the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #05234 - נָכַר
1) to recognise, acknowledge, know, respect, discern, regard
1a) (Niphal) to be recognised
1b) (Piel) to regard
1c1) to regard, observe, pay attention to, pay regard to, notice
1c2) to recognise (as formerly known), perceive
1c3) to be willing to recognise or acknowledge, acknowledge with honour
1c4) to be acquainted with
1c5) to distinguish, understand
1d) (Hithpael) to make oneself known
2) to act or treat as foreign or strange, disguise, misconstrue
2a) (Niphal) to disguise oneself
2b1) to treat as foreign (profane)
2b2) to misconstrue
2c1) to act as alien
2c2) to disguise oneself
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
Qal) regard, recognize (Late Hebrew Hiph`il know, be acquainted with; ᵑ7 Aph`el id.; Syriac Aph`el id.; compare also Arabic in sense be shrewd, cunning); ** Arabic be shrewd, apparently rare, compare cunning Lane2850a. —
Niph`al Perfect 3 masculine plural לֹאנִכְּרוּ Lamentations 4:8 they are not recognized.
Pi`el Perfect לֹא נִכַּר שׁוֺע לִפְנֵידָֿ֑ל Job 34:19 he regardeth not the opulent above the poor ("" לֹאנָֿשָׂא מְּנֵי שָׂרִים); Imperfect לֹא תְנַכֵּ֑רוּ Job 21:29 do ye not recognize their tokens.
Hiph`il Perfect הִכִּיר Deuteronomy 33:9; Daniel 11:39 Kt; suffix הִכִּירוֺ Genesis 27:23; 3 plural הִכִּירוּ Judges 18:3 2t., suffix הִכִּירֻהוּ Job 2:12, הִכִּרֻהוּ Genesis 42:8; Imperfect יַכִּיר Deuteronomy 21:17 3t. + Daniel 11:39 Qr; וַיַּכֵּר Genesis 38:26 +; suffix וַיַּכִּרֵ֫הוּ 1 Kings 18:7, יַכִּירֶ֫נּוּ Job 7:10, וַיַּכִּירָהּ Genesis 37:33, etc.; Imperative ַהכֶּרֿ Genesis 31:32 2t.; Infinitive absolute הֵַכּרֿ (Ginsb van d. H. ַהכֶּרֿ) Proverbs 24:23; Proverbs 28:21; construct suffix הַכִּירֵנִי Ruth 2:10; Participle מַכִּיר Psalm 142:5, suffix מַכִּירֵךְ Ruth 2:19, etc.; —
1 regard, observe, especially with a view to recognition, with object clause, Genesis 31:32; Genesis 37:32; Genesis 38:25; pay attention to, with accusative of person Ruth 2:10,19; accusative of thing (of God) Job 34:25; accusative of thing omitted 2 Samuel 3:36; ׳י subject כֵּן אַכִּיר ֗֗֗ לְטוֺבָה Jeremiah 24:5 so will I regard the exiles ... for good; Antiochus subject Daniel 11:39; הִכִּיר מָּנִים pay regard to (shew partiality, = ׳נָשָׂא מְּנֵי פ) Deuteronomy 1:17; Deuteronomy 16:19 ("" הִטָּה מִשְׁמָּט), Proverbs 24:23; Proverbs 28:21.
2 Recognize (as formerly known) with accusative of person or thing, Genesis 27:23; Genesis 37:33; Genesis 38:26 (all J), Genesis 42:7,8 (twice in verse) (E), 1 Kings 18:7; 1 Kings 20:41; Job 2:12; proverb. בְּטֶרֶם יַכִּיר אִישׁאֶתרֵֿעֵהוּ Ruth 3:14 before a man could recognize his fellow (i.e. before dawn); recognize voice (קוֺל), Judges 18:3; 1 Samuel 26:17; = perceive the true situation, וָאַכִּירָה וְהִנֵּה Nehemiah 6:12 and I perceived, and lo! God had not sent him.
3 Be willing to recognize, acknowledge Deuteronomy 21:17; Deuteronomy 33:9; Isaiah 63:16 ("" יָדַע), Psalm 142:5; acknowledge with honour Isaiah 61:9.
4 Be acquainted with, לֹא יַכִּירֶנּוּ עוֺד מְקוֺמוֺ Job 7:10 his place shall be acquainted with him no more (he shall be gone and forgotten), compare Psalm 103:16; with accusative of thing Job 24:17.
5 Distinguish, understand, הִכִּיר קוֺל ֗֗֗ לְקוֺל Ezra 3:13 could not distinguish, etc.; compare Job 4:16 could not distinguish its appearance; הִכִּיר לְדַבֵּר Nehemiah 13:24 understand how to speak, etc.
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִתְנַכֶּרנָֿ֑עַר Proverbs 20:11 by his deeds a youth maketh himself known, whether his doing be pure, etc.
[נכר] verbdenominative act or treat as foreign, or strange; disguise, misconstrue; —
Niph`al Imperfect יִנָּכֵר Proverbs 26:24 with his lips a hater disguiseth himself (dissembles, speaks what is foreign to his thought).
Pi`el Perfect נִכַּר 1 Samuel 23:7, but see below; Imperfect וַיְנַכְּרוּ Jeremiah 19:4 and they have treated this place as foreign (profane); יְנַכְּרוּצָרֵהוּ Deuteronomy 32:27 lest their adversaries should misconstrue (it). — בְּיָדִי׳נִכַּר אֹתוֺ א 1 Samuel 23:7 God hath alienated him into my hand, but improbable; ᵐ5מָכַר (compare Judges 4:9) hath sold him, so Th Klo HPS (compare We); < סִכַּר (as Isaiah 19:4) Krochm Dr; Kit either of these; > סִגַּר Bu; Löhr either סִגַּר or סִכַּר.
Hithpa`el Imperfect וַיִּתְנַכֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם Genesis 42:7 he acted as a stranger toward them; Participle feminine מִתְנַכֵּרָ֑ה 1 Kings 14:5,6 feign to be a stranger-woman.
נָכַר not used in Kal; prop. to be foregin, strange (נֵכָר, נָכְרִי).
(1) to estrange, to alienate. Jeremiah 19:4, “and they have estranged this place,” i.e. consecrated it to other gods. Chald. and Syr. “have polluted.” (Arab. نكر IV. to repudiate, to contemn.) 1 Samuel 23:7, according to the common reading, נִכַּר אֹתֹו אֱלֹהִים בְּיָדִי “God has repudiated him, (and delivered him) into my hand;” but I scarcely doubt but that we ought to read מכר; (LXX. πέπρακεν).
(2) not to know, to be ignorant of, Deuteronomy 32:27. Job 21:29, “ask now those that go by the way, and ye will not be ignorant of their signs;” you will readily know who it is they point out as if with the finger.
(3) i.q. Hiphil, to contemplate, to look at any thing, as strange or little known (Engl. to strange at some thing, [this is Gesenius’s English]), Job 34:19.
Hiphil הִכִּיר i.q. Piel No. 3, to contemplate, to behold, Genesis 31:32; Nehemiah 6:12. הִכִּיר פָּנִים i.q. נָשָׂא פָנִים to have respect of persons (as a judge), to be partial, Deuteronomy 1:17, 16:19 Proverbs 24:23, 28:21 comp. Isaiah 3:9. Hence
(2) to recognise, to acknowledge, Genesis 27:23, 37:33 38:25, 26 Genesis 38:26; Deuteronomy 21:17; Isaiah 61:9.
(3) to be acquainted with (poet.), Job 24:13, 34:25 Isaiah 63:16.
(4) to know, to know how, i.q. יָדַע, in the later Hebrew. Nehemiah 13:24, אֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר וְהוּדִית “they know not how to speak the Jews’ language.” הִכִּיר לְ i.q. יָדַע בֵּין to know the difference between, Ezra 3:13.
(5) to care for, Psalms 142:5; Ruth 2:10, 19.
(1) to make one’s self strange, to make one’s self unknown, i.e. to dissimulate, to feign, like Hithpael No. 2. Proverbs 26:24.
(2) pass. of Hiphil No. 3, to be known, Lamentations 4:8.
(1) pass. of Hiphil No. 2, to be known, recognised, Proverbs 20:11.
(2) i.q. Niphal, No. 1, to dissimulate, to feign, Genesis 42:7; 1 Kings 14:5, 1 Kings 14:6.
Hence הַכָּרָה, מַכָּר and the three nouns which follow. [On the connection of the significations of this root, see Thes. p. 887.]