Bible Commentaries
Titus 2

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - UnabridgedCommentary Critical Unabridged

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Verse 1

But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine: But ... thou - in contrast to the reprobate seducers, Titus 1:11; Titus 1:15-16. 'He deals more in exhortations, because those intent on useless questions needed chiefly to be recalled to a holy life; for nothing so allays men's wandering curiosity as the being brought to recognize practical duties' (Calvin).

Speak - without restraint, with open mouth: contrast Titus 1:11, "mouths must be stopped."

Verse 2

That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience. Sober, [ neefalious (G3524)] - 'vigilant,' as sober men alone can be (1 Timothy 3:2). But "sober" here answers to "not given to ... wine" (Titus 2:3; Titus 1:7).

Grave - `dignified.' Temperate, [ soofronas (G4998)] - 'self-restrained,' 'discreet' (Titus 1:8; 1 Timothy 2:9). Faith, in charity (love), in patience - combined in 1 Timothy 6:11. "Faith, hope, charity" (1 Corinthians 13:13). "Patience" [ hupomonee (G5281): brave endurance] is supported by "hope" (1 Corinthians 13:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:3). The grace which especially becomes old men; the fruit of ripened experience derived from trials overcome (Romans 5:3).

Verse 3

The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;

Behaviour, [ katasteemati (G2688)] - 'deportment:' 'the gait, movements, expression of countenance, speech, silence' (Jerome).

As becometh holiness, [ hieroprepeis (G2412)] - 'as becometh women consecrated to God' (Wahl): Christian women being priestesses unto God (Ephesians 5:3; 1 Timothy 2:10). 'Observant of sacred decorum' (Bengel). Not false accusers - slanderers: a besetting sin of elderly women. Given to much wine - the besetting sin of the Cretians (Titus 1:12). [Dedoulomenas, 'enslaved to much wine.'] Addiction to wine is slavery (Romans 6:16; 2 Peter 2:19).

Teachers - in private: not public (1 Corinthians 14:34; 1 Timothy 2:11-12): influencing for good the younger women by precept and example.

Verse 4

That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children, Teach ... to be sober, [ soofronizoosin (G4994)] - 'self-restrained,' 'discreet:' Titus 2:2, "temperate" [ soofronas (G4998)]. But see note; cf. note, 2 Timothy 1:7. Ellicott, 'That they school the young women to be lovers of their husbands,' etc. (the foundation of all domestic happiness). It was judicious that Titus, a young man, should admonish the young women, not directly, but through the older women.

Verse 5

To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.

Keepers at home, [ oikourgous (G3626)] - 'guardians of the house.' So C H f g, Vulgate. But 'Aleph (') A Delta G read [ oikourgous (G3626)] 'workers at home:' active in household duties (Proverbs 7:11; 1 Timothy 5:13). Good - kind, beneficent (Matthew 20:15; Romans 5:7; 1 Peter 2:18). Not churlish and niggardly, while thrifty as housewives; not harsh to servants.

Obedient, [ hupotassomenas (G5293)] - "submitting themselves," as in Ephesians 5:21-24, notes. Their own - marking the duty of subjection which they owe them as being their own husbands (Colossians 3:18). Blasphemed - `evil spoken of.' That no reproach may be cast on the Gospel, through the inconsistencies of its professors (Titus 2:8; Titus 2:10; Romans 2:24; 1 Timothy 5:14; 1 Timothy 6:1).

Verse 6

Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded. Young, [ tous (G3588) neooterous (G3501)] - in contrast to "the aged men" (Titus 2:2). 'The younger men.'

Sober-minded - self-restrained. 'Nothing is so hard at this age as to overcome undue pleasures' (Chrysostom).

Verse 7

In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, In - with respect to all things.

Thyself a pattern - though but a young man. All teaching is useless unless one's example confirm his word. In doctrine - in thy ministerial teaching (showing) uncorruptness; i:e., untainted sincerity [ afthorian (G862b), 'Aleph (') A Delta, for adiafthorian (C)] (cf. 2 Corinthians 11:3). As "gravity," etc., refers to Titus' manner (dignified seriousness in delivery), so "uncorruptness" to his doctrine.

Sincerity, [aftharsian] - Delta. But omitted in 'Aleph (') A C G, Vulgate.

Verse 8

Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.

Speech - discourse in public and private. He that is of the contrary part - the adversary (Titus 1:9; 2 Timothy 2:25), whether pagan or Jew. May be ashamed - put to confusion by the power of truth and innocence (cf. Titus 2:5; Titus 2:10; 1 Timothy 5:14; 1 Timothy 6:1). No evil thing - in our acts or demeanour.

Of you. So A. But 'Aleph (') C Delta G f g read 'of us,' Christians.

Verse 9

Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again;

Servants - `slaves.' To please them well - to be complaisant in everything: to have that zealous desire to gain the master's good-will which anticipates the master's wish, and does even more than is required. The reason for the frequent injunctions to slaves to subjection (Ephesians 6:5, etc.; Colossians 3:22; 1 Timothy 6:1, etc.; 1 Peter 2:18) was, that in no rank was there more danger of the spiritual equality and freedom of Christians being misunderstood than in that of slaves. It was natural for the slave who became a Christian to forget his place, and put himself on a social level with his master. Hence, the charge for each to abide in the sphere in which he was when converted (1 Corinthians 7:20-24).

Not answering again - in contradiction to the master [ antilegontas (G483)] (Wahl).

Verse 10

Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.

Not purloining, [ nosfizomenous (G3557)] - 'Not appropriating' what does not belong to one. 'Keeping back' dishonestly or deceitfully (Acts 5:2-3).

Showing - in acts. All - all possible, every form of, good; really; not in mere appearance (Ephesians 6:5-6). 'Heathen do not judge of the Christian's doctrines from these, but from his actions and life' (Chrysostom). Men will write, fight, and even die for religion; but how few live for it!

God our Saviour, [ Tou (G3588) Sooteeros (G4990) heemoon (G2257) Theou (G2316)] - 'of our Saviour God;' i:e., God the Father, the originating Author of salvation (cf. note, 1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3). God deigns to have His Gospel-doctrine adorned even by slaves, regarded by the world as no better than beasts of burden. 'Though the service be rendered to an earthly master, the honour redounds to God, as the servant's good-will flows from the fear of God' (Theophylact). His love in being "our Saviour" is the strongest ground for adorning His doctrine by our lives: the force of "For" in Titus 2:11.

Verse 11

For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, The grace of God - God's gratuitous favour in redemption.

Hath appeared, [ epefanee (G2014)] - 'hath been made to shine from above' (Isaiah 9:2; Luke 1:79), 'hath been manifested' (Titus 3:4), after having been long hidden in God's loving counsels (Colossians 1:26; 2 Timothy 1:9-10). The grace of God was embodied in Jesus, "the brightness of the Father's glory," the manifested "Sun of righteousness," "the Word made flesh." The Gospel dispensation is "the day" (1 Thessalonians 5:5; 1 Thessalonians 5:8: there is a double "appearing," that of "grace," that of "glory," Titus 2:13: cf. Romans 13:12). [Translate, hee (G3588) sooteerios (G4992) pasin (G3956) anthroopois (G444), 'the grace ... that bringeth salvation to all men hath,' etc., not "appeared to all men:" for "us" fellows (1 Timothy 2:4; 1 Timothy 4:10). Hence, God is called "our Saviour" (Titus 2:10). Jesus means the same.]

To all - cf. the different classes (Titus 2:2-9): even to servants; to us Gentiles, once aliens from God. Hence arises our obligation to all (Titus 3:2).

Verse 12

Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;

Teaching, [ paideuousa (G3811)] - 'disciplining us.' Grace is connected with disciplining chastisements (1 Corinthians 11:32; Hebrews 12:6-7). Children need disciplining. The discipline which grace exercises teaches us to deny worldly lusts, and to live soberly, etc., in this present world [aion, course of things], wherein self-discipline is needed, since its spirit is opposed to God (Titus 1:12; Titus 1:16; 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Corinthians 3:18-19): in the coming world we may gratify every desire without need of self-discipline, because all desires there will be conformable to the will of God.

That, [ hina (G2443)] - 'in order that:' the end of the 'disciplining' is 'in order that ... we may live soberly' etc. This is lost by the translation, "teaching us."

Denying ... lusts (Luke 9:23). The aorist [ arneesamenoi (G720)], 'denying once for all.' We deny them when we withhold our consent from them, refuse the delight they suggest, and the act to which they solicit; nay, tear them up by the roots out of our soul (Bernard, 'Sermon' 11).

Worldly lusts - the [ tas (G3588): all] lusts of the world (Galatians 5:16; Ephesians 2:3; 1 John 2:15-17; 1 John 5:19). The world [ kosmos (G2889)] will not come to an end when this present age [aeon] or world-course shall. Live soberly, righteously, and godly - the positive side of the Christian character; as "denying ... lusts," the negative. "Soberly," i:e., with self-restraint, in relation to one's self: "righteously," or justly, toward our neighbour; "godly," toward God (not merely amiably and justly, but something higher, with reverential love toward God). These three comprise our 'disciplining' in faith and love, from which he passes to hope (Titus 2:13).

Verse 13

Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;

(Philippians 3:20-21). Looking for - with constant expectation [prosdechomenoi], "waiting for" (Luke 2:25), and joy (Romans 8:19): the antidote to worldly lusts; the stimulus to "live in this present world" conformably to this expectation. That - Greek, "the."

Blessed - bringing blessedness (Romans 4:7-8). Hope - i:e., object of hope; including glory, righteousness, and resurrection (Romans 8:24; Galatians 5:5; Colossians 1:5). The glorious appearing. One Greek article connects closely "hope" and "appearing" (the hope being about to be realized only at the appearing of Christ). 'The blessed hope and manifestation (cf. note, Titus 2:11) of the glory.' [ Epiphaneian (G2015)] 'Manifestation' is translated "brightness," 2 Thessalonians 2:8. As His "coming" [ parousia (G3952)] expresses the fact, so Epiphany, or 'manifestation,' His personal visibility when He shall come. There are two Epiphanies-the one of grace (Titus 2:11), the other of glory. The great God and our Saviour Jesus, [ Tou (G3588) megalou (G3173) Theou (G2316) kai (G2532) Sooteeros (G4990)].

(1) One article combines "God" and "Saviour," which shows that both are predicated of one and the same Being. 'Of Him who is at once the great God and our Saviour.' Also

(2) "appearing" [ Epefanee (G2014)] is never by Paul predicated of God the Father (John 1:18), or even of 'His glory' (as Alford explains it), but invariably of CHRIST'S coming, to which (at His first advent, cf. 2 Timothy 1:10) the kindred "appeared" [ epefanee (G2014)], Titus 2:11, refers (1 Timothy 6:14; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 4:8). Also

(3) in the context (Titus 2:14) there is no reference to the Father, but to Christ alone; and here there is no occasion for reference to the Father. Also

(4) the expression "great God," is uncalled for as to the Father, but is appropriate to Christ, the glory of His appearing being contrasted with His humility in "giving Himself for us," as "the true God" is predicated of Christ (1 John 5:20).

The phrase occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, but often in the Old. Deuteronomy 7:21; Deuteronomy 10:17, predicated of Yahweh, their manifested Lord, who led the Israelites through the wilderness, the Second Person in the Trinity. Believers now look for the manifestation of His glory, as they shall share in it. Even the Socinian explanation, making "the great God" to be the Father, "our Saviour," the Son, places God and Christ on an equal relation to "the glory" of the future appearing: incompatible with the notion that Christ is not divine: it would be blasphemy so to couple any created being with God.

Verse 14

Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

Gave himself - Himself, His whole self, the greatest gift ever given (Ellicott) (Galatians 1:4; Ephesians 5:25). For us, [ huper (G5228) heemoon (G2257)] - 'in our behalf.'

Redeem us, [ lutrooseetai (G3084)] - 'ransom us from bondage at the price of His precious blood' (Ephesians 1:7; Matthew 20:28). An appropriate image in addressing bond servants (Titus 2:9-10).

From all iniquity, [ anomias (G458)] - 'lawlessness,' the essence of sin; namely, 'transgression of the law' (1 John 3:4), in bondage to which we were until then. The aim of redemption was to redeem us, not merely from the penalty, but the being of iniquity. He reverts to the "teaching," or disciplining effect of the grace of God that bringeth salvation (Titus 2:11-12).

Peculiar - peculiarly His own, as Israel was: treasured up as such [ Periousion (G4041). 1 Peter 2:9, laos (G2992) eis (G1519) peripoieesin (G4047); Hebrew, `am (H5971) cªgulaah (H5459), Exodus 19:5; Deuteronomy 7:6; note, Ephesians 1:14 ].

Zealous - in doing and promoting "good works."

Verse 15

These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee. With all authority, [ epitagees (G2003)] - 'authoritativeness' (Titus 1:13; Matthew 7:29, Jesus). Let no man despise thee. Speak with such vigour as to command respect (1 Timothy 4:12): that no one may think himself above [ perifroneito (G4065)] admonition.

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Titus 2". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". 1871-8.