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Bible Commentaries

Vincent's Word Studies

Titus 3

Verse 1

Put them in mind [υπομιμνησκε εξουσιαις] . See on 2 Timothy 2:14, and on uJpomnhsin reminding, 2 Timothy 1:5.

Principalities and powers [αρχαις εξουσιαις] . Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Arch beginning = that which begins : the leader, principality. See on Colossians 1:16; Jude 1:6; Acts 10:11. Only here in Pastorals. Exousia right, authority. See on Mark 2:10; John 1:12; Colossians 1:16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luke 20:20.

To obey magistrates [πειθαρχειν] . Comp. Acts 5:29, Acts 5:32; Acts 27:21. See on Acts 5:29. The idea of magistrates is contained in the word itself; but it is quite proper to render as Rev. to be obedient. Rare in LXX

Ready to every good work [προς παν εργον αγαθον ετοιμους ειναι] . The phrase N. T. o. Etoimov ready, only here in Pastorals. Comp. eJtoimasia readiness or preparation, Ephesians 6:15 (note).

Verse 2

No brawlers [αμαχους] . Better as Res., sot to be contentious. See on 1 Timothy 3:3. Past o.

Verse 3

Divers - pleasures [ηδοναις ποικιλαις] . Hdonh pleasure, only here in Pastorals. o P. See on James 4:1. For poikilaiv divers, see on 2 Timothy 3:6.

Malice [κακια] . Only here in Pastorals. See on James 1:21. In N. T. kakia is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. 4 15, who explains by "vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices." Calvin, on Ephesians 4:32, defines as "a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity." The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes kakia as the forerunner [προοδοιπορον] of our sins (x). Malice is a correct translation.

Verse 4

Kindness [χρηστοτης] . Only here in Pastorals. Elsewhere only in Paul. See on Romans 3:12, and on easy, Matthew 11:30.

Love [φιλανθρωπια] . Love is too vague. It is love toward men; comp. verse 2. Only here and Acts 28:2 : filanqrwpwv kindly, Acts 27:3 (note). While it cannot be asserted that the heretical characteristics noted in the Pastoral Epistles point collectively to any specific form of error, it is true, nevertheless, that certain characteristics of the economy of grace are emphasized, which are directly opposed to Gnostic ideas. Thus the exhortation that supplications be made for all men, supported by the statement that God wills that all men should be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Timothy 2:1, 1 Timothy 2:4), is in the teeth of the Gnostic distinction between men of spirit and men of matter, and of the Gnostic principle that the knowledge [επιγνωσις] of truth was only for a limited, intellectual class. To the same effect is the frequent recurrence of all, for all, in connection with the saving and enlightening gifts of God (1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:13; Titus 2:11). So here : not only has the saving grace of God appeared unto all (chapter. Titus 2:11), but it has revealed itself as kindness and love to man as man.

Verse 5

Not by works of righteousness which we have done [ουκ εξ εργων των εν δικαιοσυνη α εποιησαμεν] . Lit. not by works, those namely in righteousness, which we did. The thought is entirely Pauline. Ex ergwn strictly, out of, in consequence of works. En dikaiosunh in the sphere of righteousness; as legally righteous men. Comp. Ephesians 2:9. We did emphatic. Comp. Romans 10:5; Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:12; Galatians 5:3.

According to his mercy [κατα το αυτου ελεος] . The phrase only 1 Peter 1:3. Comp. Romans 14:9; Ephesians 2:4; Jude 1:21.

By the washing of regeneration [δια λουτρου παλινγενεσιας] .

Loutron only here and Ephesians 5:26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Palingenesia only here and Matthew 19:28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Romans 6:3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting.

Renewing [ανακαινωσεως] . Only here and Romans 12:2. Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:7. Paul has ajnakainoun to renew, 2 Corinthians 4:16; Colossians 3:10 : ajnakainwsiv renewing, Romans 12:2. Anakainizein to renew, only Hebrews 6:6. The connection of the genitive is disputed. Some make it dependent on loutrou bath, so that the bath of baptism is conceived as implying regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit. Others construe with renewing only, ajnakainwsewv being dependent on dia; through the laver of regeneration and (through) the renewing, etc. The former seems the more probable. The phrase renewing of the Holy Spirit only here. In N. T. the Spirit or the Holy Spirit is joined in the genitive with the following words : comfort, joy, power, love, demonstration, manifestation, earnest, ministration, fellowship, promise, fruit, unity, sword, sanctification.

Verse 6

Shed [εξεχεεν] . Or poured forth. Only here in Pastorals. Most frequent in Revelation. The pouring out of the Spirit is an 0. T. metaphor. See Joel 3:1, Joel 3:2, cit. in Acts 2:17, Acts 2:18; Zechariah 12:10. In Paul the verb occurs but once, of shedding blood, Romans 3:15, cit.

Verse 7

Being justified [δικαιωθεντες] . In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy 3:16 (note). See Intro. 6 Justification is conceived as taking place before the outpouring of the Spirit.

By his grace [τη εκεινου χαριτι] . By the grace of Jesus Christ. See Acts 14:11; 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 13:14; Romans 5:6; Galatians 1:6. We should be made heirs [κληρονομοι γενηθωμεν] . Klhronomov heir only here in Pastorals. A favorite idea of Paul. See Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17; Galatians 3:29. Heirship of eternal life is the result of justification. So, clearly, Rom. verse It is attested and confirmed by the Holy Spirit. 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:14.

According to the hope of eternal life [κατ ελπιδα ζωης αιωνιου] . Const. of eternal life with heirs, and rend. heirs of eternal life according to hope. Comp. Romans 4:18; Romans 5:2; Romans 8:24; Galatians 5:5; Colossians 1:5, Colossians 1:27; Titus 1:2; 1 Peter 1:3; 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:8.

Verse 8

Affirm constantly [διαβεβαιουσθαι] . Past o. See on 1 Timothy 1:7. Constantly, not continually, but uniformly and consistently. So Book of Common Prayer, "Collect for Saint John Baptist's Day," " and after his example constantly speak the truth. " Rend. affirm steadfastly.

Might be careful [φροντιζωσιν] . N. T. o. Quite often in LXX Frequent in Class. To think or consider; hence to take careful thought, ponder, be anxious about.

To maintain [προιστασθαι] . Mostly in Pastorals, and usually in the sense of ruling, as Romans 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 1 Timothy 3:4, 1 Timothy 3:5. The sense here is to be forward in. 156 Profitable [ωφελιμα] . Past o. o LXX Comp. 1 Timothy 4:8; 2 Timothy 3:16.

Verse 9

Foolish questions, etc. See on 2 Timothy 2:23. For genealogies see on 1 Timothy 1:4.

Strivings about the law [μαχας νομικας] . The phrase N. T. o. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:7. Nomikov mostly in Luke. Everywhere except here a lawyer, with the article or tiv.

Unprofitable [ανωφελεις] . Only here and Hebrews 7:18.

Vain [ματαιοι] . Only here in Pastorals. Twice in Paul, 1 Corinthians 3:20, cit.; 1 Corinthians 14:17 (note). Very frequent in LXX The sense is aimless or resultless, as mataiov eujch a prayer which cannot obtain fulfilment. The questions, genealogies, etc., lead to no attainment or advancement in godliness. Comp. mataiologia jangling, 1 Timothy 1:6 : mataiologoi vain talkers, verse 10 mataiothv vanity, Romans 8:20; Ephesians 4:17 : ejmataiwqhsan were made vain, Romans 1:21 : mathn in vain, Matthew 14:9.

Verse 10

A man that is an heretic [αιρετικον ανθρωπον] . Airetikov heretical, N. T. o. For airesiv heresy see on 1 Peter 2:1.

Admonition [νουθεσιαν] . Only here, 1 Corinthians 10:11; Ephesians 6:4 (note). See on nouqetein to admonish, Acts 20:31.

Verse 11

Is subverted [εξεστραπται] . N. T. o. More than turned away from the right path : rather, turned inside out. Comp. LXX, Deuteronomy 32:20. Sinneth [αμαρτανει] . See on 1 John 1:9; Matthew 1:21, and trespasses, Matthew 6:14.

Condemned of himself [αυτοκατακριτος] . Better as Rev., self - condemned. N. T. o. o LXX, o Class.

Verse 12

Nicopolis. There were several cities of this name, one in Cilicia, one in Thrace, and one in Epirus. It is uncertain which one is meant here. To winter [παραχειμασαι] . Comp. Acts 27:12; Acts 28:11; 1 Corinthians 16:6. The noun paraceimasia wintering, Acts 27:12.

Titus 3:12Ours [ημετεροι] . Our brethren in Crete.

For necessary uses [εις τας αναγκαιας χρειας] . The phrase N. T. o. With reference to whatever occasion may demand them.

Unfruitful [ακαρποι] . Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:14; Eph. verse 11. Not only in supplying the needs, but in cultivating Christian graces in themselves by acts of Christian service.

Verse 15

Them that love us in the faith [τους φιλουντας ημας εν πιστει] . Better, in faith. The phrase N. T. o. Filein to love, only here in Pastorals, and in Paul, only 1 Corinthians 16:22. See on ajgaph love, Gal. verse

Const. in faith with that love us.

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The text of this work is public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Titus 3". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.