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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #07291 - רָדַף
1) to be behind, follow after, pursue, persecute, run after
1a1) to pursue, put to flight, chase, dog, attend closely upon
1a2) to persecute, harass (figuratively)
1a3) to follow after, aim to secure (figuratively)
1a4) to run after (a bribe) (figuratively)
1b1) to be pursued
1b2) one pursued (participle)
1c) (Piel) to pursue ardently, aim eagerly to secure, pursue
1d) (Pual) to be pursued, be chased away
1e) (Hiphil) to pursue, chase
V) pdr (רדפ RDP) - Pursue: To pursue in chase or persecution. KJV (143): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Pual, Piel, Participle) pursue, persecute, follow, chase, persecutors, pursuer, flight - Strongs: H7291 (רָדַף)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal128 Perfect 3 masculine singular ׳ר Judges 4:16 +; 1 singular וְרָדַפְתִּ֫י Jeremiah 29:18, etc.; Imperfect יִרְדֹּף Deuteronomy 19:6 +, ִירַדֹּף Psalm 7:6 (apparently to give choice of Qal or Pi, Ki JHMich Bae and others; Ges§ 63 n explanation as developed from יִרֲדֹף, compare Ol§ 236e, and, further, Kö i. 160), suffix יִרְ דְָּפֶ֑ךָ Ezekiel 35:6 (twice in verse), etc.; Imperative masculine singular רְדֹף Genesis 44:4 +, suffix רָדְפֵהוּ Psalm 34:15; masculine plural רִדְפוּ Judges 3:28 +; Infinitive construct רָדְפִף Joshua 8:16 +, מִרְדֹף 1 Samuel 23:28; 2 Samuel 18:16, suffix רָדְפִי Psalm 38:21 Qr, רדופי Kt, etc.; Participle רֹדֵף Judges 4:22 +, plural רֹדְפִים Judges 8:4 +; —
1. a. pursue (sometimes + הִשִּׂיג): literal with אַחֲרֵי person, in order to overtake Genesis 44:4 (J), 2 Kings 5:21; especially with hostile purpose Genesis 31:23 (+ הִדְבִּיק), Genesis 35:5; Joshua 24:6 (all E), Joshua 2:5,7 (twice in verse); Joshua 8:16 (twice in verse); Joshua 8:17; Joshua 10:19 (JE), Deuteronomy 11:4; Deuteronomy 19:6; Joshua 20:5 (all D), Exodus 14:4,8,9 (P), Judges 1:6; 2 Samuel 20:6,7,10,13; 2 Kings 9:27 17t., + 2 Kings 25:5 (אַחַר), + Judges 4:16 (אַחֲרֵי הָרֶכֶב); + רִדְפוּ אַחֲרֵי Judges 3:28 = follow me (as leader; but this meaning not elsewhere; read רְדוּᵐ5 Kit GFM).
b. literal, with accusative of person, put to flight, chase (defeated foe; sometimes with הִשִּׁיג): Amos 1:11; Hosea 8:3; Deuteronomy 32:30 (poem; "" הֵנִיס), Deuteronomy 28:22,45; Joshua 23:10 (D), Leviticus 26:8 (twice in verse) (H); וְרָדַף אֹתָם קוֺלעָלֶה נִדָּף Leviticus 26:36 a (H); Joshua 7:5; Joshua 8:24; Joshua 10:10; Joshua 11:8 (all J E), Genesis 14:15; Deuteronomy 1:44; Judges 4:22; Isaiah 41:3 13t. + Judges 7:25 (read אֶתֿ for אֶלֿ, ᵐ5ᵑ9 ᵑ7 GFM Bu Now).
c. literal, accusative omitted Judges 8:4; 1 Samuel 30:8 (+ הִשִּׂיג), 1 Samuel 30:10; Genesis 14:14; Exodus 14:23 (P), Exodus 15:9 (poem; + הִשִּׂיג), Leviticus 26:36b. 37 (H), Proverbs 28:1; especially participle plural ׳הָר the pursuers Joshua 2:16 (twice in verse); Joshua 2:22 (twice in verse); Nehemiah 9:11; Isaiah 30:16, so הָרֹדֵף Joshua 8:20; Lamentations 1:6.
d. chase, hunt, partridge (קֹרֵא) 1 Samuel 26:20 (in simile; "" בִּקֵּשׁ).
e. pursue, in figure, Jeremiah 20:11; Lamentations 4:19, רִדְפוּ וְתִפְשׂוּהוּ Psalm 71:11, compare Lamentations 1:3; Psalm 7:6 (+ הִשִּׂיג; see above); especially subject ׳י, pursue (figurative of punishment, judgment), with accusative of person Jeremiah 29:18 (בַּחֶרֶב), Lamentations 3:43 and (בְּאַף) Lamentations 3:66, Psalm 83:16 (בְּסַעֲרֶ֑ךָ); אֶתקַֿשׁ יָבֵשׁ תִּרְדֹּף Job 13:25 ("" תַּעַרוֺץ); רֹדְפָם, of ׳מַלְאַךְ י, Psalm 35:6.
f. figurative persecute, harass, with accusative of person Deuteronomy 30:7; Job 19:22 (כְּמוֺאֵֿל), Psalm 69:27; Psalm 109:16; Psalm 119:86; Psalm 119:161; with accusative נַפְשִׁי Psalm 143:3, with accusative נֲדִבָתִי Job 30:15 (but subject obscure; read perhaps תֵּרָדֵף Bu; Du תִּנָּדֵף); with ל person Job 19:28; participle as substantive Jeremiah 15:15; Jeremiah 17:18; Psalm 7:2; Psalm 31:16 ("" אוֺיְבַי; We מְרַדְּפָ֑י for וַרֹדְפָ֑י), Psalm 35:3; Psalm 119:84; Psalm 119:157 (+ צָרַי), Psalm 142:7.
g. pursue, dog, subject דָּם, with accusative of person Ezekiel 35:6 (twice in verse) (del v a ᵐ5 Co Toy Krae); in good sense, attend closely upon, טוֺב וָחֶסֶדיִרְדְּפוּנִי Psalm 23:6.
2 figurative follow after, aim to secure: in bad sense, with accusative שַׁלְמֹנִים Isaiah 1:23, שֵׁכָר Isaiah 5:11, קָדִים׳ר Hosea 12:2, רֹדְפֵי זִמָּה Psalm 119:150; good sense, with infinitive ׳לְדַעַת אֶתיֿ Hosea 6:3, with accusative צֶדֶק Deuteronomy 16:20; Isaiah 51:1 ("" ׳מְבַקְשֵׁי י), צְדָקָה וָחָ֑סֶד Proverbs 21:21, שָׁלוֺם Psalm 34:15 ("" בַּוֵּשׁ), טוֺב Psalm 38:21.
Niph`al passive: Perfect 1 plural עַלצַֿוָּארֵנוּ נִרְדָּ֑פְנוּ Lamentations 5:5 upon our neck (i.e. closely) we are pursued (improbable, compare Bu); perhaps Imperfect 3 feminine singular תֵּרָדֵף Job 30:15 Bu (for תִּרְדֹּף); Participle ׳איְבַקֵּשׁ אֶתנִֿרְדָּ֑ף Ecclesiastes 3:15 God seeketh the pursued (i.e. what has disappeared, is past, but dubious).
Pi`el Perfect 3 feminine singular consecutive וְרִדְּפָה Hosea 2:9; Imperfect 3 masculine singular יְרַדֶּףֿ Nahum 1:8 ( Psalm 7:6 see
Qal); 3 feminine singular תְּרַדֵּף Proverbs 13:21; Participle מְרֵדֵּףֿ Proverbs 11:19 +; — pursue ardently, with accusative of person Hosea 2:9 (in figurative); figurative also חשֶׁךְ׳יְר Nahum 1:8 (Gunk ZAW xiii (1893), 230, plausibly, יֶהְדֹּף), compare Proverbs 13:31; elsewhere participle, in Proverbs: aim (eagerly) to secure, with accusative רָעָה Proverbs 11:19, רֵיקִים Proverbs 12:11; Proverbs 28:19, אֲמָרִים Proverbs 19:7 (meaning dubious, see Toy); in good sense, צְדָקָה Proverbs 15:9.
Pu`al Perfect 3 masculine singular consecutive וְרֻדַּף כְמֹץ הָרִים Isaiah 17:13 it shall be chased away like chaff of the mountains ("" וְנָס).
Hiph`il Perfect 3 masculine singular suffix הִרְּדִיפֻהוּ Judges 20:43 usually they chased him (Benjamin, collective), but strange after כִתְּרוּ surrounded (still stranger after כתתו or כרתוᵐ5), and why Hiph`il? GFM conjecture dittograph of הִדְרִיכֻהוּ following; the reverse conjectured by Bu Now.
רָדַף fut. יִרְדֹּף
(1) to follow after earnestly, to pursue; followed by an acc., Psalms 23:6 and אַחֲרֵי Judges 3:28, רִדְפוּ אַחֲרַי “follow after me quickly.” Figuratively to follow after, e.g. righteousness, Proverbs 21:21 peace, Psalms 34:15 (also wickedness, Psalms 119:150); the wind, Hosea 12:2.
(2) to persecute in a hostile sense; Absol. Genesis 14:14 followed by an acc., verse 15 Genesis 14:15 followed by אַחֲרֵי Genesis 35:5; Exodus 14:4 אֶל Judges 7:25 לְ Job 19:28.
(3) to put to flight, Leviticus 26:36.
Niphal, pass. of Kal, Lamentations 5:5. Part, נִרְדָּף Ecclesiastes 3:15, that which is past; pr. driven away, chased away.
Piel, i.q. Kal; but only used in poetry.
(1) to follow after any one, Proverbs 12:11, 28:19 justice, Proverbs 15:9, 19:7, “he pursues words,” i.e. (the poor man) catches at the words of retiring friends, and trusts in them.
(2) to persecute in a hostile manner, Nahum 1:8; Proverbs 13:21.
Pual, to be driven away, to be scattered, Isaiah 17:13.
Hiphil, to pursue, Judges 20:43.