the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #7306 - רוּחַ
1) (Hiphil) to smell, scent, perceive odour, accept
1a) of horse
1b) of delight (metaphorically)
1445) hr (רהה RHh) AC: Travel CO: Path AB: ?: The pictograph r is a picture of the head of a man, the h is a picture of wall that separates the inside from the outside. Combined these mean "man outside". The responsibilities of the nomad outside of the tent include the feeding, watering and caring for the livestock. Livestock are healthier and more productive when on a routine, therefore the man follows a routine or "a prescribed path" each day when caring for his livestock. (eng: reek)
H) ehr (רההה RHhH) AC: ? CO: Millstone AB: ?: The ancient hand mill consisted of two round stones, called millstones, the top was turned on top of the other to grind the grain. This top stone always followed the same path on top of the other.
J) hfr (רוהה RWHh) AC: Refresh CO: Wind AB: ?: The Hebrew nomads were very familiar with the wind patterns as they would follow a prescribed path indicating the coming season. From this word comes the idea of breath as it is the wind of man which also follows a prescribed path of inhaling and exhaling.
V) hfr (רוהה RWHh) - I. Refresh:To be given a fresh wind. II. Smell:As carried on the wind. III. Spacious:To be wide with space. KJV (14): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Pual, Participle) smell, touch, understanding, accept, refresh, large - Strongs: H7304 (רָוַח), H7306 (רוּחַ)
Nf) hfr (רוהה RWHh) - Wind: Also the wind of man or god, the breath. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (380): spirit, wind, breath, side, mind, blast, vain, air, anger, cool, courage, space, enlargement - Strongs: H7305 (רֶוַח), H7307 (רוּחַ)
- A2112 Krd (Tread, Road)
- A2135 Hrz (Rise, Dawn)
- A2473 Rhx (Trade, Merchandise)
- A2769 Bkr (Ride, Chariot)
- A2770 Lkr (Trade)
- A2882 Qrs (Whistle, Flute)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
רוּחַ fem. (more rarely m., 1 Kings 19:11), pl. רוּתוֹת, רֻחוֹת Jeremiah 49:36.
(1) spirit, breath
(a) breath of the mouth, Hauch des Mundes, fully, רוּחַ פֶּה Psalms 33:6 (here spoken of the creative word of God), רוּחַ שְׂפָתַיִם Isaiah 11:4. Hence used of any thing quickly perishing, like syn. הֶבֶל Job 7:7; Psalms 78:39. Often used of the vital spirit (Athem), Job 17:1, 19:17 Psalms 135:17 more fully, רוּחַ חַיִּים Genesis 6:17, 7:15, 22. הֵשִׁיב רוּחַ to return the breath, to respire, Job 9:18 compare No. 2.
(b) breath of the nostrils, snuffing, snorting, Job 4:9; Psalms 18:16 Hence anger (compare אַף from אָנַף to breathe), Judges 8:3; Isaiah 25:4, 30:28 Zechariah 6:8; Proverbs 16:32, 29:11.
(c) breath of air, air in motion, i.e. breeze, Job 41:8 שָׁאַף רוּחַ to snuff up the breeze, Jeremiah 2:24, 10:14 14:6 רוּחַ הַיּוֹם the breeze of the day, i.e. the evening, when a cooler breeze blows, Genesis 3:8 compare Song of Solomon 2:17, 4:6 (Arab. رَوَاحُ evening, راح to do at evening). It is more often the wind, Genesis 8:1; Isaiah 7:2, 41:16 a storm, Job 1:19, 30:15 Isaiah 27:8, 32:2. The air was supposed to be put in motion by a divine breath (see Exodus 15:8; Job 15:30), and therefore the wind is called רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים the blast of God, 1 Kings 18:12; 2 Kings 2:16; Isaiah 40:7, 59:19 Ezekiel 3:14, 11:24 (not Genesis 1:2 see No. 4) [it is clear that all these passages alike speak of the Spirit of God himself, and not of any wind supposed to be moved by the breath of God]. Wings are poetically ascribed to the wind, Psalms 18:11, 104:3 Hosea 4:19 compare Ovid, Met., i. 264.
Wind is also used
(aa) of a quarter of heaven. Compare רוּחַ הַקָּדִים the eastern quarter, Ezekiel 42:16, 17 Ezekiel 42:17 comp. 18 Ezekiel 42:18, 19 Ezekiel 42:19אַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת the four quarters of heaven, 37:9 1 Chronicles 9:24.
(bb) of any thing vain, Isaiah 26:18, 41:29 Micah 2:11. דִּבְרֵי רוּחַ vain words, Job 16:3. דַּעַת רוּחַ vain knowledge, 15:2 רְעוּת רוּחַ, רַעֲיוֹן vain desire (comp. Gr. ἀέρα τύπτειν, Il. xx. 446; εἰς ἀέρα λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 14:9), see רְעוּת, רַעֲיוֹן.
(2) i.q. נֶפֶשׁ No. 2, ψυχή, anima, breath, life, the vital principle, which shews itself in the breathing of the mouth and nostrils (see No. 1, a, b, whether of men or of beasts, Ecclesiastes 3:21, 8:8 12:7. Hence there is said חַיֵּי רוּחִי the life of my spirit (my life), Isaiah 38:16 חָֽיְתָה רוּחִי Genesis 45:27 and שָׁבָה רוּחִי my spirit, life, returns, Judges 15:9; 1 Samuel 30:12, i.e. I revive. אֵין רוּחַ בּוֹ “there is no spirit in it,” prop. said of dead and inanimate things, Ezekiel 37:8; Habakkuk 2:19 and metaph. used of any one stupified with astonishment and admiration, 1 Kings 10:5. Sometimes the human spirit is called also רוּחַ אֱלוֹהַּ Job 27:3, as being breathed into man by God, and returning to him, Genesis 2:7; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Psalms 104:29 comp. Numbers 16:22. Twice in prophetic visions, spirit is used of a certain divine and miraculous power by which things otherwise inanimate are moved, Ezekiel 10:17; Zechariah 5:9. [These passages do not apply; the Spirit of God is spoken of in the one, and the wind in the other.]
(3) animus, i.q. נֶפֶשׁ No. 3, the rational mind or spirit
(a) as the seat of the senses, affections, and emotions of various kinds. Proverbs 25:28, “a man who does not rule רוּחוֹ his affections,” or spirit, Genesis 41:8, “his mind was agitated,” hither and thither; Daniel 2:1 to this is ascribed both patience (אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ Ecclesiastes 7:8) and impatience (קֹצֶר רוּחַ which see); and fear (Isaiah 61:3); and strength of the mind (Joshua 2:11, 5:1 comp. Habakkuk 1:11; Isaiah 19:13); and pride (גְּבַהּ רוּחַ, גָּבַהּ), and a quiet lowly mind (see קַר and שָׁפָל ), affliction, Genesis 26:25; Isaiah 65:14; Psalms 34:19.
(b) as to the mode of thinking and acting, in which sense there is attributed to any one a stead-fast mind (Psalms 51:12); manly (Proverbs 18:14); faithful (Proverbs 11:13; Psalms 32:2); and new and better, Ezekiel 11:19, 18:31, etc. It is sometimes used of a spirit or disposition common to many, as רוּחַ זְנוּנִים (propensio ad scortationes, Geift der Hureren), Hosea 4:12 רוּהַ עִוְעִים Isaiah 19:14 רוּחַ תַּרְדֵמָה 29:10 and such disposition (such a spirit) is said to be divinely given to men, and to be poured upon them from heaven, compare Ezekiel 36:26, 27 Ezekiel 36:27. Similar is Isaiah 28:6, “Jehovah shall be לרוּחַ מִשִׁפָּט ליּוֹשֵׁב על חַמִּשְׁפָּט,” i.e. he will, as it were, fill all the judges with a spirit of justice.
(c) of will and counsel, hence חֵעִיר אֶת־רוּחַ פּ׳ to stir up any one’s spirit to any thing, 1 Chronicles 5:26; 2 Chronicles 21:16, 36:22 Ezra 1:1; Haggai 1:14; Ezra 1:5 and in a sense not very different נָתַן רוּחַ בפ׳ to put an intention into any one, 2 Kings 19:7 נָֽדְבָה רוּחַ פּ׳ whose mind, will, impels him, Exodus 35:21 whence רוּחַ נְדְיבָה Psalms 51:14 and then עָלָה עַל רוּחַ, i.q. עָלָה עַל לֵב to arise into the mind and to occupy the mind (as any counsel), Ezekiel 20:32.- 1 Chronicles 28:12, “a pattern of all things, אֲשֶׁר הָיָה בָרוּחַ עִמּוֹ that he had in his mind” [surely The Spirit here must be the Spirit of God]. More rarely
(d) it is applied to the intellect, Exodus 28:3; Job 20:3, 32:8, 18 Job 32:18; Isaiah 29:24, 40:13 Psalms 139:7. [These two last passages, and, perhaps, more, belong to the Holy Ghost, and not to intellect.]
(4) רוּהַ הָאֱלֹהִים, רוּחַ יְהֹוָה the Spirit of God, rarely רוּחַ קֹדֶשׁ יְיָ the Holy Spirit of God (always with suff. רוּח קָדְשְׁךָ Psalms 51:13; Isaiah 63:11, 12 Isaiah 63:12), more rarely κατʼ ἐξοχὴν הָרוּחַ Numbers 27:18; Hosea 9:7 the divine power, which, like the wind and the breath, cannot be perceived, and by which animated beings live, Job 27:3, 33:4 Psalms 104:29 compare Genesis 6:3 by which all the universe is animated, filled with life and governed (ζωοποιεῖται), Genesis 1:2; Psalms 33:6; Job 26:13; Isaiah 34:16 by which men are led to live both wisely (Job 32:8) and honestly, Psalms 51:13, 143:10 [These various things said by Gesenius must be taken as a defective designation of the Holy Ghost himself.] Especially the Old Testament refers to the divine Spirit, peculiar endowments of mind, as that of an artificer, Exodus 31:3, 35:31 of a prophet, Numbers 24:2; 1 Samuel 10:6, 10 1 Samuel 10:10, 19:20, 23 1 Samuel 19:23; Isaiah 42:1, 59:21 (whence אִישׁ רוּחַ used of a prophet, Hosea 9:7 and הָרוּחַ as a personification of the prophetic Spirit, 1 Kings 22:21; 2 Chronicles 18:20); of an interpreter of dreams, Genesis 41:38 also the courage of a military leader, Judges 3:10, 6:34 11:29 13:25 and kingly virtues, Isaiah 11:2, seqq.; and the same Spirit is given to some and taken away from others (1 Samuel 16:13, 14 1 Samuel 16:14), is transferred from one to another (Numbers 11:17; 2 Kings 2:15); but in the golden age [the reign of the Messiah] it is to be conferred upon all men, according to Joel 3:1; Isaiah 44:3, 59:21. It is sometimes put in opposition to בָּשָׂר Isaiah 31:3; Zechariah 4:6 see בָּשָׂר No. 2.
רוּחַ Chald. i.q. Hebr.
(1) wind; pl. const. Daniel 7:2.
(2) mind, Daniel 5:20.
(3) the Spirit (of God), Daniel 4:5, 5:12.
Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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