the Week of Christ the King / Proper 29 / Ordinary 34
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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary Hebrew Lexicon
Strong's #02403 - חַטָּאָה
1) sin, sinful
2) sin, sin offering
2b) condition of sin, guilt of sin
2c) punishment for sin
2e) purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness
1170) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: Cord AB: Miss: Cords are used for binding as well as measuring. A cord is also used as measuring device by placing knots incrementally. The cord is stretched between the two points to measure and the knots are counted.
A) uh (ההתה HhTh) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
E) auh (ההתהא HhThA) AC: Measure CO: ? AB: Sin: When shooting an arrow or other object to a target, the distance that one misses is measured with a cord. The wrong actions of one are also measured against the correct action.
V) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Miss: To miss the target, whether a literal target or a goal that is aimed for. KJV (238): (vf: Paal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel) sin, purify, cleanse, sinner, committed, offended, blame, done - Strongs: H2398 (חָטָא)
Nm) auh (ההתהא HhThA) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also a sinner as one who misses the mark. KJV (51): sinner, sinful, offender, sin, faults, grievously, offences - Strongs: H2399 (חֵטְא), H2400 (חַטָּא)
Nf1) eauh (ההתהאה HhThAH) - Sin: A missing of the target. Also the sin offering which by transference becomes the sin. [Hebrew and Aramaic] [df: tajx] KJV (305): sin, sin offering, punishment, purifying - Strongs: H2401 (חֲטָאָה), H2402 (חַטָּאָה), H2403 (חַטָּאָה)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
a. against man Genesis 31:36; Genesis 50:17 (E), Numbers 12:11 (J) 1 Samuel 20:1; אדם׳ח sins against man Numbers 5:6 (P). Elsewhere
b. against God Leviticus 4:14,23,28 (P), 1 Samuel 2:17; 1 Samuel 14:38; 1 Kings 16:13 (twice in verse); 2 Kings 21:16; 2 Kings 21:17; 2 Chronicles 33:19; Isaiah 3:9; Isaiah 30:1; Isaiah 58:1; Isaiah 59:2; Isaiah 59:12; Isaiah 16:10; Isaiah 16:18; Isaiah 30:14; Isaiah 30:15; Isaiah 50:20; Lamentations 4:6,22; Ezekiel 16:51; Ezekiel 18:14; Ezekiel 21:29; Ezekiel 33:10,16; Amos 5:12 (We Kl. Proph. reads חטאיכם), as Isaiah 1:18 — see חֵטא — on accusative of masculine עצומים), Micah 1:13; Micah 3:8; Psalm 32:5; Psalm 51:5; Psalm 59:4; Proverbs 5:22; Proverbs 13:6; Proverbs 14:34; Proverbs 21:4; Proverbs 24:9; Job 13:23; Job 14:23; Daniel 9:20 (twice in verse); נעורי׳ח sins of my youth Psalm 25:7; נפשׁי׳פרי בטני ח Micah 6:7 fruit of my body (my child as an offering) for the sin of myself; sin of divination 1 Samuel 15:23; of the mouth Psalm 59:13; עמי יאכלו׳ח Hosea 4:8 the sin of my people they eat (gain their daily food by means of it, compare We; ᵑ7 Hi Or and others sin-offering, but this not elsewhere in early prophets, and "" עָוֺן against it, see We Prol. 3. 76); לפתח חטאת רבץ Genesis 4:7 (J) at the door (of Cain) sin is a crouching beast; sin of the people is embodied in the golden calf Deuteronomy 9:21; and the high places of Beath Aven Hosea 10:8; with בְּ on the ground of sin Nehemiah 9:37; for sin Micah 1:5; 2 Kings 24:3; Isaiah 40:2; Jeremiah 15:13; Jeremiah 17:3; Ezekiel 16:52; with or by sin 1 Kings 14:22; 1 Kings 16:2; Isaiah 43:24; ׳הלך בח walk in sin 1 Kings 15:3,26,34; 1 Kings 16:19,26,31; 2 Kings 17:22; ׳דבק בח cleave unto sin 2 Kings 3:3; with עַל on account of sin Deuteronomy 9:18; 1 Kings 15:30; 1 Kings 16:19; Micah 6:13; for sin Leviticus 4:3,28,35; Leviticus 5:6,13 (P) Leviticus 19:22; Leviticus 26:18,24,28 (H); ׳יסף על ח add unto sin 1 Samuel 12:19; 2 Chronicles 28:13; Isaiah 30:1; Job 34:37; with כְּ according to sin Leviticus 26:21; with לְ to or for sin Leviticus 16:16,21; Deuteronomy 19:15; 1 Kings 12:30; 1 Kings 13:34; Proverbs 10:16; Zechariah 13:1; with מִן because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34 (P), Leviticus 19:22 (H), Lamentations 4:13; more than sin Job 35:3; טָהַרְתִּי מֵחַטָּאתִי I am clean from my sin Proverbs 20:9; ׳מגני ח because of sin Psalm 38:4; ׳בגלל ח because of sin 1 Kings 14:16; הלך׳אחר ח walk after sin 2 Kings 13:2.
c. men should return from sin שׁוּב מִן 1 Kings 8:35 2 Chronicles 6:26; Ezekiel 18:21; Ezekiel 33:14; depart from it סוּר מֵעַל 2 Kings 10:31; 2 Kings 15:18; סוּרמן 2 Kings 13:6,11; 2 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 15:9,24,28; be concerned about דאג מן Psalm 38:19; confess ׳הִתְוַדָּה ח Numbers 5:7 (P); ׳התודה על ה Nehemiah 1:6; Nehemiah 9:2.
d. God deals with sin: (1) he visits punishment upon it (על) פקד Exodus 32:34 (JE) Hosea 8:13; Hosea 9:9; Jeremiah 14:10; inquires after it דרשׁ ל Job 10:6; watches over it שׁמר על Job 14:16; hoards it up Hosea 13:12; -2 by forgiveness: ׳נשׂא ה Exodus 10:17; Exodus 32:32 (JE), 1 Samuel 15:25; ׳נשׂא עון ח Psalm 32:5; ׳נשׂא לח Joshua 24:19 (E), Psalm 25:18; pardon ׳סלח לח Exodus 34:9 (JE) 1 Kings 8:34,36; 2 Chronicles 6:25,27; 7:14; Jeremiah 36:3; removal הסר Isaiah 27:9; העביר 2 Samuel 12:13; casting into the depths of the sea Micah 7:19; -3 by covering over, making atonement for חַטָּֽאתְךָ תְּכֻמָּ֑ר Isaiah 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over; actively, ׳כמּר עַל ח Psalm 79:9; ׳כסּה ח Psalm 85:3 (compare כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה Psalm 32:1); ׳לְהָתֵם ח (Qr) make an end of sins Daniel 9:24; -4 by blotting out ׳מחה ח Isaiah 44:22; Jeremiah 18:23; Psalm 109:14; Nehemiah 3:37; cleanse from sin ׳טַהֲרֵנִי מח Psalm 51:4; ׳מקוֺר לח a fountain for sin Zechariah 13:1; -5 by not remembering it ׳לא זכר ח Isaiah 43:25; לא זכר׳לח Jeremiah 31:34; אַלתֵּֿפֶן אֶלחַֿטָאתוֺ Deuteronomy 9:27 look not unto his sin.
e. atonement may be secured for, ׳כמּר בעד ח Exodus 32:30 (J E; Moses, by his intercession).
f. according to P (H) the priest is to make atonement for a person (כמּר על) by sin-offering or trespass-offering; ׳מח because of sin Leviticus 4:26; Leviticus 5:6,10; Leviticus 16:34; ׳על ח Leviticus 4:35; Leviticus 5:13 (all P), Leviticus 19:22 (H; see We compare, 59 = JBTh xxii, 427), so that the man is clean from sin ׳טהר מח Leviticus 16:30.
2 condition of sin, guilt of sin Genesis 18:20; Numbers 16:26; Numbers 32:23 (J), Ezekiel 3:20; Ezekiel 18:24, יְהוּדָה חֲרוּשָׁה עַללֿוּחַ לִבָּם׳ח וּלְקַרְנוֺת מִוְבְּחוֺתֵיכֶם the sin (guilt) of Judah is graven upon the table of their hear, and upon the horns of your altars Jeremiah 17:1.
3 punishment for sin: כָלהַֿגּוֺיִם׳מִצְרָ֑יִם וח ׳זֹאת תִּהְיֶה ח Zechariah 14:19 this will be the punishment for sin of Egypt and the punishment for sin of all nations (the plague with which Yahweh will smite them).
4 sin-offering: one of the kinds of offerings of P, Leviticus 7:37; first in the history 2 Kings 12:17 (reign of Jehoash), where חטּאת of money given to priests; elsewhere only in Chronicles: 2 Chronicles 29:21,23,24Hezekiah had made a ׳ח of 7 צְפִירֵיעִזִּים at purification of temple; Ezra 8:35; 12צְפִירֵי׳ח were offered; Nehemiah 10:34 ׳ח "" עולות; — in these no evidence of special ritual. Sin-offering elsewhere only in codes of H Ezekiel and P. — On Hosea 4:8 see
1 above In H, Leviticus 23:19 a שׂעיר עזים, for feast of weeks. In Ezekiel ׳ח in General "" other sacrifices, Ezekiel 40:39; Ezekiel 45:17,25; Ezekiel 46:20; and priests eat them Ezekiel 42:13; Ezekiel 44:29. At dedication of altar, the blood of a young bullock was to be applied to horns of altar, the corners of its settle and its border, the bullock itself burnt without the sanctuary; for each of the 7 days following a שׂעיר עזים was to be offered Ezekiel 43:19,21,22,25. On first day of first month a young bullock was to offered to cleanse the sanctuary: its blood put on the door posts of the house and of the gate of the inner court an on the four corners of the settle of the altar; also on the seventh day (ᵐ5 first day of seventh month) Ezekiel 45:17,19 (compare Ezekiel 45:18; Ezekiel 45:20). On 14th day of first month the prince was to offer a bullock for himself and the people and on each of the 7 days of the Passover week a שׂעיר עזים Ezekiel 45:22,23. When a priest entered the sanctuary to minister after his cleaning he was to offer his sin-offering Ezekiel 44:27. P gives several grades:
a. a ruler should offer a Hebrews -goat Leviticus 4:24,25; Numbers 7:16,22,28,34,40,46,52,58,64,70,76,82,87; an ordinary person a she-goat Leviticus 4:29 (compare Leviticus 4:28) Leviticus 5:6; Numbers 15:27, ewe lamb Leviticus 4:32,33 (twice in verse); Leviticus 4:34; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:14,16, a turtle dove or young pigeon Leviticus 5:7,8,9 (twice in verse); Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:22,31; Leviticus 15:15,30; Numbers 6:11, or one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour Leviticus 5:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 5:12; according to ability of the person, and nature of offence. The victim was brought unto the tent of meeting, the hands of the offerer laid on its head, it was slaughtered by the offerer, the priest took some of the blood and put it on horns of altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the blood he poured out at the base of it, to cover over the sin, or cleanse the altar from the sin defiling it. All the fat pieces (compare Leviticus 4:22,35) and a handful of the flour (compare Leviticus 5:12) were burned on altar. The rest of the flesh and the flour were eaten by priests in court of Holy place Leviticus 5:13; Leviticus 6:10; Leviticus 6:18 (twice in verse); Leviticus 6:23 (compare Leviticus 6:11; Leviticus 6:19), Leviticus 7:7; Leviticus 10:16,17,19 (twice in verse); Leviticus 14:13; Numbers 18:9.
b. a bullock was offered for priests Exodus 29:14,36; Leviticus 4:3,8,20; Leviticus 8:2,14 (twice in verse); Leviticus 9:2,7,8,10; for Levites at their installation Numbers 8:8,12and for whole congregation Leviticus 4:14,21; but usually offering for congregation was Hebrews -goat Numbers 15:24,25, especially at dedication of altar Leviticus 9:3,15,22. and in ritual of feasts Numbers 28:15,22,30; Numbers 29:5,11,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,38. Before consecration of the tabernacle the blood went to altar of burnt-offering ( Leviticus 9:9), but subsequently some of it was sprinkled seven times before the vail and some of it put on horns of altar of incense to cleanse this higher altar; the fast pieces were burned on altar of burnt-offering, and the rest of the victim burned without the camp ( Leviticus 4:3-21; Leviticus 6:23; Leviticus 8:16,17; Leviticus 9:10,11).
c. on day of atonement, sin-offering for high priest was a bullock Leviticus 16:3,6; and for congregation two Hebrews -goats, one לַעֲזָאזֵל (see עזאזל) Leviticus 16:5 (compare Leviticus 16:8; Leviticus 16:10; Leviticus 16:20; Leviticus 16:22), the other for sacrifice ליהוה Leviticus 16:9 (compare Leviticus 16:8). Some of the blood of Aaron's bullock was first taken into innermost sanctuary and sprinkled on the כפרת and seven times before it; so also blood of the Hebrews -goat Leviticus 16:11 (twice in verse); Leviticus 16:15 (compare Leviticus 16:12-14; Leviticus 16:16; Leviticus 16:17) to cleanse highest altar: then the blood of the two victims was applied to lower altars as in a and b and so sin was covered over at the three altars Exodus 30:10 (compare Leviticus 16:16-19). The fat pieces went to altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the victims was burnt without the camp Leviticus 16:25,27 (twice in verse). (Sins which might be covered over were limited to those committed בשׁגגה Leviticus 4:2,22,27; Numbers 15:27, לשׁגגה Numbers 15:24, minor offences Leviticus 5:1-6; and ceremonial uncleanness Leviticus 12:6,8; Leviticus 14:13; Leviticus 15:15; Numbers 6:11,14.) — Pharses for sacrificing are: ׳עשׂה ח Leviticus 9:7,22; Leviticus 14:19; Numbers 6:16; Ezekiel 45:17, ׳הקריב ח Leviticus 10:19; Ezekiel 44:27, ׳שׁחט ח Leviticus 14:13; Ezekiel 40:39.
5 purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness, all P: ׳ח׳מֵ Numbers 8:7 water of purification from sin; הוּא׳מֵי נִדָּה ח water of (cleansing from) impurity, it is a purification from sin Numbers 19:9; ׳עֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הח Numbers 19:17 ashes of the burning of the purification from sin (RV renders sin-offering; but there was no offering made, only water of purification was used).
חַטָּיָא noun feminine sin-offering (Biblical Hebrew חַטָּאת
4; Nabataean חטיאת penalty, according to SAC51); — absolute ׳ת Ezra 6:17 Kt, Qr הַטָּאָה.
(1) f. of the word חַטָּא a sinner f., or sinful, Amos 9:8.
(2) i.q. חַטָּאת
(a) sin, Exodus 34:7.
(b) penalty of sin (like חַטָּאת No. 3), Isaiah 5:18.
חַטָּאָה Ch. f. a sacrifice for sin, Ezra 6:17 (ק׳).