsin a people for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14, and peripoieisqai to acquire, Acts 20:28. The phrase kaqarizein laon to purify the people, in LXX, Nehemiah 12:30; Judith 16 18.

Zealous [ζηλωτην] . Lit. a zealot. Comp. Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3; 1 Peter 3:13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Matthew 10:4, and Mark 3:18. Authority [επιταγης] . See on 1 Timothy 1:1.

Despise [περιφρονειτω] . N. T. o. Occasionally in Class. From peri beyond, fronein to be minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Tit. is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.

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Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Titus 2". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.