the Week of Proper 21 / Ordinary 26
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #7185 - קָשָׁה
1) to be hard, be severe, be fierce, be harsh
1a1) to be hard, be difficult
1a2) to be hard, be severe
1b1) to be ill-treated
1b2) to be hard pressed
1c) (Piel) to have severe labour (of women)
1d1) to make difficult, make difficulty
1d2) to make severe, make burdensome
1d3) to make hard, make stiff, make stubborn
1d3a) of obstinacy (figuratively)
1d4) to show stubbornness
1435) sq (קסה QSh) AC: Gather CO: Stalk AB: ?: The pictograph q is a picture of the sun at the horizon and the gathering of the light, the s is a picture of the teeth representing pressure. Combined these mean "bring together and pressed". Once the grain stalks are harvested from the field, it is gathered into bundles and secured with a cord in the middle.
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect 3 feminine singular קָֽשְׁתָה 1 Samuel 5:7, קָשָׁ֑תָה Genesis 49:7; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יִקְשֶׁה Deuteronomy 1:17; Deuteronomy 15:18, וַיִּ֫קֶשׁ 2 Samuel 19:44; —
1 be hard, difficult Deuteronomy 1:17 (of a legal case; מִן comparative).
2 be hard, severe, יָדוֺ׳ק עָלֵינוּ 1 Samuel 5:7 (of ׳י, in judgement); בְעֵינֶ֑ךָ׳יִק. Deuteronomy 15:18 it shall not be hard in thine eyes (seem a severe trial, an injustice); of wrath Genesis 49:7 (poem in J; "" עָ֑ז); of fierce words 2 Samuel 19:44.
Niph`al Participle נִקְשֶׁה Isaiah 8:21 hardly bestead, hard pressed.
Pi`el Imperfect 3 feminine singular וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ Genesis 35:16 (E) she made hard in her bearing (had severe labour).
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular הִקְשָׁה Exodus 13:15 +, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular וַיֶּקֶשׁ 2 Chronicles 36:13; 3 masculine plural וַיַּקְשׁוּ Jeremiah 7:26 +, etc.; Infinitive construct suffix בְּהַקְשֹׁתָהּ Genesis 35:17; Participle מַקְשֶׁה Proverbs 28:14; Proverbs 29:1; —
1 make difficult, difficulty: הִקְשָׁה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ Exodus 13:15 Pharaoh made difficulty about sending us away; of travail Genesis 35:17 (E; as
Pi`el); הִקְשִׁיתָלִשְׁאוֺל 2 Kings 2:10 thou hast made hard to ask, asked a hard thing.
2 make severe, burdensome, yoke imposed by king 1 Kings 12:4 2 Chronicles 10:4.
3. a. make hard, stiff, stubborn, figurative of obstinacy: וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶתעָֿרְמָּם 2 Kings 17:14 they stiffened their neck, so Jeremiah 7:26; Jeremiah 17:23; Jeremiah 19:15; Deuteronomy 10:16; 2 Chronicles 30:8; 36:13; Nehemiah 9:16,17,29; Proverbs 29:1; אַלתַּֿקְשׁוּ לְבַבְכֶם Psalm 95:8, compare Proverbs 28:14; subject ׳י, ׳אַקְשֶׁה אֶתלֵֿב פ Exodus 7:3 (P), accusative אֶתרֿוחוֺ Deuteronomy 2:30,
b. shew stubborness Job 9:4 (with אֶל person [׳י]).
(1) i.q. Arab. قسا to be hard, e.g. of words, 2 Sa. 19:44.
(2) to be heavy, used of the hand of God in punishing, 1 Samuel 5:7 of anger, Genesis 49:7.
(3) to be difficult, hard, Deuteronomy 1:17, 15:18.
Niphal, part. נִקְשֶׁה to be harshly treated, afflicted with a heavy lot, Isaiah 8:21.
Piel, Genesis 35:16, וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ to have hard labour in parturition (fie hatte es fchwer behm Gebären). Verse 17 Genesis 35:17 in the same phrase is Hiph. (but it is needless to do what has of late been proposed, to take וַתְּקַשׁ as fut. Hiph. for וַתֶּקֶשׁ).
Hiphil, הִקְשָׁה, fut. apoc. וַיֶּקֶשׁ
(1) to make hard, to harden, e.g.
(a) the neck, i.e. to be obstinate, stubborn, Deuteronomy 10:16; 2 Kings 17:14 without עֹרֶף Job 9:4.
(b) followed by לֵב to harden any one’s heart, to make him obstinate, Exodus 7:3; Deuteronomy 2:30, ה׳ לִבּוֹ to harden one’s own heart, Psalms 95:8; Proverbs 28:14.
(2) to make (a yoke) heavy, 2 Kings 12:4.
(3) to make difficult, 2 Kings 2:10, הִקְשִׁיתָ לִשְׁאוֹל “thou hast asked a difficult thing.” Exodus 13:15, כִּי הִקְשָׁה פַרְעֹה לְשַׁלְּחֵנוּ “when Pharaoh would hardly let us go,” was unwilling to send us away.
Derivatives, קָשֶׁה, קְשִׁי and pr.n. קִשְׁיוֹן, also קִשֻּׁאִים [in Thes. from קָשָׁא].
קָשָׁה i.q. קָשָׂה, Arab. قشا to peel off bark, especially by turning, hence to turn, to work in a round form.
Derivatives, מִקְשֶׁה, מִקְשָׁה.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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