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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #3515 - כָּבֵד
1) heavy, great
1b) massive, abundant, numerous
1c) heavy, dull
1d) hard, difficult, burdensome
1e) very oppressive, numerous, rich
V) dbk (כבד KBD) - Heavy: To be heavy of weight, wealth or importance. KJV (116): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Pual, Piel) honour, glorify, heavy, harden, glorious, sore, great, many, promote - Strongs: H3513 (כָּבַד)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
1. a. heavy, a burden Psalm 38:5; hands (weary of holding up) Exodus 17:12 (E), hair of head 2 Samuel 14:26, a corpulent old Prayer of Manasseh 1Samuel 4:18; עַם כֶבֶד עָוֺן Isaiah 1:4 a people heavy with ( the burden of) iniquity; a cloud charged with rain Exodus 19:16 (E); a rock of large size Isaiah 32:2; oppressive, grievous, burdensome, a yoke 1 Kings 12:4,11 2 Chronicles 10:4,11; a famine Genesis 12:10; Genesis 41:31; Genesis 43:1; Genesis 47:4,13 (J); the vexation (כַּעַס) of a fool Proverbs 27:3; vehement, sore, of a mourning Genesis 50:11(J).
b. massive, abundant, numerous, of a people עַם Numbers 20:20 (J) 1 Kings 3:9; army חיל 2 Kings 6:14; 2 Kings 18:14 = Isaiah 36:2 insect swarm Exodus 8:20 (J).
c. heavy, dull of speech and tongue Exodus 4:10 (twice in verse) (JE); of the לֵב, hard Exodus 7:14 (J).
d. hard, difficult, of a thing to be done Exodus 18:18 (E) Numbers 11:14 (J); of a language to be understood Ezekiel 3:5,6.
2 in the usage of Jכָּבֵד מְאֹד is frequent:
a. very oppressive, grievous, of hail Exodus 9:18,24; murrain Exodus 9:8; lamentation Genesis 50:10.
b. very numerous, cattle Exodus 12:38; army, מַחֲנֶה Genesis 50:9; locusts Exodus 10:14; so חַיִל 1 Kings 10:2 2 Chronicles 9:1.
c. very rich, במקנה in cattle Genesis 13:2.
כָּבֵד (Judges 20:34 ) fut. יִכְבַּד.
(1) to be heavy (Ethiop. ከበደ፡ id. In Arabic there is but one trace of this signification in كَبَدَ Conj. III. to bear up under any thing, to endure adversity [“and so in Syr. ܐܬܶܟܰܒܰܕ to be indignant, angry”]). Prop. used of weight, Job 6:3. Mostly used figuratively, thus
(2) to be heavy, to be honoured (Gr. βαρύς, Germ. gewichtig), Job 14:21; Ezekiel 27:25; Isaiah 66:5. Compare כָּבוֹד.
(3) i.q. to be great, vehement, plentiful, of enormity of wickedness, Genesis 18:20 of a battle becoming fierce, Judges 20:34; 1 Samuel 31:3 of a weight, i.e. a plenty of sand, Job loc. cit.
And in a bad sense
(4) to be troublesome, burdensome, followed by עַל Isaiah 24:20; Nehemiah 5:18; 2 Samuel 13:25, וְלֹא נִכְבַּד עָלֶיךָ “lest we should be burdensome to thee;” compare 14:26. כָּֽבְדָה יַד־יְהֹוָה עַל “the hand of God is heavy upon” any one, i.e. God afflicts some one heavily (compare βαρείας χεῖρας Hom.); 1 Samuel 5:11; Psalms 32:4. Followed by אֶל 1 Samuel 5:6. Job 23:2, יָדִי כָֽבְדָה עַל אַנְחָתִי “the hand of God which presseth on me is heavier than my sighing,” i.e. the calamities which oppress me are more weighty, or more vehement than my complainings; compare יָד letter f. (In Arabic also verbs of weight, such as كبر, ثقل followed by على denote trouble.) From heavy things not being easily moved, this verb is applied
(5) to indolence, dullness (Schwerfälligkeit), and to any hindrance of the use of the senses; hence to be dull, sluggish, of the eyes, Genesis 48:10 of the ears, Isaiah 59:1 fchwerhörig); also of the mind not easily moved, and therefore obdurate, Exodus 9:7 (compare קָשָׁה). In like manner verbs of fatness are applied to indolence; compare חֵלֶב, טָפַשׁ.
(1) causat. of Kal No. 2, to honour, to do honour to persons, Judges 13:17; 2 Samuel 10:3 God, Isaiah 29:13 followed by לְ of person, Psalms 86:9; Daniel 11:38 and (in the same manner as verbs of abundance) with the two accusatives. Isaiah 43:23, זְבָהֶיךָ לֹא כִבַּדְתָּנִי “thou hast not honoured me with thy sacrifices.”
(2) cansat. of Kal No. 5, to harden the heart, or mind, 1 Samuel 6:6.
Pual כֻּבַּד to be honoured, Proverbs 13:18, 27:18 Isaiah 58:13.
(1) to make heavy, e.g. a yoke, 1 Kings 12:10; Isaiah 47:6 a chain, Lamentations 3:7. Ellipt. Nehemiah 5:15, “the former governors הִכְבִּידוּ עַל הָעַם sc. עֹל, laid a heavy (yoke) upon the people,” greatly oppressed the people.
(2) causat. of Kal No. 2, to honour, to increase with honours, to render illustrious, Isa. 8:23 Jeremiah 30:19. Also, to acquire honour or glory (for oneself), 2 Chronicles 25:19.
(3) causat. of Kal No. 5, to make dull the ears, Isaiah 6:10; Zechariah 7:11 to harden the heart, Exodus 9:34.
(1) pass. of Piel No. 1, to be honoured, to be held in honour, Genesis 34:19; 1 Samuel 9:6; 2 Samuel 23:19, 23 2 Samuel 23:23. שֵׁם נִכְבָּד a glorious name, Deuteronomy 28:58. Pl. נִכְבָּדוֹת things done gloriously, Psalms 87:3.
(2) reflect. to shew oneself great or glorious, Haggai 1:8 followed by בְּ in any thing, Exodus 14:4 -1718 ; Leviticus 10:3; Ezekiel 39:13.
(3) to be heavy, i.e. abundant, to be rich, see Kal No. 3. Proverbs 8:24, מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי מַיִם “heavy (i.e. copious) fountains of water.” Isaiah 23:8, Isaiah 23:9, נִכְבַּדֵּי אֶרֶץ “the most wealthy of the earth.”
(1) to honour oneself, to boast oneself, Proverbs 12:9.
(2) to multiply oneself; hence to be numerous, many, Nahum 3:15.
The derived nouns follow, except כָּבוֹד.
כָּבֵד const. כְּבַד Exodus 4:10, and כֶּבֶד Isaiah 1:4.
(1) heavy, 1 Samuel 4:18; Proverbs 27:3 also, laden (Isaiah 1:4). Mostly used figuratively, as
(2) abundant (Germ. eine fchwere Menge; Lat. graves pavonum greges. Varr.); חַיִל כָּבֵד a numerous army, 1 Kings 10:2; Isaiah 36:2 also, rich (وre gravis), Genesis 13:2. In a bad sense
(3) grievous, burdensome (drückend), of a heavy famine, Genesis 12:10, 41:31 of enormous sin, Psal. 38:5 (compare Isaiah 1:4, כֶּבֶד עָוֹן “(a people) laden with iniquity.”
(4) difficult, hard, of an affair or business, Exodus 18:18; Numbers 11:14 of a language hard to be understood, Ezekiel 3:5.
(5) not easily moved because of weight; slow, of the tongue, Exodus 4:10.
(B) subst. the liver (Arab. كَبْدُ, كِبْدُ, كَبِدُ), as being the heaviest of the viscera, both in weight and in importance, Exodus 29:13, 22 Exodus 29:22; Leviticus 3:4, 10. Lamentations 2:11, נִשְׁפַּךְ לָאָרֶץ כְּבֵדִי “my liver is poured out upon the earth;” hyperb. spoken of the most severe wounding of the liver, i.e. of the mind.