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Bible Lexicons

Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #5920 - עַל

from (H5927)
Parts of Speech

1) height (substantive)

2) above, upwards, on high (adverb)

Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
KJV (6)
2 Samuel
NAS (3)
2 Samuel
HCS (6)
2 Samuel
BSB (4)
2 Samuel
ESV (6)
2 Samuel
WEB (6)
2 Samuel
Verse Results
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon Definitions

1357) lo (אהל AhL) AC: Work CO: Yoke AB: ?: The pictograph o is a picture of they eye representing knowledge and experience, the l is a picture of a shepherd staff or yoke. Combined these mean "experience the staff". The yoke, a staff is lifted over the shoulder, is attached to the oxen for performing work. (eng: collar - with the exchange of the sound of the ayin with the c and the additional r)

A) lo (אהל AhL) AC: Raise CO: ? AB: ?

Nm ) lo (אהל AhL) - I. Above:[df: lwe]II. Upon:[Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (152): above, high, upon, in, on, over, by, for, both, beyond, through, throughout, against, beside, forth, off, from - Strongs: H5920 (עַל), H5921 (עַל), H5922 (עַל)

Nf1) elo (אהלה AhLH) - Rising: A rising of smoke from a burnt offering. [Aramaic only] KJV (1): burn offering - Strongs: H5928 (עֲלָוָה)

Nf3) tflc (גלות GLWT) - Captivity: A yoke was placed on captives to be taken back. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (19): captivity, captive - Strongs: H1546 (גָּלוּת), H1547 (גָּלוּ)

am) lom (מאהל MAhL) - Above: KJV (138): above, upward, high, exceeding, upon, forward - Strongs: H4605 (מַעַל)

af1) elom (מאהלה MAhLH) - Ascent: A place of straight or stepped incline. KJV (47): degree, steps, dial, by, come, story, up - Strongs: H4609 (מַעֲלָה)

fm) ilo (אהלי AhLY) - Pestle: As lifted up then down to smash what is in the mortar. KJV (1): pestle - Strongs: H5940 (עֱלִי)

if1) elot (תאהלה TAhLH) - Trench: A watercourse that rises in elevation to bring down water from a higher source. KJV (11): conduit, trench, watercourse, healing, cured, river - Strongs: H8585 (תְּעָלָה)

km) lom (מאהל MAhL) - Rising: [Aramaic only] KJV (1): down - Strongs: H4606 (מֶעָל)

pm) mlo (אהלמ AhLM) - Youth: A young male at the prime age for work. KJV (2): young, stripling - Strongs: H5958 (עֶלֶם)

pf1) emlo (אהלמה AhLMH) - Youth: A young female at the prime age for work. KJV (7): virgin, maid, damsel - Strongs: H5959 (עַלְמָה)

fjm) nfilo (אהליונ AhLYWN) - High: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (57): high, upper, higher, highest, above, uppermost - Strongs: H5945 (עֶלְיוֹן), H5946 (עֶלְיוֹן)

rpm) mflo (אהלומ AhLWM) - Youth: A young male at the prime age for work. KJV (4): youth - Strongs: H5934 (עֲלוּמִים)

B) llo (אהלל AhLL) AC: Work CO: ? AB: ?: The yoke was listed up onto the shoulder of the oxen to perform work.

V) llo (אהלל AhLL) - Work: To perform a work. To work over another as a mocking or abuse. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (23): (vf: Hitpael, Hophal) glean, done, abuse, mock, affect, children, do, defiled, practice, wrought, bring, come, went - Strongs: H5953 (עָלַל), H5954 (עֲלַל)

am) llom (מאהלל MAhLL) - Works: KJV (41): doings, works, inventions, endeavors - Strongs: H4611 (מַעֲלָל)

bm) lilo (אהליל AhLYL) - Furnace: Used for working metals. KJV (1): furnace - Strongs: H5948 (עֲלִיל)

bf1) elilo (אהלילה AhLYLH) - Works: KJV (24): doing, works, deeds, occasions, actions, actions, acts, inventions - Strongs: H5949 (עֲלִלָה)

bff1) eililo (אהליליה AhLYLYH) - Works: KJV (1): work - Strongs: H5950 (עֲלִילִיָּה)

idm) lflot (תאהלול TAhLWL) - Impulse: A work performed without consideration. KJV (2): babe, delusion - Strongs: H8586 (תַּעֲלוּלִים)

H) elo (אהלה AhLH) AC: Lift CO: ? AB: ?: The lifting of the yoke onto the shoulder. One taken into exile is placed in the yoke for transport and the yoke of bondage. It was a common practice to strip the clothes off of those taken into exile.

V) elo (אהלה AhLH) - I. Rise:To go, come or bring oneself or something up. [Hebrew and Aramaic; A generic verb with a wide application meaning to lift up] [df: hlg]II. Uncover:As a lifting off of the cover. To be exposed from the removal of clothing. Also to reveal something by exposing it. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: hlg alg]KJV (1087): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Hophal, Pual, Piel) up, offer, come, bring, ascend, go, chew, offering, light, increase, burn, depart, put, spring, raise, break, exalt, uncover, discover, captive, carry away, reveal, open, captivity, show, remove, appear, brought, carry - Strongs: H1540 (גָּלָה), H1541 (גְּלָא), H5924 (עֵלָּא), H5927 (עָלָה)

Nm ) elo (אהלה AhLH) - Leaf: As high in the tree. KJV (18): leaf, branch - Strongs: H5929 (עָלֶה)

am) elom (מאהלה MAhLH) - Ascent: A place of straight or stepped incline. KJV (18): up, ascent, cheifest, cliff, hill, stairs - Strongs: H4608 (מַעֲלֶה)

ff1) eilo (אהליה AhLYH) - Loft: A room on top of the house used during hot days of summer. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (21): chamber, parlour, up, ascent, loft, chamber - Strongs: H5944 (עֲלִיָּה), H5952 (עִלִּי)

J) lfo (אהול AhWL) AC: Lift CO: Yoke AB: ?: The lifting up of the yoke upon the shoulders of the oxen.

Nm) lfo (אהול AhWL) - Yoke: [df: le] KJV (40): yoke - Strongs: H5923 (עוֹל)

Nf1 ) elfo (אהולה AhWLH) - I. Rising:A rising of smoke from a burnt offering. II. Captivity:In the sense of lifting a yoke on the shoulder. [df: hlwghlg] KJV (331): burn offering, ascent, go up, captivity, carry, captive, remove - Strongs: H1473 (גֹּלָה), H5930 (עוֹלָה)

L) loi (יאהל YAhL) AC: Lift CO: ? AB: ?

V) loi (יאהל YAhL) - Lift: KJV (23): (vf: Hiphil) profit, forward, good, profitable - Strongs: H3276 (יָעַל)

am) lofm (מואהל MWAhL) - Lift: KJV (1): lifting - Strongs: H4607 (מֹעַל)

M) lio (אהיל AhYL) AC: ? CO: Coat AB: ?: An upper garment lifted up onto the shoulders.

Nf1) elio (אהילה AhYLH) - Occasion: [Unknown connection to root; Aramaic only] KJV (3): occasion - Strongs: H5931 (עִלָּה)

fm) ilio (אהילי AhYLY) - High: [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (12): upper, high - Strongs: H5942 (עִלִּי), H5943 (עִלָּי)

km) liom (מאהיל MAhYL) - Cloak: KJV (28): robe, mantle, cloke, coat - Strongs: H4598 (מְעִיל)

Adopted Roots:

AHL Definitions Copyright: ©1999-2022
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Definition

עַל pl. const. עֲלֵי (a form peculiar to poetry, like אֱלֵי, עֲדִי) with suff. עָלַי, עָלֶיךָ, עָלָיו, עָלֶיהָ, עָלֵינוּ, עֲלֵיכֶם, עֲלֵיהֶם poet. עָלֵימוֹ (Psalms 5:12; Job 20:23).

(A) a prep. of very frequent occurrence, and of wide extent in meaning; answering to the Gr. ἐπὶ (ἀνὰ) and ὑπὲρ, Germ. auf, über, Lat. super and in, on, upon, over; the various significations of this word may be referred to four classes. It is

(1) i.q. ἐπὶ, super, auf, upon, when anything is put on the upper part of another, so as to stand or lie upon it, or have it for its substratum

(a) used of a state of rest, e.g. to lie עַל הַמִּטָּה on a bed, 2 Samuel 4:7 עֲלֵי נָתִיב on the path, Job 18:10 עַל אֲדָמָה on a country, Amos 7:17 (compare Isaiah 14:1, Isaiah 14:2), and so עַל אֶפְרַיִם on the territory of Ephraim, Isaiah 7:2 (in Germ. auf dem Felde, auf ephraimitifchem Gebiete). It is correctly used, Psalms 15:3, “he slandereth not עַל לְשֹׁנוֹ on his tongue,” (for there speech really springs up); and in like manner עַל פִּיּךָ upon thy mouth, where we should say, upon thy lips. Exodus 23:13, לֹא יִשָּׁמַע עַל פִּיךָ “let not (the name of idols) be heard on thy lips.” Ecclesiastes 5:1; Psalms 50:16 compare Gr. ἀνα στόμα ἔχειν. To the same usage belongs the phrase עַל בַּיִת on or in a house; the examples of which however may be judged of separately. Isaiah 32:13, “briers and thorns grow up עַל כָּל־בָּתֵּי מָשׂוֹשׂ in all the houses of luxury,” etc.; that is, upon their ruins, from which they spring up as from the ground. Isaiah 38:20, “we sing with stringed instruments עַל בֵּיתיְיָ “on the temple of Jehovah,” this being built upon a lofty site; so in Germ., auf der Stube, auf dem Saale, for oben in der Stube, Pol. po izbie, on the purlour, from its being higher than the ground-floor. To the examples of letter b, and below to No. 4, we should perhaps refer Hosea 11:11, “I will cause them to dwell עַל בָּתֵּיהֶם in their houses,” and Isaiah 24:22, “the prisoners are gathered together into the dungeon, and are shut up in the prison.” Similar is עַל עָפָר on the dust, not only used of the surface of the ground, but also in the grave, where the dead both lie upon the dust, and under it, Job 20:11, 21:26 see עָפָר.


(α) it is used in designating clothing which any one wears. Genesis 37:23, “the tunic אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו which he wore,” or “with which he was clad.” Exodus 28:35; Deuteronomy 7:25; 1 Kings 11:30. So should the passage be explained Job 24:9, עַל עָנִי יַחְבֹּלוּ (אֲשֶׁר) “the things which are on the poor (i.e. the garments, clothes of the poor) do they take in pledge.” Comp. גִּלָּה עַל for גִּלָּה אֶת־אֲשֶׁר עַל Lamentations 2:14, 4:22, under the word גִּלָּה No. 2. (In the same manner in Arabic they use على, see Schult. on Job 24:21 Hariri, Cons. ed. Sch. iv. page 46; also, the Gr. χειρίδες ἐπὶ χερσί, Od. xxiv. 229).-It is used

(β) to be heavy upon any one, i.e. to be troublesome to him, see כָּבֵד and Lehrg. 818. So Isaiah 1:14, הָיוּ עָלַי לְטֹרַח “they are as a burden upon me,” i.e. they are a trouble to me. Opp. to הֵקֵל מֵעַל. Hence

(γ) it denotes duty or obligation, which rests upon any one, like a burden (see my remarks on Isaiah 9:5). 2 Samuel 18:11, עָלַי לָתֵת “(it was) upon me to give (my duty).” Proverbs 7:14, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים עָלַי “thankofferings (were) upon me,” (I owed them, had vowed them). Genesis 34:12, הַרְבּוּ עָלַי מֹהַר וּמַתָּן “lay upon me never so much dowry and gift,” etc. 1 Kings 4:7; Psalms 56:13; Ezra 10:4; Nehemiah 13:13. (So the Arab. دينار عَلَىَّ الف I owe a thousand denarii, and دينار لى عليك الف thou owest me a thousand denarii; De Sacy, Gramm. Arabe 2nd edit. i. § 1062.

(δ) חָיָה עַל, Gr. ζῆν ἐπὶ τινός, e.g. עַל לֶחֶם to live on bread, Deuteronomy 8:3 עַל חַרְבּוֹ by his sword, Genesis 27:40. Life is supported and sustained by whatever עַל is thus used with, as though it were a foundation upon which it rested. Comp. Isaiah 38:16. Used figuratively

(ε) of the time when anything is done (as the things done rest upon time as a foundation or else go on in time as in a way); this usage is, however, of rare occurrence. Proverbs 25:11, עַל אָפְנָיו “in its own time,” (see אֹפֶן ); zu feiner Zeit. (So Arab. عاى عَهْدِهِ in its own time; Gr. ἐπʼ ἤματι, Od. ii. 284; ἐπὶ νυκτί, ἐπὶ πολεμοῦ; Engl. upon [on] the day; Germ. auf den Tag).

(ζ) of a rule or standard which is followed, or example which is imitated (since things to be measured or to be made according to the pattern of any thing else are laid upon the rule or standard, man legt fie auf das Mufter; comp. Gr. ἐπὶ θηρὸς, in the manner of beasts, hunc in modum; Germ. auf die Art, auf englifch, in the English manner.) Psalms 110:4, עַל דִּבְרָתִי מ׳ “after the manner of Melchizedech.” עַל כָּכָה in this manner, Esther 9:26. נִקְרָא עַל καλεῖσθαι ἐπί τινος, to be called by any one’s name (see קָרָא ). Often used of the instrument after whose modulations a song is to be sung, Psal. 8:1 45:1 53:1 60:1 69:1 also used of a song the tune or measure of which is followed by other songs, Psalms 56:1 (compare as to a similar use of the Syr. ܥܰܠ Eichhorn, Pref. to Jones de Poësi Asiat. p. xxxiii; also the Russian po tact, nach dem Tacte).

(b) used of motion upon or over the upper part of a thing or place, either downwards upon any thing from a higher place, hinab, herab auf (etwas), or upwards from a lower place, hinan auf (etwas). Of the former kind are הִשְׁלִיךְ עַל to cast upon any thing, Psalms 60:10 to ram on the earth, Job 38:26 to fall on one’s knees, Genesis 41:40 כָּתַב עַל to inscribe in a book, Exodus 34:1 נָתַן עַל יַד, נָתַן עַל יְדֵי (see יָד, letter ee ), simpl. נָתַן עַל to deliver into the hands, Isaiah 29:12, and hence figuratively צִוָּה עַל, פָּקַד עַל and other verbs of commanding, giving orders; also בּוֹא עַל to come upon any one (see בּוֹא ); also, Genesis 16:5, חֲמָסִי עָלֶיךָ “(let) my wrong (the wrong done to me) (be) upon thee;” הוֹי עַל Ezekiel 13:3 דִּבֶּר טוֹב עַל to pronounce good upon any one. Here also should the expression be referred which has been variously explained, “my soul pours itself עָלַי upon me,” i.e. being poured out into tears, it wholly covers me, as it were, with them, (überfchüttet, übergiePt mich mit Thränen), Job 30:16; Psalms 42:5. This expression is followed in others which are similar to it, as הִתְעַטְּפָת עָלַי רוּחִי Psalms 142:4, 143:4 Jonah 2:8 הָֽמְתָה עַלַי רוּחִי Psalms 42:6, Psalms 42:7, 12 Ps4 2:12 43:5. (On the other hand, there is a pregnant construction in נֶהֶפְכוּ עָלַיצִי רִים “pains are turned upon me,” i.e. come upon me; 1 Samuel 4:20; Daniel 10:16).-To the latter kind belong עָלָה עַלּ הַר to go up into a mountain, Isaiah 40:9, 14:8, 14 Isaiah 14:14הֶעֱלָה עַל הַמֶּרְכָּבָה to take (any one) up into a chariot, 1 Kings 20:33 תָּלָה עַל עֵץ to hang on a tree, Genesis 40:19; 2 Samuel 4:12 and also the phrase עָלָה עַל לֵב to come up upon the heart, and to occupy it, used of thoughts, Jeremiah 3:16, 7:31 19:5 32:35. Hence

(α) it denotes something super-added (compare Gr. μῆλος ἐπὶ μήλῳ Od. vii. 120, ἐπὶ τοῖσι, Germ. über dieP, Lat. vulnus super vulnus), as יָסַף עַל to add to any thing (see יָסַף ); נֶחְשַׁנ עַל to be reckoned to any thing, 2 Samuel 4:2 שֶׁבֶר עַל שֶׁבֶר ruin upon ruin, Jeremiah 4:20, compare Ezekiel 7:26; Job 6:16; Isaiah 32:10, יָמִים עַל שָׁנָה “(add) days to a year,” i.e. after a year and more; Genesis 28:9, “he took Mahalath … עַל נָשָׁיו unto his wives,” besides his other wives; Genesis 31:50. Where any thing is subjoined which might be a hindrance, it is

(β) notwithstanding, and when followed by an inf. although, Job 10:7, דַּעַתְךָ עַל “although thou knowest.” See below, B, No. 1.

(2) The second class comprehends those significations and phrases in which there is the idea of impending, being high, being suspended over anything, without, however, touching it; Gr. ὑπὲρ; Germ. über, above, over. It is used of rest in a place, e.g. Job 29:3, “when his light shined עֲלֵי ראֹשִׁי over my head.” Psalms 29:3, “the voice of the Lord (is heard) over the waters;” also after verbs of motion, Genesis 19:23, “the sun was risen עַל הָאָ8ָ71ר֫ץ over the earth;” Genesis 1:20; Job 31:21. Specially

(a) it is used of rule over men, as מָלַךְ עַל, מָשַׁל עַל, הִפְקִיד עַל to set over; אְשֶׁר עַל הַבַּיִת he who is over (the ruler of) the palace: (see בַּיִת No. 2 ).

(b) It is put after verbs of covering, protecting (prop. to cover over anything); see גָּנַן, כָּסָה, סָכַךְ, עָטָה and Lehrg. 818; even though the covering or vail be not above the thing, but around, or before it. Exodus 27:21, “the curtain which was above the testimony,” i.e. before the testimony. 1 Samuel 25:16, חוֹמָה הָיוּ עָלֵינוּ “they were a wall above us,” i.e. before us; they protected us; Ezekiel 13:5. After verbs which convey the idea of protecting, and also those which imply defending or interceding, it may be rendered in Latin, by pro, for (compare Gr. ἀμύνειν ὑπερ, θύειν ὑπέρ); as נִלְחַם עַל to fight for any one, Judges 9:17 עָמַד עַל id.; Daniel 12:1 כִּפֶּר עַל to make atonement for any one; עַל הִתְפַּלֵּל to intercede for any one, to avert penalty. Often

(c) it has the signification of surpassing, going beyond (compare Lat. super omnes, supra modum). Psalms 89:8 “terrible above all that are round about him.” Job 23:2, יָדִי כָּֽכְדָה עַל אַנְחָתִי “my hand (i.e. the hand of God punishing me) is heavier than my groaning;” Ecclesiastes 1:16; Psalms 137:6; Genesis 49:26. In these examples the particle עַל is nearly the same as מִן comparative (also Genesis 48:22, “I give to thee one portion of land עַל אַחֶיךָ above thy brethren,” (i.e. greater than to thy brethren); and even

(d) it is often besides, over and above. Psalms 16:2, בַּל עָלֶיךָ טוֹבָתִי; and of time, beyond; Leviticus 15:25, “if the flux continue עַל נִדָּתָהּ beyond the time of her uncleanness;” Job 21:32. Figuratively

(e) it is used of the cause, on account of which (Gr. ὑπὲρ οὗ) any thing is done. Psalms 44:23, “for thy sake (עָלֵיךָ) we are killed;” Job 34:36; Ruth 1:19 Hence עַל זֶה Lamentations 5:17 עַל זאֹת Jeremiah 4:28, and (see כֵּן ) on this account; עַל דְּבַר (propter rem); עַל אוֹדוֹת (propter causas), on account of; עַל מָה on what account? i.e. wherefore. Followed by an inf. עַל אָמְרֵךְ because thou sayest, Jerem. 2:35 Job 32:2. Often, therefore, used of the cause (as if the foundation) both of joy and sorrow (see שָׂמַח, הִתְעַנֵּג, סָפַד); of laughing and weeping (see שָׁחַק, בָּכָה ); of anger (Job 19:11); of pity (Psalms 103:13) etc.; also

(f) of the object of discourse (see דִּבֶּר, סִפֵּר also Numbers 8:22); of swearing (Levit. 5:22 ); of confession (Psalms 32:5); of prophecy (1 Kings 22:8; Isaiah 1:1); of strife (Genesis 26:21), etc.; and

(g) of the price for which any thing is done (compare Latin ob decem minas = pro decem minis); Job 13:14, עַל־מָה “at what price,” prop. “on account of what.”

(3) The third class comprehends those examples in which עַל (after verbs of rest) has the sense of neighbourhood and contiguity; Lat. ad, apud, Germ. an, beh, at, by, near; this sense however springs from the primary one of being high over, and may be reduced to that. (Compare Germ. an from ἀνὰ, Lat. apud, ant. apur, apor, i.e. ὑπέρ, Sanscr. upari.) So especially

(a) when a thing really impends over another, e.g. when one stands at a fountain (עַל עַיִן), over which one really leans, Genesis 16:7 עַל מַיִם by the water (as that is lower than the surface of the ground), Numbers 24:6 עַל הַיָּם by the sea, Exodus 14:2, Exodus 14:9עַל פִּי יְאֹר on the shore of the Nile, Isai. 19:7 (compare Gr. ἐπὶ ποταμοῦ, Lat. super fluvium, Liv. i.e. ad fluvium, Engl. upon the river, Dutch Keulen op den Rhyn, Russian pomorski maritime, pr. supermarinus); עַל הַגְּמַלִּים by the camels (while they were lying down, so that a man standing was above them), Genesis 24:30 עַל הַיַּיִן Proverbs 23:30 עַל הַמִּשְׁפָּט in judgment, pr. at the judicial board (compare super cœnam, ἐπʼ ἔργῳ), Isaiah 28:6 אֵבוּס עַל at the manger, Job 39:9 (b) or when one inclines oneself, or leans upon any thing. Isaiah 60:14, “they shall bow down עַל כַּפּוֹת רַגְלַיִךְ at the soles of thy feet.” עַל פֶּתַח at the door (i.e. leaning against it), Job 31:10. Hence

(c) like the Lat. ad latus, ad dexteram, Germ. auf der Seite, auf der rechten Seite (compare ἐπὶ δεξιά, ἐπʼ ἀριστερά, Il. vii. 238; xii. 240); at, on, the side or hand, e.g. עַל צַד at the side (see צַד ), עַל יַד at the hand (see יָד ), יְמִינוֹ עַל at his right hand, Zechariah 3:1 עַל פְּנֵי at the front, i.e. before (see פָּנִים ), עֲלֵי שִׂיחַ by the hedge (as in Germ. they say, unter dem Zaune), Job 30:4 קֶרֶת עֲלֵי near the city, Job 29:7 and even with another preposition following עַל אַחֲרֵי at the hinder part, i.q. אַחֲרֵי behind, Ezekiel 41:15 עַל לִפְנֵי Ez. 40:15. Often used of a multitude of people or soldiers attending on (standing by) a commander or king, Exodus 18:13, 14 Exodus 18:14; Judges 3:19; Job 1:16, 2:1 (compare Gr. παραστῆναι and מִמַּעַל לְ Isai. 6:2 ), also סָגַר עַל Exodus 14:3 ראֹשָׁם עַל Isaiah 35:10 and Job 26:9, פַּרְשֵׁז עָלָיו עֲנָנוֹ “he spreads out around him his clouds.” Job 13:27, 36:30.-Kindred to this is

(d) the signification of accompanying, with. Exodus 35:22, “men with (עַל) women.” Job 38:32; Amos 3:15 also used of things (von begleitenden Umftänden), e.g. עֲלֵי זֶבַה with sacrifices, Psalms 50:5 עֲלֵי נֶבֶל to the sound of the psaltery, Psalms 92:4 עֲלֵי אוֹר with the light (of the sun), Isaiah 18:4 compare אָכַל עַל הַדָּם to eat (flesh) with the blood.-Like other particles of accompanying (עִם, אֵת), it is applied

(e) to the signification of holding, possessing. Psalms 7:11, מָגִנִּי עַל אֱלֹהִים “my shield (is) with God,” i.e. God holds it. Also

(f) it is also prefixed to abstract substantives, and thus serves as a periphrasis for adverbs, as עַל שֶׁקֶר with falsehood, i.e. falsely, in a lying manner, Levit. 5:22 עַל יֶחֶר liberally, Psal. 31:24 עַל נְקַלָּה lightly, Jerem. 6:14 8:11 עַל רָצוֹן with approbation (of God), Isaiah 60:7, i.q. לְרָצוֹן Isaiah 56:7; Jeremiah 6:20 compare ἐπʼ ἶσα, i.q. ἴσως, ἐπὶ μέγα, ἐπὶ πολύ, Arab. على بيان evidently.

(4) the fourth class includes those significations and examples in which עַל denotes motion (especially when rapid), unto or towards any place, nearly approaching in signification to the particle אֶל, for which ܥܰܠ is always accustomed to be used in Syr. and Chald. This arises from the signification of rushing down upon any thing, see No. 1, letter b (rushing being more swift and rapid when downwards), and this is expressed in Greek, either by the particle ἐπὶ, or else by κατὰ (down upon any thing); especially in compound words (καθίημι) Lat. in, ad, Germ. auf (etwas) hin, auf (etwas) los, upon, to, towards. Thus עַל־פָּנָיו to his face (elsewhere פָּנָיו אֶל see פָּנִים ), Job 21:31 עַל מְקוֹמוֹ to his own place, Exodus 18:23 עַל יָמִין to the right hand, Genesis 24:49 עַל קִרְבּוֹ for אֶל קִרְבּוֹ into his inwards, i.e. into him, 1 Kings 17:21. Hence שָׁלַח יָד עַל, הָדָה to stretch out the hand to, or towards any thing (Isaiah 11:8 see שָׁלַח ), נָפַל עַל (also נָפַל אֶל) to fall away to any one; כָּתַב עַל (also כָּתַב אֶל) to write to any one, 2 Chronicles 30:1 שֹׁים לֵב עַל to turn the heart to any thing (see שִׂים ); הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה עַל to bow oneself before any one, Leviticus 26:1 and so after a verb of going (2 Samuel 15:20), of coming (ibid. verse 4), of fleeing (Isaiah 10:3), of drawing near, Ezekiel 44:20 of sending, Nehemiah 6:3 of being taken, Job 18:8 of telling, Job 36:33; Isaiah 53:1 of love (see עָגַב ) and desire, Song of Solomon 7:11. Also, 2 Samuel 14:1, לֵב הַמֶּלֶּךְ עַל אַבְשָׁלוֹם “the heart of the king (inclined) to Absalom,” i.e. he loved him. Specially it is

(a) in a hostile sense, against, upon, auf (etwas) los, über (etwas) her. Judges 16:12, פְּלִשְׁתִּים עָלֶיךָ “the Philistines (are) upon thee,” i.e. they rise against thee. Ezekiel 5:8, הִנְנִי עָלַיִךְ “behold I am against thee,” i.e. I invade thee, attack thee (elsewhere ה׳ אֵלַיִךְ), Job 16:4, Job 16:9, 10 Job 16:10, 19:12 21:27 30:12 33:10 Isaiah 9:20, 29:3 also, קוּם עַל to rise against any one; חָנָה עַל עִיר to besiege a city; סָבַב עַל to surround any one (in a hostile manner); חָשַׁב עַל to take counsel against any one, etc. More rarely

(b) in a good sense; towards, e.g. עַל עָשָׂה חֶסֶד 1 Samuel 20:8.

(c) By writers of the silver age (see the Chald.), it is not unfrequently so put for אֶל and לְ, that it is rendered in Latin by a dative. Esther 3:9, אִם עַל הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב “if it seem good to the king,” i.e. pleases him (compare Ezra 5:17); and so also not unfrequently in the book of Job, as, 33:23 עָלָיו אִם יֵשׁ i.q. אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ “if there be to him,” if he have. Job 22:2, כִּי יִסְכּוֹן עָלֵימוֹ “if he be profitable to himself;” 6:27 19:5 30:2 33:27 38:10 compare Ezekiel 27:5; Proverbs 29:5. Less correctly to this class some have referred עַל הַשָּׁמַיִם towards heaven; Exodus 9:22 עַל וְהוָֹה Isaiah 17:7 (הַר) נָהַר עַל Micah 4:1 and others of this kind, which belong to No. 1, b, latter part.

(B) Conj. for עַל אֲשֶׁר

(1) although (compare letter A, 1, b, β). Job 16:17, עַל לֹא חָמָס בְּכַפַּי “although there be no violence in my hands;” 34:6 Isaiah 53:9. (Arab. على id.; see Schult. on Job, Martini on Isa. loc. cit.).

(2) because that, because, followed by a pret. Genesis 31:20; Psalms 119:36; Ezra 3:11 more fully אֲשֶׁר עַל Deuteronomy 29:24; 2 Samuel 3:30 עַל כִּי Deuteronomy 31:17; Psalms 139:14.

It is compounded with other particles

(A) כְּעַל pr. as according to, wie es angemeffen (ift), comp. עַל A, No. 1, ζ; Isaiah 59:18, 63:7. By far the most frequent compound is

(B) מֵעַל (Arab. من على, although this is rare in Arabic, see 1 Kings 13:15, Arab. Vers.).

(1) pr. from upon, from above, used of things which go away from the place, in or upon which they had been; Germ. von oben weg, e.g. Genesis 24:46, “she alighted מֵעַל הַגָּמָל from off the camel.” Genesis 48:17, “he took the hand מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ from off his head,” on which it was placed. נָשָׂא רֹאשׁ מֵעַל פּ׳ to behead any one, Genesis 40:19. קָרָא מֵעַל סֵפֶר to read of that which is written upon the book, (compare כָּתַב עַל), Jeremiah 36:11, compare Isaiah 34:16; Amos 7:11. Judges 16:20, “Jehovah departed מֵעָלָיו from above him,” (the Spirit of God having rested upon him). Specially

(a) it is used of those who lay aside a garment, (see עַל A, No. 1, ), Genesis 38:14, 19 Genesis 38:19; Isaiah 20:2 a shoe, Joshua 5:15 who draw off a ring from the finger, Genesis 41:42 compare Deuteronomy 8:4, 29:4 whence it is used of the skin, Job 30:30, עוֹרִי שָׁחַר מֵעָלַי “my skin has become black (and falls) off from me;” verse 17 Job 30:17. Figuratively, Judges 16:19, “strength departed from off him,” (as he had been clothed with it, see לָבַשׁ ).

(b) it is used of those who remove something troubling, which had been a burden to them (see עַל No. 1, letter α, β ). Exodus 10:28, לֵךְ מֵעָלַי “depart from me,” to whom thou art troublesome and as it were a burden. Genesis 13:11, 25:6. 2 Samuel 19:10, “(David) fled out of the land מֵעַל אַבְשָׁלוֹם from Absalom,” (to whom his father began to be a trouble).

(2) from at, from by, from near anything (comp. עַל No. 3), as if de … juxta, prope. Genesis 17:22, “and Jehovah went up מֵעַל אַבְרָהָם from by Abraham.” Genesis 35:13; Numbers 16:26 hence after verbs of passing by, Genesis 18:3 removing, Job 19:13 turning oneself away, Isaiah 7:17; Jeremiah 2:5; Hosea 9:1.

(3) מֵעַל לְ nearly i.q, עַל (comp. מִתַּחַת לְ i.q. תַּחַת), above, Nehemiah 12:37 upon anything, Genesis 1:7; Ezekiel 1:25 over anything Jonah 4:6; 2 Chronicles 13:4; Nehemiah 12:31 near, by, 2 Chronicles 26:19. (Aram. ܠܥܰܠ ܡܶܢ id. Matthew 2:9.) Also, without לְ (like מִתַּחַת for מִתַּחַת לְ) above, Nehemiah 3:28. Ecclesiastes 5:7, כִּי גָבכוֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבוֹהַּ שֹׁמֵר “for one high (powerful), who is above the high, watcheth him;” i.e. there is above the most powerful, one more powerful, who takes care of him. Psal. 108:5 and with an acc. Esther 3:1 near, by, Jeremiah 36:21.

עַל Chald. with suff. עֲלוֹהִי, עֲלֵינָא, עֲלֵיהוֹן i.q. Heb.

(1) upon (auf), Daniel 2:10, 29, 46, 48, 49 3:12, etc.

(2) i.q. Hebr. No. 2, ὑπέρ; specially in the signification of surpassing, Daniel 3:19 figuratively, for, on account of, used of cause; whence עַל דְּנָה therefore, Ezra 4:15.

(3) often i.q. אֶל to some person or thing, after verbs of entering, Daniel 2:24 returning, Daniel 4:31 sending, Ezra 4:11, 17 Ezra 4:17, 18 Ezra 4:18 writing, 4:7 [but this is Heb.]; i.q. לְ the mark of the dative, Daniel 6:19, “sleep fled עֲלוֹהִי to him” (i.e. his sleep); hence טָב עַל Ezra 5:17, and שְׁפַר עַל Daniel 4:24, to seem good to some one, i.e. to please him.

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List of Word Forms
מֵעָ֑ל מעל עַל֙ עָ֔ל עָ֗ל על ‘al ‘āl Al mê‘āl mê·‘āl meAl
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for Copyright 1999-2022. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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