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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #5894 - עִיר
1) waking, watchful, wakeful one, watcher, angel
1365) ro (אהר AhR) AC: Bare CO: Skin AB: ?: The pictograph o is a picture of the eye, the r is a picture of a man. Combined these mean "see a man". When the enemy is captured, he is stripped of his clothes to the skin and carefully watched.
V) ero (אהרה AhRH) - I. Uncover:To remove the covering. II. Empty:To remove the contents of a container or destroy a city. KJV (15): (vf: Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) uncover, discover, empty, rase, destitute, naked, pour, spread - Strongs: H6168 (עָרָה)
Nm) rfo (אהור AhWR) - Skin: The skin of men or animals as well as leather made from animal skins. Also the husk of a seed. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (100): skin, hide, leather, chaff - Strongs: H5784 (עוּר), H5785 (עוֹר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
עִיר pr. i.q. עוּר to be hot, ardent (heiP, hiPig fehn); Arabic عار Med. Waw, to be hot (as the day), and causat. (for הֵעִיר) to make hot, to heat (heizen). Hosea 7:4, of a baker, יִשְׁבֹּת מֵעִיר וְגו׳ “he leaves off heating (his oven) after the kneading until it be leavened.” The notion of being hot is applied in various ways:
(1) to an ardent rapid course, or running (Arab. غار IV. to run swiftly, of a horse; عار Med. Ye, to run away, breaking the reins, as a horse, compare דָּלַק No. 2); whence עַיִר a wild ass, so called from its rapid unrestrained running.
(2) it is applied to the heat of anger, an ardent attack upon the enemies (comp. غار Conj. I. III. IV. to rush upon enemies, and غار Med. Ye, to be incensed with jealousy). See עִיר No. 2, and עָר an enemy.
(3) to heat of mind, terror (compare דָּלַק No. 3). See subst, עִיר No. 3.
(4) perhaps also to a great crowd of men, as places which are much frequented and thronged by men are called hot (Schrœder, Or, Heb. page 26); comp. غار a crowd of men, غَارَةُ an army. Hence several (as Schrœder, loc. cit.) derive
עִיר [In Thes. from עוּר I.], f. (Joshua 10:2), plur. once עֲיָרִים Judges 10:4 (on account of the paronomasia, see עַיִר ), elsewhere עָרִים (from the sing. עָר)
(1) a city, a town, said to be so called from being frequented by people (see the root No. 4); I would rather take עִיר as being nearly the same as קִיר No. 2, and the Gr. τεῖχος a place fortified with a wall. For this word also included camps, and also small fortified places, as towers, watch-towers. What the extent of its signification is, may be learned from the following places. Numbers 13:19, “and what the cities are in which they (the people) dwell, הַבְּמַחֲנַיִם אִם בְּמִבְצָרִים whether (they dwell) in camps, or in fenced cities?” 2 Kings 17:9, “and they built for themselves high places in all the cities עַד עִיר מִבְצָר מִמִּגְדַּל נֹצְרִים from the tower of the watchmen unto the fenced city.”-Jerusalem is called עִיר אֱלהִים the city of God, Psalms 46:5, 87:3 Isaiah 60:14 עִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ the holy city, Nehemiah 11:1; Isaiah 52:1; Daniel 9:24 (πόλις ἁγία, Matthew 27:53); עִיר וְהוּדָה the (capital) city of Judah, 2 Chronicles 25:28 also κατʼ ἐξοχὴν, הָעִיר Ezekiel 7:23, and עִיר Isaiah 66:6 (this latter in another context is also used of Nineveh, the enemies’ metropolis, Isaiah 32:19).-Followed by a genit. of pers. the city of any one is his native city, or the one in which he dwells, Genesis 24:10, עִיר נָחֹר “the city of Nahor,” i.e. Haran, in which Nahor dwelt; 1 Samuel 20:6, compare in New Test. πόλις Δαβίδ, i.e. Bethlehem, Luke 2:4, and πόλις αὑτῶν (of the parents of Jesus) Ναζαρέτ, Luke 2:39, and also a similar idiom is noticed under the words אֶרֶץ, עָם; followed by a genit. of another city, it is used of the circumjacent towns or villages (elsewhere called בְּנֹות הָעִיר), as עָרֵי חֶשְׁבֹּון the towns and villages near Heshbon, Joshua 13:17 עָרֵי עֲרֹעֵר Isaiah 17:12.-Sometimes also parts of cities are called cities (comp. Germ. Altftadt, Neuftadt, and πόλις, in Passow). Thus עִיר הַמַּיִם 2 Samuel 12:27, the city, of waters, part of the city of Rabbah, 2 Kings 10:25, עיר בֵּית הַבַּעַל a part of Samaria, so called from the temple of Baal, probably fortified by a separate wall (see above as to the etymology).-The following appears to be said proverbially, Ecclesiastes 10:15, “the labour of the foolish wearies him, because he does not know how לָלֶכֶת אֶל־עִיר to go to the city,” i.e. he cannot find his way to the city, an expression taken from a rustic and ignorant traveller, who would err even in the most beaten way. Compare Germ. er weiß fich nicht zu finden, spoken of an ignorant and slow-minded man.
Proper names of towns are
(a) עִיר הַמֶּלַח (“city of salt”), in the desert of Judah, near the Dead Sea, Joshua 15:62.
(b) עִיר נָחָשׁ (“city of serpents”), [Ir-nahash], the site of which is not known, 1 Chronicles 4:12.
(c) עִיר שֶׁמֶשׁ (“city of the sun”), [Irshemesh], in the tribe of Dan, Joshua 19:41.
(d) עִיר הַתְּמָרִים (“city of palm-trees”), i.q. יְרִיחוֹ Jericho, so called from the multitude of palms growing there (see Plin. H. N. v. 14; Tacit. Hist. v. 6), Deuteronomy 34:3; Judges 1:16; 2 Chronicles 28:15. As to עִיר הַהֶרֶס, see under the word הֶרֶס.
Proper name of a man is עִיר [Ir], 1 Chronicles 7:12, for which there is, verse 1 Chronicles 7:7, עִירִי.
(2) heat of anger, anger, see the root No. 2, Hosea 11:9, לֹא אָבוֹא בְּעִיר “I will not come with anger;” perhaps also Psalms 73:20.
(3) fear (see the root No. 3). Jeremiah 15:8 הִפַּלְתִּי עָלֶהָ פִּתְאֹם עִיר וּבֶהָלוֹת. LXX. ἐπέῤῥιψα ἐπʼ αὐτὴν ἐξαίφνης τρόμον καὶ σπουδήν.
עִיר . Chald. m. (from the root עוּר) a guard, a watcher, a name of angels in the later Hebrew, from their guarding the souls of men [?], Daniel 4:10, 14, 20. (Used also in the Syriac liturgies of archangels, as of Gabriel; elsewhere ܥܺܝܪܝܺܢ and Gr. Ἐγρήγοροι of evil angels. See the Book of Enoch, i. 6. Suiceri Thes. Eccl. v. ἐγρήγορος. Castelli Lexicon Syr. ed., Mich. p. 649.)
the Week of Proper 9 / Ordinary 14