the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #5048 - נֶגֶד
1) what is conspicuous, what is in front of (substantive)
2) in front of, straight forward, before, in sight of (adverb)
3) in front of oneself, straightforward (adverb)
4) before your face, in your view or purpose (adverb)
5) what is in front of, corresponding to (with preposition)
6) in front of, before (with preposition)
7) in the sight or presence of (with preposition)
8) parallel to (with preposition)
9) over, for (with preposition)
10) in front, opposite (with preposition)
11) at a distance (with preposition)
12) from the front of, away from (preposition)
13) from before the eyes of, opposite to, at a distance from (preposition)
14) from before, in front of (preposition)
15) as far as the front of (preposition)
V) dcn (נגד NGD) - Tell: To give an account to another. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (371): (vf: Hiphil, Hophal, Participle) tell, declare, show, utter, expound, messenger, report, issue - Strongs: H5046 (נָגַד), H5047 (נְגַד)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
preposition in front of, in sight of, opposite to, נֶ֑גֶד, construct נֶגֶד, suffix נֶגְדִּי Psalm 38:11 +, נֶגְדְּךָ Psalm 38:10 +, etc.; with ה locative נֶ֫גְדָּה Psalm 116:14; Psalm 116:18; —
1 as adverb accusative in front of,
a. locally (rather stronger and distincter than לִפְנֵי), ( a) Genesis 31:32 נֶגֶד אַחֵינוּ הַכֶּרנָֿא in front of our brethren own it, now, Genesis 31:37; Genesis 47:15 ולמה נמותנגדך why should we die in thy sight ? Exodus 19:2 Israel encamped נגד ההר in front of the mountain, Exodus 34:10 נגד כלעֿמך אעשׂה נִפְלָאֹת, before, in sight of, all thy people (compare Psalm 78:12), Joshua 3:16 the people passed over נגד ירחו in front of J., 1 Kings 20:27, etc.; Nehemiah 3:23 in front of their house, Nehemiah 3:29; נגד (כלׅישׂראל Deuteronomy 31:11; Joshua 8:35 = 1 Samuel 15:30; 2 Samuel 12:12 +; 1 Kings 21:13 set Naboth נֶגֶד הָעָם; ׳נגד י 1 Samuel 12:3; 1 Samuel 16:6 מְשִׁיחוֺ׳אַךְ נֶגֶד י, so נֶגְדִּי Psalm 89:37, נֶגְדּוֺ Psalm 18:13; נגדהשׁמשׁ Numbers 25:4; 2 Samuel 12:12; Psalm 22:26 יראיו׳נ, Psalm 52:11 (so in poetry נֶגְדָּה לְ Psalm 116:14; Psalm 116:18); hostilely, Job 10:17; with collateral idea of to the mortification of, Psalm 23:5; Psalm 31:20, compare Joel 1:16; with collateral idea of being open or known to, Proverbs 15:11 ׳שׁאול ואבדון נגד י, Job 26:6; Psalm 38:10 נגדך כלתֿאותי "" (ממך לא נסתרהׅ, Psalm 69:20 ("" יָדַעְתָּ), Psalm 119:168; Isaiah 59:12; so נֶגֶד מָּנַי הָיוּ Hosea 7:2. ( b) with reflexive suffix, and verb of motion, to go in front of oneself, i.e. straightforward, Joshua 6:5 ועלו העם אישׁנגדו each straightforward, Joshua 6:20; Amos 4:3; Jeremiah 31:29; Nehemiah 12:37, compare Proverbs 4:25.
b. mentally, = vividly present to, Psalm 38:18 ומכאובי נגדי תמיד, Psalm 44:16; Psalm 51:5 וחטאתי נגדי תמיד, Psalm 109:15 ׳י׳נ (remembered by): nearly = בְּעֵינָיו, כְּאַיִן נֶגְדּוֺ Isaiah 40:17; Psalm 39:6; so ׳וְנמְּנֵיהֶם נְבוֺנִים Isaiah 5:21. But Exodus 10:10 כי רעה נגד פניכם before your face is = in your view, or purpose (compare לא אשׁית לְנֶגֶד עֵינַי דברבֿליעל Psalm 101:3).
2 With prepositions:
a.כְּנֶגֶד according to what is in front of = corresponding to, Genesis 2:18 I will make him עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֺ a help corresponding to him i.e. equal and adequate to himself, Genesis 2:20 among the animals there was no עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֺ. ** Note that in Late Hebrew מכנגד = in front of, Ber 4:5; 9:5; Ab 2:10, מכנגד פני Git 7:7 and elsewhere.
b.לְנֶגֶד in front of, before, Genesis 33:12 וְֵאלְכָה לְנֶנְדֶּ֑ךָ, Numbers 22:32; 2 Kings 1:13 fell on his knees לנגד אליהו, Isaiah 1:7 your ground לנגדכם זרים אֹכלים אותהּ; with עָמַד Joshua 5:13; Daniel 8:15; Daniel 10:16, in a hostile sense Daniel 10:13, compare Proverbs 21:30; in the sight or presence of, Habakkuk 1:3 וְשֹׁד וְחָמָס לְנֶגְדִּי, Psalm 39:2 בעוד רשׁע לנגדי, Psalm 50:8 ועולֹתיך לנגדי תמיד, Nehemiah 3:37; opposite to (probably of opposite choirs), Nehemiah 12:9,24; = parallel to, 1 Chronicles 5:11; = over, for, a business (peculiar) Nehemiah 11:22; figurative of what is visible morally, Psalm 18:23 כי כל משׁפטיו לנגדי ("" לֹא אָסִיר מֶנִּי), with to set or place Psalm 16:8; Psalm 54:5 לא שׂמו אלהים לנגדם (compare Psalm 86:14,), Psalm 90:8; often in the phrase לְנֶגֶד עֵינֵי ֗֗֗ , both literal, as Job 4:16 תְּמוּנָהעֵינָ֑י ׳לנ, Psalm 5:6 עיניך׳לא יתיצבו הוללים לנ (compare Psalm 101:7); and in a moral sense, Psalm 18:25 עיניו׳כְּבֹר ידי לנ, Psalm 26:3 עיני׳כי חסדך לנ i.e. is ever present to my mind, Psalm 36:2 עיניו׳אין פחד אלהים לנ i.e. he has no eye to discern God's awe-inspiring judgments (compare Psalm 10:5); with לא אשׁית i.e. have in view, purpose ("" שׂנאתי) Psalm 101:3.
c. מִנֶּגֶד ( a)
adverb off (מִן
1 c) the front, in front, opposite, ex adverso, Genesis 21:16 ותשׁב להּ מנגד sat her down opposite, Genesis 21:16,2Kings 2:7; Deuteronomy 28:66 והיו חייך תלואים לך מנגד shall be hung up for thee in front (i.e. suspended, as by a thread, in front of thee); Judges 9:17 וישׁלך נפשׁו מנגד and flung away his life in front or straight away (i.e. hazarded it); = some way off, from or at a distance, Numbers 2:2; Deuteronomy 32:52 כי מִנֶּגֶדתראה את הארץ, 2 Kings 2:15 ׳וַיִּרְאֻהוּ מנ at a distance, 2 Kings 3:22; 2 Kings 4:25; aloof, 2 Samuel 18:13 ואתה תתיצב מנגד, Obadiah 11 ( b) as a
preposition ( a) from the front of, away from, Song of Solomon 6:5 הָסֵבִּי עֵינַיִךְ מִנֶּגְדִּי, 1 Samuel 26:20 אליֿפֹל׳פני י ׳דמי ארצה מנ; מנגד עיני from before the eyes of, with verbs of removing Isaiah 1:16, cutting off Psalm 31:23; Jonah 2:5, hiding Amos 9:3; Jeremiah 16:17. (β) opposite to, Nehemiah 3:19,25,27; at a distance from, Psalm 10:5 מרום משׁפטיך מנגדו, Psalm 38:12 מנגד נגעי יעמדו. (γ) מִנֶּגֶד לְ from before, Proverbs 14:7, in front of Judges 20:34.
d. עַד נֶגֶד as far as the front of, Nehemiah 3:16,26.
נֶגֶד pr. subst. the front part, the front, the side of a thing which is next to the spectator. In acc. it becomes a prep. with suff. נֶגְדִּי, נֶגְדְּךָ, נֶגְדּוֹ.
(1) before, in the presence of, in the sight of, i.q. לִפְנֵי, as נֶגֶד כָּל־עַמְּךָ before all thy people, Exodus 34:10 נֶגֶד יְהֹוָה before Jehovah, 1 Samuel 12:3 נֶגֶד הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ before the sun, while the sun is yet in the sky, Numbers 25:4 (compare לִפְנֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ Psalms 72:17 [in which however the sense is quite different]); Amos 4:3, “they shall go out אִשָּׁה נֶגְדָּהּ each one before herself,” i.e. each her own way (vor fich hin, ihres Weges), compare Joshua 6:5, 20 Joshua 6:20, and אִישׁ לְפָנָיו Jeremiah 49:5. As things which are before us, and in the sight of which we delight, are the objects of our care and affections, hence Isaiah 49:16, “thy walls נֶגְדּי (are) before me,” they have a place in my care and affections, (compare לִפְנֵי יְיָ Ps. 19:15 Genesis 10:9).
(2) over against, in front of, Exodus 19:2, נֶגֶד הָהָר “over against the mountain.” Joshua 3:16, 6:5, 20 Joshua 6:20 towards, Daniel 6:11 [Chaldee]. As things which are to be compared are put opposite one another; Isaiah 40:17, “all nations (are) as nothing נֶגְדּוֹ before him,” in comparison with him (compare כְּנֶגֶד).
(1) כְּנֶגֶד pr. as over against. Opposite to each other are set things to be compared (Isaiah 40:17), those which answer to each other, those which are alike (die Gegenftücke), hence Genesis 2:18, “I will make for him (man) a helper כְּנֶגְדּוֹ corresponding to him.” Verse 20. Well rendered by the LXX. verse 18, κατʼ αὐτόν; 20, ὅμοιος αὐτῷ. Compare לְנֶגֶד Nehemiah 12:9. In the Rabbinic כנגד is often used in speaking of things which are like one another (see Lud. de Dieu ad h. l.), compare Pers. برابر over against, like, suitable.
(2) לְנֶגֶד, with suff. לְנֶגְדִּי, לְנֶגְדְּךָ etc.
(a) before, in the presence of, i.q. נֶגֶד No. 1. 2 Kings 1:13; Habakkuk 1:3. לנֶגֶד עֵינֵי פ׳ 2 Samuel 22:25; Job 4:16.
(b) over against, Joshua 5:13; 1 Chronicles 5:11 hence opposed to, against (in a hostile sense), Daniel 10:13. There is a pregnant construction in Nehem. 3:37, “because they provoked (God) to anger לְנֶגֶד הַבֹּנִים opposing the builders.”
(c) like (compare כְּנֶגֶד) Nehemiah 12:9, אֲחֵיהֶם לְנֶגְדָּם “their brethren like themselves.”
(d) pro, for (comp. Germ. vor and für). Nehemiah 11:22, “the chief of the Levites for (לְנֶגֶד) the service of the house of God.”
(a) pr. from before (vor etwas weg), after a verb of removing. Isaiah 1:16, “take away your evil deeds מִנֶּגֶד עֵינַי from before my eyes;” Jonah 2:5 (also with a noun of removing, Psalms 10:5); of averting, Song of Solomon 6:5 of casting away, Judges 9:17 of hiding, Jeremiah 16:17; Amos 9:3 of going away, Proverbs 14:7 (where it is מִנֶּגֶד לְ); also to be far away. Psalms 38:12, “my friends stood מִנֶּגֶד נִגְעִי far off from my wound” (compare מִן No. 3, letter b). There is a peculiarity in Jud. loc. cit., “he cast away his life מִנֶּגֶד (for the fuller מִנֶּגְדּוֹ) from himself,” just like Germ. er warf es davon, for von fich, compare below, 2 Samuel 18:13.
(b) in the presence of, before, 1 Samuel 26:20 over against, opposite, adv. (comp. מִן No. 3, letter c). Genesis 21:16, “and she sat down מִנֶּגֶד over against;” Numbers 2:2; 2 Kings 2:7, 15 2 Kings 2:15. For מִנֶּגֶּד לְ over against any one, לְ is put first Deuteronomy 28:66, “and thy life shah hang לְךָ מִנֶּגֶד to thee over against” (Germ. dir gegenüber), for “over against thee;” i.e. thou shalt be in the greatest peril of thy life.
(c) against, absol, and adv. (dagegen); הִתְיַצֵּב מִנֶּגֶד to set oneself in opposition (fich dagegen feßen), 2 Samuel 18:13 followed by לְ: מִנֶּגֶד לְ against any thing, Judges 20:34.
נֶגֶד Ch., Daniel 6:11. See the preceding art. (2).