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Bible Commentaries

Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Titus 2

Verse 1

Titus 2:1 . Λάλει , speak ) with unrestrained lips; carefully, vigorously, freely.

Verse 2

Titus 2:2 . Πρεσβύτας , aged men ) Supply exhort from Titus 2:6 . νηφαλίους , watchful ) in feeling. σεμνούς , grave ) in actions. σώφρονας , sober ) in their mode of living. τῇ ὑπομονῇ , in patience ) A virtue chiefly becoming old men.

Verse 3

Titus 2:3 . Ἐν καταστήματι [3] ἱεροπρεπεῖ ) ἱεροπρεπὴς , observant of sacred decorum. κατάστημα , behaviour, dress [‘habitus’ exterior ], is used here of the ornament of the virtues, which are presently enumerated. κατάστημα is used in a large sense, as we find in the Greek Lexicon formerly printed at Basle in fol. δεδουλωμένας , enslaved, under slavery to ) It is indeed slavery not to overcome the appetite; 2 Peter 2:19 . καλοδιδασκάλους ) teachers of good things , as follows.

[3] The larger Ed. had preferred the plural ἱεροπρεπεῖς , but the marg. of

Verse 4

Titus 2:4 . Σωφρονίζωσι τὰς νέας , that they may teach the young women to be sober ) Titus is enjoined to treat the Cretan women with somewhat greater severity than Timothy was to treat the women of Ephesus, 1 Timothy 5:2 . He himself was to admonish the latter; Titus is to admonish the former, by means of the women who were more advanced in age.

Verse 7

Titus 2:7 . [5] ΠΕΡῚ ΠΆΝΤΑ ) in all things . σεαυτὸν , thyself ) Even thou, Titus, though rather young thyself. ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ , in doctrine ) Public doctrine or teaching is intended, to which λόγος , the word , in daily practice is presently opposed. In the case of the former, ἀφθορία and ΣΕΜΝΌΤΗς are required, to which the epithets ὙΓΙῆ and ἈΚΑΤΆΓΝΩΣΤΟΝ correspond in the case of the latter, so that the subject-matter and the form may be rightly framed in the case of both. ἈΦΘΟΡΊΑΝ ) viz. ΠΑΡΕΧΌΜΕΝΟς : here we must not repeat ΣΕΑΥΤΌΝ .

[5] οἰκουροὺς ) ver. 5, properly, those who keep the house, Proverbs 7:11 . V.g.

Verse 8

Titus 2:8 . Ἐντραπῇ , may be confounded ) The great force of truth and innocence.

Verse 9

Titus 2:9 . Δούλους , servants ) namely, exhort , Titus 2:6 .

Verse 10

Titus 2:10 . Ἀγαθὴν , good ) in things not evil. κοσμῶσιν , may adorn ) The lower the condition of servants, the more beautifully is their piety described. [ Even such as they should not cast themselves away, as if it were of no importance what sort of persons they were . V. g.]

Verse 11

Titus 2:11 . Ἐπεφάνη γὰρ ἡ χάρις , for the grace has appeared ) There is a double appearance , viz. that of grace and that of glory , Titus 2:13 . σωτήριος , that bringeth salvation ) as the very name, Jesus , indicates [comp. Tit 2:10 ]. πᾶσιν , to all ) [ of whom so many the 2d Ed. refers ἱεροπρεπεῖ to the more certain readings, which the Germ. Vers., corresponding to the Gnomon, imitates. E. B. [6][7] [8] [9]

[10] Rec. Text read ἱεροπρεπεῖς . But C fg Vulg. read ἱεροπρεπεῖ . ED.

[6] the Alexandrine MS.: in Brit. Museum: fifth century: publ. by Woide, 1786 1819: O. and N. Test. defective.

[7] Bezæ, or Cantabrig.: Univ. libr., Cambridge: fifth cent.: publ. by Kipling, 1793: Gospels, Acts, and some Epp. def.

[8] Claromontanus of Paul’s Epp.: Roy. libr., Paris: eighth cent.: marked D by Tischend.: Δ by Lachm.

[9] Boernerianus: Elect. libr., Dresden: ninth cent.: publ. by Matthæi, 1791: Paul’s Epp. except Hebrews.

[10] Coisliniana fragmenta: Roy. libr., Paris: Paul’s Epp. def.: sixth cent.: publ. by Montfaucon.

different classes are mentioned , Titus 2:2-9 . V. g.] even to servants, even to the Gentiles; comp. ch. Titus 3:2 .

Verse 12

Titus 2:12 . Τὴν ἀσέβειαν , ungodliness ) In antithesis to εὐσεβῶς , godly . τὰς κοσμικὰς , worldly ) which prevent men from living soberly and righteously . σωφρόνως καὶ δικαίως καὶ εὐσεβῶς , soberly and righteously and godly ) The three cardinal virtues, from which, either single or united, all the others spring.

Verse 13

Titus 2:13 . Προσδεχόμενοι , looking for ) with joy. ἐλπίδα Θεοῦ , hope of God ) This may be referred to Christ. [11] σωτῆρος , Saviour ) ch. Titus 3:4 ; Titus 3:6 , where the mention of the Father and of the Son is made in very close connection, as here, ch. Titus 2:11 ; Titus 2:13 . [Hope corresponds to the name of Saviour; the appearance of the glory, to that of God . V. g.]

[11] See my note on 1 Timothy 5:21 . This must refer to Christ; for ἐπιφάνεια , is never applied to God the Father, but always to the Son. And when two compatible attributives joined by a copula are thus preceded by but one article, they must refer to the one and the same person: of Him who is at once the great God and our Saviour: τοῦ , viz. ὄντος μεγ , Θεοῦ καὶ ωτ . ED.

Verse 14

Titus 2:14 . Ἵνα λυτρώσηται , that He might redeem ) An allusion to redemption from slavery . [12] λαὸν περιούσιον , a peculiar people ) The adjective would be translated into Latin by superfactum . Columella writes, villica debet separare, quœ consumenda sunt, et quœ superfieri possunt, custodire , “a farmer’s wife should separate what is to be consumed, and keep what may be left over and above.” Comp. περιποίησις , 1 Peter 2:9 , note. [The περὶ in composition often expresses something remaining over and above . So περιποίησις , in Peter, something which God reserves to Himself out of all. And περιούσιος , a people peculiarly God’s own above all nations, Exodus 19:5-6 ; LXX.]

[12] He had been speaking of slaves or servants , ver. 9. ED.

Verse 15

Titus 2:15 . Μηδεὶς , let no one ) 1 Timothy 4:12 , note. περιφρονείτω , despise ) The minister of the Divine word, defenceless, unwarlike, is certainly despised by those who do not submit themselves to the word of God, but think that it is only political defences that are of any avail. But perverse hearers much more despise him who teaches somewhat slowly: they ought to be made to feel ἐπιταγὴν , i.e. what is inculcated , as coming from authority; not to draw it to themselves [to wrest the authority from the minister and draw it to themselves].

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Bibliographical Information
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Titus 2". Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. 1897.