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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #06231 - עָשַׁק
1) to press upon, oppress, violate, defraud, do violence, get deceitfully, wrong, extort
1a1) to oppress, wrong, extort
1a2) to oppress
1b) (Pual) to be exploited, be crushed
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal Perfect ׳ע Leviticus 5:21; Ezekiel 18:18; 2 masculine singular suffix עֲשַׁקְתָּ֫נוּ 1 Samuel 12:4, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine singular suffix יַעַשׁקֻנִי Psalm 119:122; 2 masculine singular תַּעֲשֹׁק Leviticus 19:13 +, etc.; Infinitive construct עֲשֹׁק Hosea 12:8, suffix עָשְׁקָם 1 Chronicles 16:21; Psalm 105:14; Participle active עשֵׁק Proverbs 14:31 +, feminine plural הָעשְׁקוֺת Amos 4:1, etc.; passive עָשׁוּק Deuteronomy 28:29 +, etc.; —
1 oppress, wrong (often by extortion, "" גָּזַל), with accusative of person 1 Samuel 12:3,4; Micah 2:2; Leviticus 5:21; Leviticus 19:13; especially the poor and helpless Amos 4:1; Deuteronomy 24:14; Jeremiah 7:6; Ezekiel 22:29; Zechariah 7:10; Proverbs 14:31; Proverbs 22:16; Proverbs 28:3; Ecclesiastes 4:1; also with accusative of congnate meaning with verb עשֶׁק (וְ)גָזַל גָּזֵל׳ע Ezekiel 18:18 practise extortion, Ezekiel 22:29, take by extortion Leviticus 5:23 and (with accusative of thing) Malachi 3:5; absolute Hosea 12:8 practise extortion; Job 10:3 deal tyrannically (of God); participle oppressor, extortioner Jeremiah 21:12; Psalm 72:4; Ecclesiastes 4:1; passive participle as substantive the oppressed Psalm 103:6; Psalm 146:7.
2 oppress a nation Isaiah 52:4, compare Psalm 105:14 = 1 Chronicles 16:21; Psalm 119:122, participle act. oppressor Psalm 119:121, passive participle oppressed Jeremiah 50:33, in predict. וְגָזוּל׳ע Deuteronomy 28:29, וְרָצּוּץ׳ע Deuteronomy 28:23; Hosea 5:11.
3 dubious are: יַעְשֹׁק נָהָר Job 40:23 a river oppresses him, i.e. rushes violently upon him (that Isaiah , the hippopotamus; Du יָשֹׁק, from שׁוּק; > Gunk Bu יִשְׁקַע falls, sinks); עָשֻׁק בְּדַם נֶפֶשׁ Proverbs 28:17 oppressed (? burdened) with the blood of a person.
Pu`al Participle feminine הַמְּעֻשָּׁקָה Isaiah 23:12 crushed (of conquered Sidon under figure of woman).
עָשַׁק fut. יַעֲשֹׁק, Arab. عسق.
(1) to oppress, to act towards, or treat any one unjustly or violently, e.g. the needy, helpless, Proverbs 14:31, 22:16 28:3 Ecclesiastes 4:1 a king his subjects, 1 Samuel 12:3, 1 Samuel 12:4 a victor, the vanquished, Isaiah 52:4; Jeremiah 50:33; Psalms 105:14; Hosea 5:11 God, a man, Job 10:3. Metaph. Proverbs 28:17, אָדָס עָשׁוּק בְּדַס־נֶפֶשׁ “a man oppressed with life blood” (which he has shed), i.e. bowed down under this guilt as a burden.
(2) to defraud, any one, to extort from him by fraud and violence, with an acc. of pers. Leviticus 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:14 and of the thing, Malachi 3:5, עשְׁקֵי שְׂכַר שָׂכִיר “who extort the wages of the hireling.”-Both constructions (Nos. 1 and 2) are found together in Micah 2:2, עָֽשְׁקוּ גֶּבֶר וּבֵיתוֹ “they oppress a man and wrest away his house,” i.e. act both with fraud and violence, compare גָּזַל.
(3) to be proud, insolent, metaph. of a river overflowing its banks, Job 40:23 (compare syn. بغا, ظلم, فجر).
Pual, part. מְעֻשָּׁקָה (virgin) violated forcibly, metaph. of a captured city, Isaiah 23:12.
Derivatives, מַעֲשַׁקּוֹת, עָשׁוֹק, עֲשׁוּקִיס, עשֶׁק, עָשְׁקָה pr.n. עֵשֶׁק.