the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #1 - אָב
1) father of an individual
2) of God as father of his people
3) head or founder of a household, group, family, or clan
4a) grandfather, forefathers — of person
4b) of people
5) originator or patron of a class, profession, or art
6) of producer, generator (figuratively)
7) of benevolence and protection (figuratively)
8) term of respect and honour
9) ruler or chief (specifically)
1002) ba (אב AB) AC: Stand CO: Pole AB: ?: The pictograph a represents strength, the b represents the tent. Combined these mean "the strength of the house". This can be the tent poles which hold up the tent, the house, as well as the father who holds up the family, the household. (eng: pa - an exchange from a b and p and a reversal of the letters)
Nm) ba (אב AB) - I. Fruit:This word can also be fresh fruit, the father of the next generation of trees attached to the tree (pole) . [Hebrew and Aramaic] II. Father:The father of the family provides the strength, support and structure to the household. The father fulfilled many functions for the family. He was the commander of the family army, provider of offspring to continue the family line, the priest and teacher. A father can be of the immediate family or a lineage such as Jacob who is the father of the Israelites. A father can also be the patron of a profession or art. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (1229): father, chief, families, desire, patrimony, prince, principle, greenness, fruit - Strongs: H1 (אָב), H2 (אַב), H3 (אֵב), H4 (אֵב)
bm ) biba (אביב ABYB) - Green Grain: The new green ears of growing grain as the parent seeds attached to the stalk (pole) of the next generation of crops. Also Abib, the name of a month in the Hebrew calendar. KJV (8): abib, corn - Strongs: H24 (אָבִיב)
Nm) bfa (אוב AWB) - I. Wineskin:A leather bag that holds wine and is hung from the pole of the tent. II. Medium:One who evokes the dead, a ghost, possibly from their mumbling like the sound of wine poured out of the wineskin. KJV (17): bottle, familiar spirit - Strongs: H178 (אוֹב)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1 father of individual Genesis 2:24 (+ אֵם) Genesis 11:28,29 (twice in verse); Genesis 19:31,32,33, + often (mostly J E D); of father as commanding Genesis 50:16 (J) Jeremiah 35:6 f Proverbs 6:20 (compare Genesis 18:19; J Genesis 28:1,6 P 1 Samuel 17:20; 1 Kings 2:1); instructing מוסר Proverbs 1:8; Proverbs 4:1 (compare Deuteronomy 8:5); specifically as begetter, genitor Proverbs 23:22; Zechariah 13:3 (twice in verse) (+ אֵם) Isaiah 45:10; compare Genesis 49:4 (J) Leviticus 18:7,8,11 (P); rebuking Genesis 37:10; loving Genesis 37:4; Genesis 44:20 (J E; compare Genesis 22:2; Genesis 25:28; Genesis 37:3; 2 Samuel 14:1); pitying Psalm 103:13 (in simile compare 2 Samuel 18:5); blessing Genesis 27:41 (J E compare Genesis 27:4; also Genesis 28:1 P +); as glad Proverbs 10:1; Proverbs 15:20; compare Proverbs 29:3; grieving Genesis 37:35 (J E; compare 2 Samuel 12:22; 2 Samuel 19:1; 2 Samuel 19:2 f) etc. Also as object of honour, obedience, love Exodus 20:12 (E) = Deuteronomy 5:16; Exodus 21:15,17 (E) Deuteronomy 21:18,19; Genesis 28:7 (P) 1 Kings 19:20 (all + אֵם), 1 Kings 50:1; 1 Kings 50:5 (J) Malachi 1:6 etc. Hence metaphor of intimate connection Job 17:14 to corruption I cry, My father art thou ("" אִמִּי וַאֲחֹתִי לָֽרִמָּה).
2 of God as father of his people (see RS Sem 42), who constituted, controls, guides and lovingly watches over it: Deuteronomy 32:6; Jeremiah 3:4,19; Jeremiah 31:9; Isaiah 63:16 (twice in verse); Isaiah 64:7; Malachi 1:6; Malachi 2:10 (compare Exodus 4:22; Exodus 19:4 (JE) Deuteronomy 32:11; Hosea 11:1); compare Jeremiah 2:27 (of idolatrous Israel) אֹמְרִים לָעֵץ אָבִי אַתָּה וְלָאֶבֶן אַתְּ ילדתני׃; especially God as father of Davidic line 2 Samuel 7:14; Psalm 89:27; f. of needy (late) Psalm 68:6 (compare Psalm 103:13) (in proper name, f. of individual, compare below)
3 head of household, family or clan; בֵּית אָבִי as abode Genesis 38:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 22:13 +; = family Genesis 24:40 ("" מִשְׁמַּחְתִּי) Genesis 41:51; Genesis 46:31 #NAME? Numbers 18:1,2; Joshua 2:12,18; Joshua 6:25; especially techn. of divisions of Israel בֵּית אָב לְמִשְׁמָּחוֺת Numbers 3:30,35 = a father's house, i.e. a family or clan; more often plural (אבותם, אבותיו) בֵית אָבוֺת = father's houses = families, clans (compare Di on Exodus 6:14) Exodus 6:14; Exodus 12:3; Numbers 1:2,18 ff (often in Numbers) Joshua 14:1; Joshua 19:51; Joshua 21:1 (twice in verse); Joshua 22:14 (twice in verse) (always P in Hexateuch); also 1 Chronicles 5:13,15 + often in Chronicles; compare רָאשֵׁי אבות הלוים (= ׳בית א׳ר) Exodus 6:25 compare 1 Kings 8:1; 1 Chronicles 6:4; 1 Chronicles 7:11 #NAME? Ezra Nehemiah.
4 ancestor (
a) of individual; grandfather (instead of precise term) Genesis 28:13; Genesis 32:10 (J; where used by Jacob of Abraham & then of Isaac); greatgrandfather 1 Kings 15:13; great-greatgrandfather 1 Kings 15:11 etc.; oft plural (= fathers, forefathers) Genesis 15:15; Genesis 46:34 (JE) 1 Kings 19:4; 1 Kings 21:3,4; 2 Kings 19:12; 2 Kings 20:17 +; particularly שׁכב עם אבותיו 1 Kings 1:21; 1 Kings 2:10; 1 Kings 11:21; 1 Kings 22:40 +; joined with ׳ויקבר עם אב 1 Kings 14:31; 1 Kings 15:24; 1 Kings 22:51; 2 Kings 8:24; 2 Kings 15:38 compare 2 Kings 15:7,2Kings 16:20 + (all of kings of Judah); intensive, אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַאֲבוֺת אֲבֹתֶיךָ Exodus 10:6 compare Daniel 11:24; (
b) of people Genesis 10:21 (J) Genesis 17:4,5 (P) Genesis 19:37,38 (J) Genesis 36:9,43 (P) Deuteronomy 26:5; Isaiah 51:2; Isaiah 43:27 (where אביך הראשׁון thy first father, see Che) compare also Ezekiel 16:3,45 + often; plural Exodus 3:13,15,16 (E) Deuteronomy 1:8; Joshua 1:6; Judges 2:1; 1 Samuel 12:6 +; 1 Samuel 12:15 near the end read וּבְמַלְכְּכֶםᵐ5 We Dr.
5 originator or patron of a class, profession, or art Genesis 4:20,21.
6 figurative of producer, Generator Job 38:28 הֲיֵשׁ לַמָּטָר אָ֑ב ("" הוֺלִיד אֶגְלֵיטָֽֿל׃ מִיֿ).
7 figurative of benevolence & protection Job 29:6 אָב אָֽנֹכִי לָֽאֶבְיוֺנִים, compare Job 31:18; of Eliakim Isaiah 22:21; perhaps also of gracious Messianic king אֲבִי עַד Isaiah 9:5 everlasting father (Ge Ew De Che Brd Di) — others divider of spoil (Abarb Hi Kn Kue Br MP).
8 term of respect & honour ( Abbas, Pater, Papa, Pope); applied to master 2 Kings 5:13; priest Judges 17:10; Judges 18:19; prophet 2 Kings 2:12 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 6:21; 2 Kings 13:14 (twice in verse); compare 2 Kings 8:9; counsellor Genesis 45:8 (E; compare δευτέρου πατρόςᵐ5 add. Esther 3:13; τῷ πατρί 1Mac Esther 11:32); king 1 Samuel 24:12; artificer 2 Chronicles 2:12; 2 Chronicles 4:16.
9 specifically, ruler, chief (late) 1 Chronicles 2:24,42 (twice in verse); etc. (compare Ew§ 273 b) see also Ew Geschichte. i. 524. H i. 365. On the force of אָב in proper names (in many probably a divine title), see Che Ency. Bib., ABI, NAMES WITH Nö ib., NAMES, §§ 44,45.
א, Aleph, first letter; in post Biblical Hebrew = numeral 1 (and so in margin of printed MT); א֟ = 1000; no evidence of this usage in OT times.
אָב see II. אבה.
אבב ( fresh, bright, Assyrian abâbu Dl w, AGI.)
אָב construct אֲבִי, with suffix אָבִי, אָבִיךָ, אֲבִיכֶם, pl. אָבוֹת, const. אֲבוֹת, with suff. אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲבֹתַי, אֲבֹתָם and אֲבֹתֵיהֶם, m. father; a primitive noun (see note 1), common to all the Phœnicio-Shemitic languages, (Arab. أَبُ const. أَبُو, أَنىِ, أُباَ Chaldee and Syriac אַבָּא, ܙܰܒܳܙ). But the word father has often a much wider meaning (see Fesselii Adv. sacra, vi. 6); it is used:
(1) Of any ancestor (Ahn, Ahnherr, 1 Kings 15:11; 2 Kings 14:3, 15:38 16:2, etc., as of a grandfather, Genesis 28:13, 31:42 32:10 37:35 great grandfather, Numbers 18:1, Numbers 18:2; 1 Kings 15:11, 24 1 Kings 15:24, etc.; Isaiah 43:24, אָבִיךָ הָרִאשׁוֹן חָטָא collectively, “thy remotest ancestors have sinned” [this should, however, be taken strictly]. So, very often in Pl. אָבוֹת ancestors, Genesis 15:15; Psalms 45:17. As to the phrase נֶאֱסַף אֶל־אָבוֹת see under the word אָסַף.
(2) Used of the founder, or first ancestor, of a nation, Genesis 10:21, 17:4, Genesis 17:5, 19:37 36:9, 43 Genesis 36:43; Joshua 24:3. Here belongs Genesis 4:21, “the father of all who handle the harp and pipe,” i.e. the founder of the family of music; inventor of the art of music.
(3) Of the author, or maker, of anything, specially of the Creator, Job 38:28, “has the rain a father?” i.e. Creator. And in this sense God is said. to be “the father of men,” Isaiah 63:16, 64:7 Deuteronomy 32:6 [?] comp. Jeremiah 2:27. [See note 2.] All these tropical uses come from the notion of origin; there are others taken from the love and care of a father, from the honour due to him, etc. For
(4) Father is applied to a bringer up, nourisher, as bestowing his benefits like a parent, Job 29:16, “I was a father to the needy;” Psalms 68:6, “a father of the fatherless;” Isaiah 22:21, “a father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem” (said of Eliakim, the prefect of the palace); Isaiah 9:5, the Messiah is called אֲבִי עַד “eternal Father” (of the people); comp. pater patriœ in Latin [?]. By the same metaphor God is called the Father of the righteous, and of the kings of the earth, both of whom are called sons of God, 2 Samuel 7:14; 1 Chronicles 17:13, 22:10 Psalms 89:27, 28 Psalms 89:28[these passages refer to Christ the Son of God]. As it is a father’s place to instruct his children
(5) It is used of a master, or teacher, 1 Samuel 10:12 and hence, priests and prophets, as being teachers endued with divine authority, are addressed by the name of father out of respect, even by kings, 2 Kings 2:12, 5:13 [this passage does not apply]; 6:21 13:14 (comp. 8:9 ); Judges 17:10 “be unto me a father and a priest,” 18:19. So also the Rabbins were called אָבוֹת; and so, too, we should understand the titles of honour, the fathers of the church; papa, pope; most holy father, etc. [But see Matthew 23:9.] Nearly the same is
(6) Specially the father of the king, a name given to his supreme counsellor, such as the Orientals now call [وزير] Wezir, vizier; Genesis 45:8, וַיְשִׂימֵנִי לְאָב לְפַרְעֹה “he hath made me a father to Pharaoh.” So Haman is called δεύτερος πατὴρ of Artaxerxes (Esther 3:13, LXX). Compare 1Ma_11:32, and Turkish اتابك father-prince; also Lala, father, applied to the vizier; (see Jablonskii Opuscc. ed. te Water, tom. i.p. 206, and Barhebræi Chron. Syr. p. 219, line 15). The same was understood by some of the ancient interpreters, whom Luther also has followed in the word אַבְרֵךְ Genesis 41:43, which they explain, “father of the king,” or of the land, or kingdom.
(7) It is further used to express intimate connection and relationship; Job 17:14, אָבִי אַתָּה לַשַּׁחַת קָרָאתִי “I have said to the pit [rather corruption, see שַׁחַת ], thou art my father;” in the other hemistich, “and to the worms, my mother and sister.” Comp. Ps. 88:19.
(8) In Arabic and Ethiopic, the word father is also applied to a possessor, and is used of one who is endued with any thing, or excels in it; e.g. ابو شام “father of odour,” i.e. an odoriferous tree. So in Hebrew, but only in pr.n.; e.g. אַבְשָׁלוֹם “father of peace,” i.e. peaceful.
Note 1. Although this word in its grammatical form follows the analogy of verbs לה֞, so that it may be said to be for אָבֶה (Lehrg. § 118), yet it must most certainly be regarded as a primitive word; since both the words אָב father, and אֵם mother, imitate the most simple labial sounds of the infant beginning to articulate; like πάπας (παππάζω), papa, pappus, avus, Persic بابا.-For the usual const. state (the form אֲבִי), there was also anciently אַב and even אֶב (like יַד, יֶדְכֶם), though only found in compound proper names אַבְרָהָם, אַבְשָׁלוֹם, אֶבְיָתָר, although in these also we very often find the form אֲבִי, as אֲבִימֶלֶךְ, אֲבִיעֶזֶר. Once, Genesis 17:4, Genesis 17:5, in order more plainly to shew the etymology of the name אַב אַבְרָהָם is used in the text itself.
Note 2. The interpretation of this word in Job 34:36, is uncertain; אָבִי יִבָּחֵן אִיּוֹב, Vulg. pater mi probetur Jobus, etc. [“my father let Job be tried”]. But by taking אָבִי for an address to God [in the sense of § 3], the sense is weak. The Chaldee is not amiss, “I would that Job were tried,” rendering אָב or אָבֶה as signifying wish or desire, from the root אָבָה, although there is no other trace of this form. Wilmett’s conjecture [ap. H. A. Schultens] is not unsuitable, who would read אַךְ תִּבָּחֵן. [But conjecture is always unsafe ground with regard to the text of the inspired word of God. In Amer. Trans. “others not inaptly make אָבִי i.q. אֲבוֹי woe”.]
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
Copyright 1999-2023. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.