the Fourth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2433 - ἱλάσκομαι
- to render one's self, to appease, conciliate to one's self
- to become propitious, be placated or appeased
- to be propitious, be gracious, be merciful
- to expiate, make propitiation for
fut. ἱλάσομαι [ᾰ ] Pl. Phd. 95a, ἱλάσσομαι Orac. ap. Paus. 8.42.6, also ἱλάξομαι A.R. 2.808: aor. 1 ἱλᾰσάμην, part. ἱλασσάμενοι Il. 1.100, subj. 2 sg. ἱλάσσεαι 1.147, -ηαι A.R. 3.1037; inf. ἱλάσσασθαι Ant.Lib. 25.2 codd.; also ἱλάξασθαι A.R. 1.1093: —
Pass. (v. infr. 11). [ ῑ regularly (written ι, not ει, SIG 1044.6,9 (Halic., iv/iii B.C.)); ῐ Il. 1.100, 147 ]: (ἵλαος): —
1. appease, in Hom. always of gods, θεὸν ἱ. ib. 386, cf. 100, al., Od. 3.419; μολπῇ θεὸν ἱλάσκοντο Il. 1.472; σπονδῇσι θύεσσί τε ἱλάσκεσθαι (sc. θεούς) Hes. Op. 338; ὄφρ' ἡμῖν ἑκάεργον ἱλάσσεαι Il. 1.147; c. part., ἱλάσκομαι πέμπων by presenting, Pi. O. 7.9; τοῦτον (sc. θεὸν) ἱλάσκου ποῶν μηδὲν ἄτοπον Men. Epit. 558; of the dead as heroized, θυσίῃσί τινα ἱ. Hdt. 5.47.
2. of men, conciliate, ἱ. τινὰ χρήμασι Id. 8.112; πῶς ἱλασόμεθα καὶ τίνι λόγῳ; Pl. Phd. l.c.; ἱ. τὴν ὀργήν τινος Plu. Cat.Mi. 61.
3. expiate, τὰς ἁμαρτίας Hebrews 2:17.
II Pass. with fut. ἱλάσομαι, also ἱλασθής ομαι v.l. in LXX 2 Kings 5:18 : aor. 1 ἱλάσθην ib. Exodus 32:14,al.: — to be merciful, gracious, τινι ll.cc.; ἱλάσθητί μοι τῷ ἁμαρτωλῷ Luke 18:13; ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις τινῶν LXX Psalms 78:38(77).38: c. inf., ἱλάσθη κύριος περιποιῆσαι τὸν λαόν ib. Exodus 32:14.
ἱλάσκομαι; (see below); in classical Greek the middle of an act. ἱλάσκω (to render propitious, appease) never met with;
1. to render propitious to oneself, to appease, conciliate to oneself (from ἴλαος gracious, gentle); from Homer down; mostly with the accusative of a person, as Θεόν, Ἀθηνην, etc. (τόν Θεόν ἱλάσασθαι, Josephus, Antiquities 6, 6, 5); very rarely with the accusative of the thing, as τήν ὀργήν, Plutarch, Cat. min. 61 (with which cf. ἐξιλάσκεσθαι θυμόν, Proverbs 16:14 the Sept.). In Biblical Greek used passively, to become propitious, be placated or appeased; in 1 aorist imperative ἱλάσθητι, be propitious, be gracious, be merciful (in secular authors ἱληθι and Doric, ἵλαθι, which the gramm. regard as the present of an unused verb ἵλημι, to be propitious; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Sp. ii., p. 206; Kühner, § 343, i., p. 839; Passow, (or Liddell and Scott, or Veitch) under the word ἵλημι), with the dative of the thing or the person: Luke 18:13 (ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις, Psalm 78:9
2. by an Alexandrian usage, to expiate, make propitiation for (as ἐξιλάσκεσθαι in the O. T.): τάς ἁμαριτας, Hebrews 2:17 (ἡμῶν τάς ψυχάς, Philo, alleg. leg. 3, 61). (Cf. Kurtz, Commentary on Hebrews, at the passage cited; Winer's Grammar, 227 (213); Westcott, Epistles of St. John, p. 83f.)
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(< ἵλαος = ἵλεως ),
[in LXX (cf. Westc., Epp. Jo., 85 f.) for H5545, 2 Kings 5:18; 2 Kings 24:4, Psalms 25:11, Lamentations 3:42, Da TH Daniel 9:19; H3722 pi., Psalms 65:3; Psalms 78:38; Psalms 79:9; H5162 ni., Exodus 32:14, Ezra 4:17*;]
1. in cl., c. acc pers., to conciliate, appease, propitiate (= ἐξιλάσκομαι , Genesis 32:20, Proverbs 16:14, Malachi 1:9, al.).
2. In LXX (Thackeray, Gr., 270, 1.), Inscr. (Deiss., BS, 224 f.), and NT, to be propitious, merciful (c. dat. rei, Psalms 79:9, al.): c. dat pers. (2 Kings 5:18), Luke 18:13.
3. As in Philo (= ἐξιλάσκ -, in LXX: Ezekiel 43:22, al.), to expiate, make propitiation for: τ . ἁμαρτίας , Hebrews 2:17 (Cremer, 301 ff., 735).†
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For this verb = ";render propitious to oneself"; c. acc. of the person, as in classical Greek, see Syll 641.5 ff. (end of iii/B.C.) ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς ἔσεσθαι λώϊον καὶ ἄμεινον αὐτοῖς ἱλασκομένοις καὶ τιμῶσιν. . . Δία Πατρώϊον καὶ Ἀπόλλωνα. . . τιμᾶν δὲ καὶ ἱλάσκεσθαι καὶ Ἀγαθὸν Δαίμωνα Ποσειδωνίου καὶ Γοργίδος, and Michel 1211.5 (i/B.C. ?) ὁ θεὸς ἐκολάσετο τὸν Ἑρμογένην καὶ εἱλάσετο τὸν θεόν, καὶ ἀπὸ νῦν εὐδοξεῖ : ct. Menander Ἐπιτρέποντες 664 τοῦτον (θεὸν) ἱλάσκου ποῶν | μηδὲν ἄτοπον μηδ᾽ ἀμαθές. A similar use of the compound ἐξιλάσκομαι, which extends to the LXX (Genesis 32:20 (Jacob and Esau), Zechariah 7:2 (God) : cf. Thackeray Gr. i. p. 270), is seen in Menander Fragm. p. 164, No. 544.6 καὶ τὴν θεὸν | ἐξιλάσαντο τῷ ταπεινοῦσθαι σφόδρα. Both in the LXX (e.g. Psalms 78:9 [MT Psalms 79:9]) and NT (Luke 18:13) ἱλάσκομαι is found in the pass. c. dat. = ";be propitious,"; ";be merciful,"; while the striking use of the verb c. acc. of the thing for which propitiation is made in Hebrews 2:17 ἱλάσκεσθαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας can be illustrated from the use of the compound not only in such LXX passages as Sirach 3:8 al., but in an inscr. belonging to the Imperial period found near Sunium, where in the directions for a sanctuary in honour of the god Mên Tyrannus, the words occur : —ὃς ἂν δὲ πολυπραγμονήσῃ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ ἢ περιεργάσηται, ἁμαρτίαν ὀφ (ε)ιλέτω Μηνὶ Τυράννῳ, ἣν οὐ μὴ δύνηται ἐξειλάσασθαι (Syll 633 .14 ff. : cf. Deissmann BS, p. 225). This last ex. from a profane source should perhaps make us careful in not pressing too far the theological implications which are sometimes found in the grammatical constructions of the verb in Biblical Greek (cf. e.g. Westcott Epp. of St. John, p. 83 ff.). According to Boisacq (p. 373) ἱλάσκομαι derives from a reduplicated form * σι —σλα ̆—σκομαι, as ἵλεως represents * σι —σλα ̆—ϝ ος.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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