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Bible Encyclopedias

International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

Pestilence

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pes´ti - lens ( דּבר , debher ; λοιμός , loimós ): Any sudden fatal epidemic is designated by this word, and in its Biblical use it generally indicates that these are divine visitations. The word is most frequently used in the prophetic books, and it occurs 25 times in Jeremiah and Ezekiel, always associated with the sword and famine. In 4 other passages it is combined with noisome or evil beasts, or war. In Amos 4:10 this judgment is compared with the plagues of Egypt, and in Habakkuk 3:5 it is a concomitant of the march of God from the Arabian mountain. There is the same judicial character associated with pestilence in Exodus 5:3; Exodus 9:15; Leviticus 26:25; Numbers 14:12; Deuteronomy 28:21; 2 Samuel 24:21; 1 Chronicles 21:12; Ezekiel 14:19 , Ezekiel 14:21 . In the dedication prayer of Solomon, a special value is besought for such petitions against pestilence as may be presented toward the temple (2 Chronicles 6:28 ). Such a deliverance is promised to those who put their trust in God (Psalm 91:6 ). Here the pestilence is called noisome, a shortened form of "annoysome," used in the sense of "hateful" or that which causes trouble or distress. In modern English it has acquired the sense of loathsome. "Noisome" is used by Tyndale where the King James Version and the Revised Version (British and American) have "hurtful" in 1 Timothy 6:9 .

The Latin word pestilentia is connected with pestis , "the plague," but pestilence is used of any visitation and is not the name of any special disease; debher is applied to diseases of cattle and is translated "murrain."

In the New Testament pestilence is mentioned in our Lord's eschatological discourse (Matthew 24:7 the King James Version; Luke 21:11 ) coupled with famine. The assonance of loimós and limós in these passages (loimos is omitted in the Revised Version (British and American) passage for Mt) occurs in several classical passages, e.g. Herodotus vii. 171. The pestilence is said to walk in darkness ( Psalm 91:6 ) on account of its sudden onset out of obscurity not associated with any apparent cause.

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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Pestilence'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/p/pestilence.html. 1915.

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