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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #03722 - כָּפַר
1) to cover, purge, make an atonement, make reconciliation, cover over with pitch
1a) (Qal) to coat or cover with pitch
1b1) to cover over, pacify, propitiate
1b2) to cover over, atone for sin, make atonement for
1b3) to cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites
1c1) to be covered over
1c2) to make atonement for
1d) (Hithpael) to be covered
V) rpk (כפר KPR) - Cover: KJV (102): (vf: Paal, Hitpael, Pual, Piel) atonement, purge, reconcile, forgive, purge, pacify, mercy, cleanse, disannul, appease, put, pardon, pitch - Strongs: H3722 (כָּפַר)
bm) ripk (כפיר KPYR) - I. Village:A village is a community outside of the city walls and covered with protection from the city. II. Young lion:[Unknown connection to root;] KJV (32): lion, village, young - Strongs: H3715 (כְּפִיר)
gm) rpfk (כופר KWPR) - I. Covering:A covering such as pitch or a monetary covering such as a bribe or ransom. II. Village:A village is a community outside of the city walls and covered with protection from the city. KJV (19): ransom, satisfaction, bribe, camphire, pitch, village - Strongs: H3723 (כָּפָר), H3724 (כֹּפֶר)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
denominative cover over (figurative), pacify, make propitiation; —
Pi`el Perfect כִּמֶּר Exodus 30:10 31t.; 2 masculine singular suffix כִּמַּרְתָּ֑הוּ Ezekiel 43:20; 3 masculine plural יְכַמְּרוּ Ezekiel 43:26; 2 masculine plural כִּמַּרְתֶּם Ezekiel 45:20; Imperfect יְכַמֵּר Exodus 30:10 10t.; יְכַמֶּרֿ Leviticus 7:7; Numbers 5:8; suffix יְכַמְּרֶנָּה Proverbs 16:14; 1 singular אֲכַמֵּר 2 Samuel 21:3; אֲכַמְּרָה Genesis 32:21; Exodus 32:30, etc.; Imperative כַּמֵּר Deuteronomy 21:8 4t.; Infinitive כַּמֵּר Exodus 30:15 28t.; suffixes כַּמְּרִי Ezekiel 16:63; כַּמֶּרְךָ Exodus 29:36; כַּמְּרָהּ Isaiah 47:11; —
1 cover over, pacify, propitiate; אֲכַמָּרָה פָנָיו בַּמִּנְחָה Genesis 32:21 let me cover his face by the present (so that he does not see the offence, i.e. pacify, him; E; RS OTJC, 2 d ed., 381 'wipe clean the face,' blackened by displeasure, as the Arabs say 'whiten the face'); לֹא תוּכְלִי כַּמְּרָהּוְתִמֹּל עָלַיִךְ הֹוָה Isaiah 47:11 and disaster will fall upon thee, thou wilt not be able to propitiate it (by payment of a כֹּפֶר, see Isaiah 43:3); pacify the wrath of a king Proverbs 16:14 (e.g. by a gift).
2 cover over, atone for sin, without sacrifice :
a. man as subject, בַּמָּה אֲכַמֵּר 2 Samuel 21:3, with what shall I cover over (namely, the bloodguiltiness of the house of Saul, says David The answer is by a death penalty of seven sons of the guilty house); חטאתכםבְּעַד Exodus 32:30 on behalf of your sins (J E; Moses, by intercession); with על of persons Numbers 17:11; Numbers 17:12 (P; by incense), Numbers 25:13 (P when Phinehas slays the ringleaders).
b. with God as subject, with accusative of person, cover, i.e. treat as covered, view propitiously, Yahweh's land Deuteronomy 32:43 (song); לְ person Deuteronomy 21:8 (bloodguiltiness flows away in the stream), Ezekiel 16:63; בְּעַד of person 2 Chronicles 30:18; with accusative of the sin Psalm 65:4; Psalm 78:38, probably also Daniel 9:24 ׅ "" ( חטאתח֯תם; עַל of sin, Psalm 79:9; Jeremiah 18:23 ׅ "" ( מחה. It is conceived that God in his sovereignty may himself provide an atonement or covering for men and their sins which could not be provided by men.
3 cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites, in the codes of H, P, and Ezekiel: absolute הַכֹּהֵן׳וכ and the priest shall make atonement Leviticus 16:32;
a. with accusative of sacred places (by the great sin-offering of the day of atonement), Leviticus 16:20,33 (twice in verse); also Ezekiel 43:20,26; Ezekiel 45:20 (by the blood of the sin-offering "" חִטֵּא, טִהַר).
b. usually c. עַל (I) of things, e.g. of the altar to which the blood of the sin-offering was applied Exodus 29:36,37; Exodus 30:10; Leviticus 8:15 ׅ "" ( קִדַּשׁ, Leviticus 16:18; and specifically the horns of the altar Exodus 30:10; the holy place of the tabernacle Leviticus 16:16 (by the great sin-offering, because of ( מִן ׅ the uncleannesses of thechildren of Israel and because of their transgressions); for the leprous house by ceremony of purification Leviticus 14:53 ׅ "" ( טִהַר; for the goat לעזאזל Leviticus 16:10 (which was presented before Yahweh to consecrate him for the bearing away of the sins of the people). (2) of persons, נפשׁתיכם עלֿ, for your persons, yourselves, e.g. by the payment of atonement-money כֶּסֶף הַכִּמֻּרִים at the census Exodus 30:15,16; by the קרבן of the spoils Numbers 31:50; by the blood upon the altar Leviticus 17:11; in the ritual עֲלֵיהֶם, עָלָיו by ministry of priest through the blood of the sin-offering Leviticus 4:20,31; Leviticus 8:34; Leviticus 10:17; Leviticus 12:7,8; Leviticus 14:19,31; Leviticus 16:30,33; Leviticus 23:28; Numbers 8:12,21; Numbers 15:25,28 (twice in verse); Numbers 28:22,30; Numbers 29:5; 2 Chronicles 29:24; Nehemiah 10:34; of the trespass-offering Leviticus 5:16,18; Leviticus 5:26; Leviticus 7:7; Leviticus 14:21; Leviticus 19:22; Numbers 5:8; the whole burnt-offering Leviticus 1:4; Leviticus 14:20; Leviticus 16:24; by the oil used in purifying a leper Leviticus 14:18,29; by the תרומה Ezekiel 45:15; by the priestly ministry in General 1 Chronicles 6:34; by the substitution of the Levites for the firstborn Numbers 8:19. Underlying all these offerings there is the conception that the persons offering are covered by that which is regarded as sufficient and satisfactory by Yahweh. (The purpose of the covering is stated Leviticus 16:30 תִּטְהָ֑רוּיְכַמֵּר׳עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטּאֹתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי י = shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you, from all your sins shall ye be clean before Yahweh, and Numbers 8:21 וַיְכַמֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם לְטַהֲרָם and ( Aaron) made atonement for them to cleanse them.)
c. the need of the atonement is expressed byמִן: ** others understand מִן as = away from; compare Di Leviticus 4:26, Ri Sühne 50 f. מֵחטאתו because of his sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34; מטמאתו Leviticus 14:19; Leviticus 16:16; מזוב Leviticus 15:15,30; מֵאֲשֶׁר חָטָא Numbers 6:11; also עַלעַלחַֿטָּאתוֺ on account of his sin Leviticus 4:35; Leviticus 5:13; Leviticus 19:22; עלשֿׁגגתוֺ Leviticus 5:18.
d. with בְּ instrumental בְּאֵיל Leviticus 5:16; Leviticus 19:22; Numbers 5:8; with a trespass-offering Leviticus 7:7; כִּיהּהַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַמֵּר Leviticus 17:11 for it is the blood with the living being that covers over (H, see נפשׁ
3 (a); RV by reason of the life after De Di Kn Bähr Kau and most moderns; AV follows ᵐ5ᵑ9. ᵑ7. so Ges Ew§ 282a. Anm. 1 : ' for the soul '); with בְּ local בַּקֹּדֶשׁ Leviticus 6:23; Leviticus 16:17,27.
e. with בַּעַד person, on behalf of Leviticus 9:7 (twice in verse); Leviticus 16:6,11,17,24 (by Aaron), Ezekiel 45:17 (by the prince).
Pu`al Perfect כֻּמַּר Exodus 29:33; Isaiah 28:18 (but read תֻּפַר, — √ I. פרר, — so ᵑ7. Hu We Che SS and others see Br MP 209); Imperfect יְכֻמַּר Numbers 35:33 3t.; 3 feminine singular תְּכֻמָּ֑ר Isaiah 6:7 be covered over, atoned for.
1 apart from the ritual, חטאתך תכפר Isaiah 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over ( "" וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ; by the touch of the live coal from the altar); לָכֶםאִםיְֿכֻמַּר הֶעָוֺן הַזֶּה Isaiah 22:14 surely this iniquity shall not be covered over; with בְּ instrumental בזאת יכפר עון Isaiah 27:9 by this shall the iniquity of Jacob be covered over ("" הָסר חטאתו namely by the destruction of idolatrous objects); עוןבחסד יאמת יכפר Proverbs 16:6 by mercy and fidelity iniquity is covered over.
2 with לְ for whom, לארץ לא יכפר לדם Numbers 35:33 for the land atonement cannot be made, in view of the blood shed in it, except by the blood of the shedder of blood; in the ritual of P, with בְּ instrumental אֲשֶׁר כֻּמַּר בָּהֶם Exodus 29:33 wherewith atonement was made (ram of consecration).
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִתְכַּמֵּר 1 Samuel 3:14; with בְּ instrumental יִתְכַּמֵּר עֲוֺן בֵּיתעֵֿלִי בְּזֶבַח וּבְמִנְחָה אִםֿ the iniquity of the house of Eli shall not be covered by peace offering or minchah (in other words there was no atonement for it; compare Punic Isaiah 22:14).
Niph`al Perfect וְנִכַּמֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם Deuteronomy 21:8 and the blood shall be covered for them.
II. [כָּפַר] verb denominative (from II. כֹּפֶר) — Perfect 2 masculine singular וְכָֽפַרְתָּ֫ בַּכֹּפֶד Genesis 6:14 and thou shalt pitch it with pitch (P).
III. כפר (√ of following).
כָּפַר prop. to cover, to cover over, whence כְּפוֹר and כַּפֹּרֶת a covering. Arabic كَفَرَ fut. I. and غَفَرَ to cover. Specially
(2) to cover over, to overspread with anything, as with pitch, to pitch, Genesis 6:14 compare כֹּפֶר No. 2, and Pu.
(3) covered with hair, to be hairy, shaggy, see כְּפִיר.
(4) to cover sins, i.e. to pardon; compare כֹּפֶר No. 4, and כִּפֶּר. Arab. كفر II. to expiate a crime, كفر to pardon.
Piel כִּפֶּר fut. יְכַפֵּר
(1) to cover, i.e. to pardon sin (comp. כִּסָּה); followed by acc. Psalms 65:4, 78:38 followed by עַל (like other verbs of covering), Jeremiah 18:23; Psalms 79:9 followed by לְ Deuteronomy 21:8 also followed by לְ Ezekiel 16:63, and בְּעַד of pers. (compare הֵגֵן בְּעַד Psalms 3:4). 2 Chronicles 30:18.
(2) causat. to obtain forgiveness.
(a) to expiate an offence, followed by an acc. Daniel 9:24; Ezekiel 45:20 followed by עַל Lev. 5:26 followed by בְּעַד (for) Exodus 32:30 followed by מִן Levit. 4:26 Numbers 6:11.
(b) to make expiation for an offender, to free him from charge; followed by עַל of pers., Exodus 30:10; Leviticus 4:20 followed by בְּעַד Leviticus 16:6, 11 Leviticus 16:11, 24 Leviticus 16:24; Ezekiel 45:17 followed by בְּ Levit. 17:11 to inanimate things which were accounted to be defiled; followed by an acc., Leviticus 16:33 followed by עַל Leviticus 16:18. Examples of full construction are, Leviticus 5:18, וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל שִׁגְגָתוֹ “and the priest shall make atonement for him, on account of his sins;” and, 4:26, וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַבֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ “and the priest shall make atonement for him from his sin.”
(c) to appease any one who has been injured, or is angry; with an acc. of pers., Genesis 32:21; Proverbs 16:14 also to appease an impending calamity, i.e. to remove it by expiation, Isaiah 47:11. The sacrifice by which the expiation is made, is put with בְּ prefixed, 2 Samuel 21:3; Numbers 5:8.
(1) to be covered, i.e. obliterated; prop. used of letters which were covered and deleted by drawing the style over them; Isaiah 28:18, יְכֻפַּר בְּרִיתְכֶם “your covenant shall be obliterated,” i.e. abolished; a phrase derived from written agreements. (Aram. ܟܦܰܪ, כַּפֵּר to smear over, to abolish.)
(2) Pass. of Piel 2, a, to be expiated; of sin, Isaiah 6:7, 22:14 27:9.
(3) Pass. of Piel 2, b, to be freed from charge, (of a guilty person), to receive pardon, Exodus 29:33; Numbers 35:33.
Hithpael, fut. יִתְכַּפֵּר 1 Samuel 3:14, and
Nithpael, נִכַּפֵּר Deuteronomy 21:8, to be expiated, of sin.
The derived nouns immediately follow, except כְּפוֹר, כְּפִיר, and pr.n. כְּפִירָה.