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Bible Commentaries
Hebrews 13

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - UnabridgedCommentary Critical Unabridged

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Verse 1

Let brotherly love continue.

Brotherly love - a distinct manifestation of "charity" (2 Peter 1:7). The church of Jerusalem, to which in part this letter was addressed, was distinguished by this grace (Acts 2:45; Acts 4:34-35; Acts 11:29-30: cf. Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 10:32-34; Hebrews 12:12-13).

Continue - charity will itself continue. See that it continue with you (1 Corinthians 13:8).

Verse 2

Be not forgetful to entertain strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels unawares.

Two manifestations of "brotherly love" - hospitality and care for those in bonds.

Be not forgetful. They all recognized the duty, but might forget to act on it (Hebrews 12:3; Hebrews 12:7; Hebrews 12:16). The enemies of Christianity themselves noticed this virtue among Christians (Julian, 'Ep.' 49),

Entertained angels unawares - Abraham and Lot (Genesis 18:2; Genesis 19:1). To obviate the natural distrust of strangers, Paul says an unknown guest may be better than he looks: he may be found as much a messenger of God for good as the angels (whose name means messenger) are; nay more, if a Christian, he represents Christ. There is a play on the same Greek [ epilanthanesthe (G1950) ... elathon (G2990)]: let not the duty of hospitality to strangers escape you; for, by entertaining, strangers, it has escaped the entertainers that they were entertaining angels. Not unconscious of the duty, they have unconsciously brought on themselves the blessing.

Verse 3

Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.

Remember - in prayer and acts of kindness.

Bound with them - by the unity of the members under one Head (1 Corinthians 12:26).

Suffer adversity, [ kakouchoumenoon (G2558)] - 'are in evil state.'

Being yourselves also in the body - so liable to the adversities incident to the body, which ought to dispose you the more to sympathize with them, not knowing how soon your turn of suffering may come. 'One experiences adversity almost his whole life, as Jacob; another in youth, as Joseph; another in manhood, as Job; another in old age' (Bengel).

Verse 4

Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge. Is. Translate, 'Let marriage be treated as honourable;' as Hebrews 13:5 is an exhortation.

In all - `among all.' "To avoid fornication, let EVERY MAN have his own wife" (1 Corinthians 7:2). Judaism and Gnosticism soon after disparaged marriage. Paphnutius, in the council of Nice, quoted this verse to justify the married state. If one does not himself marry, he should not prevent others. Romanists translate, 'in all things,' as in Hebrews 13:18. But the contrast to "whoremongers and adulterers" in the parallel clause requires the "in all" in this clause to refer to persons.

The bed undefiled, [ hee (G3588) koitee (G2845) amiantos (G283) requires "undefiled" to be a predicate, not an epithet] - 'and let the bed be undefiled.'

God will judge. Most whoremongers escape human tribunals; but God takes cognizance of those whom man does not punish. Gay immoralities will be regarded very differently from what they are now.

Verse 5

Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.

Conversation, [ ho (G3588) tropos (G5158)] - 'manner of life.' Lust and lucre follow one another as closely akin, both seducing the heart from the Creator to the creature.

Such things as ye have, [ tois (G3588) parousin (G3918)] - 'present things' (Philippians 4:11).

I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee - so to Jacob, Genesis 28:15; to Israel, Deuteronomy 31:6; Deuteronomy 31:8; to Joshua, Joshua 1:5; to Solomon, 1 Chronicles 28:20. It is a divine adage. What was said to them extends to us. He will neither withdraw His presence ("never leave") nor His help ("nor forsake thee") (Bengel).

Verse 6

So that we may boldly say, The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me.

May, [ hooste (G5620) tharrountas (G2292) ... legein (G3004)] - rather, confidence actually realized, 'so that we confidently say' (Psalms 56:4; Psalms 56:11; Psalms 118:6). Both the Hebrew (Psalms 118:6) and the Greek [ ti (G5101) poieesei (G4160): not poieesee (G4160)] require 'And (so) I will not fear: what (then) shall man do unto me?'

Verse 7

Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.

Remember - so as to imitate: not to invoke, as Rome teaches.

Have the rule - rather [ toon (G3588) heegoumenoon (G2233) humoon (G5216)], 'those who (were) your (spiritual) leaders.'

Who, [ hoitines (G3748)] - 'as being persons who.'

Have spoken, [ elaleesan (G2980)] - 'spake' during their lifetime. This letter was among those later written, when many heads of the Jerusalem church had passed away.

Whose faith - even unto death: probably by martyrdom, as in the instances of faith in Hebrews 11:35. Stephen, James the brother of our Lord and Bishop of Jerusalem, as well as James the brother of John (Acts 12:2), in the Palestinian church, suffered martyrdom.

Considering, [ anatheoorountes (G333)] - 'looking up to:' 'contemplating all over,' as an artist would a model.

The end - the exit, issue. [ Ekbasin (G1545) expresses a way of escape (1 Corinthians 10:13); such is death to the martyr (Isaiah 57:1).]

Of their conversation, [ anastrophees (G391)] - 'manner of life;' 'walk' (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22; 1 Timothy 4:12; James 3:13). Considering now their walk and its end (their death by martyrdom) evidenced the power of "faith," (Hebrews 11:1-40.)

Verse 8

Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.

No JFB commentary on this verse.

Verse 9

Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace; not with meats, which have not profited them that have been occupied therein.

This verse is not in apposition with "the end of their conversation" (Hebrews 13:7), but forms the transition, Greek order: 'Jesus Christ, yesterday and today (is) the same, and (shall be the same) unto the ages' (i:e., unto all ages). The Jesus Christ (the full name marks with affectionate solemnity His person and His office) who supported your spiritual rulers through life unto their end "yesterday" (in times past), being at once 'the Author and the Finisher of their faith' (Hebrews 12:2), remains still the same Jesus Christ "today," ready to help you also, if you too walk by "faith." Compare "this same Jesus," Acts 1:11. He who yesterday (the past time) suffered and died is today in glory (Revelation 1:18). 'As night comes between yesterday and today, yet is itself swallowed up by yesterday and today; so the glory of Jesus Christ which was of yesterday, and that which is today, was not so interrupted by His suffering as not to continue the same. He is the same yesterday, before He came into the world, and today, in heaven: yesterday in the time of our predecessors, and today in our age' (Bengel). So the doctrine is the same, not variable: the transition from Hebrews 13:7 to Hebrews 13:9. He is always "the same" (Hebrews 1:12); the same in the Old and New Testaments.

About, [periferesthee]. 'Aleph (') A C Delta, Vulgate, read [ paraferesthe (G3911)] 'carried aside'-namely, cf. Ephesians 4:14.

Divers, [ poikilais (G4164)] - differing from the one faith in the same Jesus Christ, as taught by them who had the rule over you (Hebrews 13:7).

Strange - foreign to the truth.

Established with grace; not with meats - not with Jewish distinctions between clean and unclean meats, to which ascetic Judaizers added the rejection of some meats and the use of others: noticed also by Paul in 1 Corinthians 8:8; 1 Corinthians 8:13; 1 Corinthians 6:13; Romans 14:17, an exact parallel: some of the "divers and strange doctrines." Christ's body offered once for us is our true spiritual 'meat' to "eat" (Hebrews 13:10), "the stay and the staff ... of bread" (Isaiah 3:1), the mean of all "grace."

Which have not profited - `in which they who walked were not profited' as to justification and perfect cleansing of the conscience. Compare on "walked," Acts 21:21 - namely, with superstitious scrupulosity, as though God's true worship consisted in legal observances.

Verse 10

We have an altar, whereof they have no right to eat which serve the tabernacle.

Christianity and Judaism are so totally distinct that 'they who serve the (Jewish) tabernacle' have no right to eat our spiritual meat-namely, the Jewish priests, and those who follow their guidance in serving ceremonial ordinance. He says, "serve the tabernacle;" not 'serve IN' it: servile worship. Contrast Philippians 3:3. An altar - Christ's cross, whereon His body was offered. The Lord's table represents the cross, as the bread and wine represent the sacrifice offered on it. Our meat which we by faith spiritually eat is the flesh of Christ, in contrast to typical "meats." The two cannot be combined (Galatians 5:2). Dr. Waldegrave explains the "altar," Christ's Godhead, on which He offered His manhood; because:

(1) "The altar ... sanctifieth the gift" (Matthew 23:19);

(2) Prevents the sacrifice being consumed, as the manhood would have been by God's judicial wrath but for the Godhead.

Neither holds good of the cross, contact with which involved a curse. Rather, Christ, at once the Altar, the Sacrifice, and the Priest. "We have" Him by faith: so need no further sacrifice or sacrificial "meats" (note, Revelation 6:9). That not a literal eating of the sacrifice of Christ is meant in the Lord's supper, but a spiritual, appears from comparing Hebrews 13:9 with Hebrews 13:10, "with GRACE, NOT with MEATS." As the sacerdotal priest's duty was to 'wait at the altar,' so the Christian minister's is to "preach the Gospel" (1 Corinthians 9:13-14).

Verses 11-12

For the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned without the camp.

As "the bodies of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the sanctuary by, etc., are burnt without the camp," so "Jesus also, that, etc., suffered without the gate" of ceremonial Judaism, of which His crucifixion outside the gate of Jerusalem is a type.

For - Reason why they who serve the tabernacle are excluded from share in Christ, because their religion is mainly concerned with "meats" (Hebrews 13:9); but His sacrifice is not like those sacrifices in which they have meats, but corresponds to one 'wholly burnt' [ katakaietai (G2618)] 'burnt down,' which consequently they could not eat of: Leviticus 6:30, "No sin offering, whereof any of the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the congregation to reconcile withal in the holy place, shall be eaten; it shall be burnt in the fire." The sin offerings are twofold-the outward, whose blood was sprinkled on the outward altar, and of whose bodies the priests might eat; and the inward, the reverse. Not "we," but "have" and "eat," are emphatic in the Greek. We have the benefit of Christ's sin offering, not by literal eating; for His offering is one of a kind which "they who serve the tabernacle" have no right to "eat" (literally) - i:e., a burnt offering: Hebrews 13:11, "for the bodies, etc., are burnt without the camp" (Colossians 2:16). The sin offering, the fullest representative of Christ's atonement, has no eating of meats. On the Hebrews' own ground, Paul shows the heart must be established with grace, not meats, Hebrews 13:9. Our eating of Christ's flesh is figurative of spiritual realities, as the sacrifice of "praise" and 'doing good' is figurative (Hebrews 13:15-16). "We have an altar" cannot mean that Paul speaks as a Jew of the temple altar; for, after having proved the Jewish sacrifices were superseded by Christ's one sacrifice, he never would identify himself with his countrymen in retaining the superseded altar.

The sanctuary - the Holy of holies, into which the blood of the sin offering was brought on the day of atonement. Without the camp - in which were the tabernacle, Levitical priests, and legal worshippers, during Israel's journey through the wilderness; replaced afterward by Jerusalem (containing the temple), outside of whose walls Jesus was crucified.

Wherefore Jesus - That the Antitype might fulfill the type.

Sanctify. Though not brought into the temple "sanctuary" (Hebrews 13:11). His blood has been brought into the heavenly, and 'sanctifies the people' (Hebrews 2:11; Hebrews 2:17), by cleansing them from sin, and consecrating them to God.

His own - not blood of animals.

Without the gate - of Jerusalem; as if unworthy of the society of the covenant-people. The fiery ordeal of His suffering answers to the burning of the victim; thereby His fleshly life was completely destroyed, as their bodies were: the second part of His offering was His carrying His blood into the heavenly Holiest before God at His ascension, to be a perpetual atonement for sin.

Verse 13

Let us go forth therefore unto him without the camp, bearing his reproach.

Therefore - breathes deliberate fortitude (Bengel).

Without the camp - `outside the legal polity' (Theodoret) of Judaism (cf. Hebrews 13:11). 'Faith considers Jerusalem as a camp, not a city.' The reason is given Hebrews 13:14 (Bengel). He contrasts with the earthly sanctuary (Hebrews 8:5), which the Jews "serve," the altar in heaven which "we have," but which Judaizers "have no right to." As Jesus suffered without the gate, so spiritually must those who belong to Him withdraw from the earthly Jerusalem and its sanctuary, as from this world in general, of which it is the representative: Hebrews 9:1, "a worldly sanctuary." We must leave all sacerdotal ritualism and sensuous worship to offer spiritual sacrifices at the spiritual altar (Christ) which we carry with us everywhere (Ezekiel 11:16, end). Referring to Exodus 33:7, when the tabernacle was moved without the camp, then polluted by the people's idolatry of the golden calves, so that "everyone which sought the Lord went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation (as Moses called it), which was without the camp:" a lively type of what the Hebrews should do-namely, come out of the carnal worship of earthly Jerusalem to worship God in Christ in spirit (2 Corinthians 5:16), since here we have "no continuing city," Hebrews 13:14.

Bearing - as Simon of Cyrene.

His reproach - that which He bare, and all His people bear with Him.

Verse 14

For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.

Here - on earth. Those who clung to the earthly sanctuary represent all who cling to this earth. The earthly Jerusalem proved to be no "abiding city," having been destroyed shortly after: with it fell the Jewish civil and religious polity: a type of the whole earthly order of things soon to perish.

One to come (Hebrews 2:5; Hebrews 11:10; Hebrews 11:14; Hebrews 11:16; Hebrews 12:22; Philippians 3:20).

Verse 15

By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.

As the "altar" was mentioned, Hebrews 13:10, so the "sacrifice" here (cf. 1 Peter 2:5 - namely, praise and doing good, Hebrews 13:16). Compare Psalms 119:108; Romans 12:1.

By him - as Mediator of our prayers and praises (John 14:13-14); not by Jewish observances (Psalms 50:14; Psalms 50:23; Psalms 69:30-31; Psalms 107:22; Psalms 116:17). The rabbis had an old saying, 'At a future time all sacrifices shall cease, but praises shall not.'

Praise - for salvation.

Continually - not merely at fixed seasons, as those on which the legal sacrifices were offered, but all our life long.

Fruit of our lips (Isaiah 57:19; Hosea 14:2).

Giving thanks, [ homologountoon (G3670)] (our lips) - 'confessing.' Bengel, The Hebrew [ towdah (H8426)] is beautifully emphatic: literally acknowledgment or confession. In praising a creature, we may easily exceed the truth; but in praising God, we have only to go on confessing what He really is to us. Hence, it is impossible to exceed the truth: here is genuine praise.

Verse 16

But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.

But - But the sacrifice of praise with the lips (Hebrews 13:15) is not enough; there must be also doing good and communicating (i:e., imparting of your means, Galatians 6:6) to the needy.

With such - not mere ritualistic sacrifices.

Verse 17

Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.

Obey them that have the rule over you (cf. Hebrews 13:7; Hebrews 13:24). This threefold mention of rulers is unique to this letter. In others, Paul includes the rulers in his exhortations. Here, the address is to the general body of the Church, as distinguished from the rulers, to whom they are charged to yield reverent submission. This is just what might be expected when the apostle of the Gentiles was writing to the Palestine Christians, among whom James and the eleven had exercised immediate authority. It was important he should not seem to interfere with their guides, but rather strengthen their hands: he claims no authority directly or indirectly over these rulers (Birks). "Remember" deceased rulers (Hebrews 13:7); "obey" your living rulers: not only obey where no sacrifice of self is required, and where you are persuaded they are right [so peithesthee: "obey"], but [ hupeikete (G5226)] "submit" with dutiful yielding when your natural judgment and will are averse.

They, [ autoi (G846)] - on their part: as they do their part, so do you yours. So Paul, 1 Thessalonians 5:12-13.

Watch, [ agrupnousin (G69)] - 'are vigilant.'

For, [ huper (G5228)] - 'in behalf of.'

Must give account - the strongest stimulus to watchfulness (Mark 13:34-37). Chrysostom ('De Sacerdotio,' b.

vi.), 'The fear of this threat continually agitates my soul.'

Do it - "watch for your souls." It is a perilous responsibility for one to have to give account for others, who is not sufficient for his own (Estius, from Aquinas). I wonder whether it be possible that any rulers should be saved (Chrysostom). Compare Paul's address to the elders, Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 4:1-5, where also he connects ministers' responsibility with the account to be hereafter given (cf. 1 Peter 5:4).

With joy - at your obedience: anticipating, too, that you shall be their "joy" in the day of giving account (Philippians 4:1).

Not with grief - at your disobedience: apprehending also that you may be among the lost, instead of being their crown of rejoicing. In giving account, the stewards are liable to blame if anything be lost to the Master. 'Mitigate their toil by every attention, that with alacrity, rather than grief, they may fulfill their duty, arduous enough in itself, even though no unpleasantness be added on your part' (Grotius).

That. Grief in your pastors is unprofitable for you, for it weakens their spiritual power. 'The groans [ stenazontes (G4727): 'grief'] of other creatures are heard; how much more of pastors!' (Bengel): God may avenge on you their 'groaning.' If they must render God an account of their negligence, so must you for your ingratitude (Grotius).

Verse 18

Pray for us: for we trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing to live honestly.

Pray for us. Paul usually requests the church's intercessions in closing his letters, as he begins with assuring them of his having them at heart in his prayers (but in this letter not until Hebrews 13:20-21) (Romans 15:30). "Us" includes himself and his companions; he passes to himself alone, Hebrews 13:19.

We trust we have a good conscience - in spite of former jealousies, and the charges of my Jewish enemies at Jerusalem, which are the occasion of my imprisonment at Rome. In refutation of the Jews' aspersions, he asserts in the same language his own conscientiousness before God and man, Acts 23:1-3; Acts 24:16; Acts 24:20-21 (so that his reply to Ananias was not mere impatience; for it was a prophecy which he was inspired to utter, and which was fulfilled soon after). "We trust" [pepoithamen], C, Vulgate. But [ peithometha (G3982)] 'we are persuaded,' in A C Delta. Good conscience produces confidence, where the Holy Spirit rules (Romans 9:1).

Honestly, [ kalos (G2570)] - 'in a good way.' The same Greek as "good (right) conscience:" literally, rightly.

Verse 19

But I beseech you the rather to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner.

The rather, [ perissoteroos (G4056)] - 'I the more abundantly beseech you.'

To do this - to pray for me.

That I may be restored to you (Philemon 1:22). It is here first he mentions himself so unobtrusively as not to prejudice his Hebrew readers against him, which they would have been had he commenced this, as other letters, with authoritatively announcing his name and apostolic commission.

Verse 20

Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant,

Concluding Prayer.

God of peace. So Paul, Romans 15:33; Romans 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 3:16. Judaizing was calculated to sow seeds of discord, disobedience to pastors (Hebrews 13:17), and alienation toward Paul. The God of peace, by giving unity of doctrine, will unite in mutual love.

Brought again from the dead, [ anagagoon (G321)] - 'brought up,' etc.: God brought up the Shepherd; the Shepherd shall bring the flock. Here only he mentions the resurrection. He would not conclude without the connecting link between the two truths discussed-the one perfect sacrifice and the continual priestly intercession-the depth of His humiliation and the height of His glory-the "altar" of the cross and the ascension to the heavenly Holy of holies.

Lord Jesus - rise title marking His person and His Lordship. But Hebrews 13:21, "through Jesus Christ." His office, as Anointed of the Spirit, making Him the medium of communicating the Spirit to us, the unction flowing down from the Head on the members (cf. Acts 2:36).

Great (Hebrews 4:14).

Shepherd of the sheep - a title familiar to Hebrew readers, from their Old Testament (Isaiah 40:11; Isaiah 63:11 [ ton (G3588) poimena (G4166) ton (G3588) probaton (G4263)]; Septuagint): primarily Moses, antitypically Christ; already compared Hebrews 3:2-7. The transition is natural from earthly pastors (Hebrews 13:17) to the Chief Pastor, as in 1 Peter 5:1-4. Compare Ezekiel 34:23 and Jesus' words, John 10:2; John 10:11; John 10:14.

Through the blood - `in:' in virtue of the blood (Hebrews 2:9). The "blood" was seal of the everlasting covenant between the Father and Son (Hebrews 10:29); in virtue of the Son's blood, first Christ was raised (Philippians 2:6-10), then Christ's people shall be so (Zechariah 9:11, referred to here: Acts 20:28).

Everlasting - its everlastingness necessitated the resurrection. "The blood of the everlasting covenant" is a summary retrospect of the letter (cf. Hebrews 9:12).

Verse 21

Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Make you perfect - properly healing a rent [ katartisai (G2675)]: join you together in perfect harmony (Bengel).

To do his will, working in you, [ poion (G4169)] (Hebrews 10:36) - doing in you. Whatever good we do, God does in us (Philippians 2:13). Well-pleasing in his sight (Isaiah 53:10; Ephesians 5:10).

Through Jesus Christ - `God doing in you that, etc., through Jesus Christ' (Philippians 1:11).

To whom. He closes, as he began (Hebrews 1:1-14) with glory to Christ.

Verse 22

And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of exhortation: for I have written a letter unto you in few words.

Suffer the word. The Hebrews not being the section assigned to Paul (but the Gentiles), he uses gentle entreaty rather than authoritative command.

Few words - compared with what might be said on so important a subject. Few, in an letter more a treatise than an letter (cf. 1 Peter 5:12). On the seeming inconsistency with Galatians 6:11, cf. note.

Verse 23

Know ye that our brother Timothy is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.

Our brother Timothy. So Paul, 1 Corinthians 4:17; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 3:2.

Is set at liberty - from prison. So Aristarchus was imprisoned with Paul. Timothy probably, after sharing Paul's imprisonment, was set free by the death of Nero. Birks translates [ apolelumenon (G630)] 'sent away'-namely, on a mission to Greece, as Paul promised (Philippians 2:19). However, some previous detention is implied before his being let go to Philippi. Paul, though at large, was still in Italy, whence he sends salutations of Italian Christians (Hebrews 13:24), waiting for Timothy to join him, so as to start for Jerusalem. We know from 1 Timothy 1:3, he and Timothy were together at Ephesus after big departing from Italy eastward. He probably left Timothy there and went to Philippi, as he had promised. Paul implies, that if Timothy shall not come shortly, he will start on his journey to the Hebrews at once.

Verse 24

Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.

All. The Scriptures are for all young and old; not merely for ministers. Compare the different classes addressed - "wives," Ephesians 5:22; "little children," 1 John 2:18; "all," 1 Peter 3:8; 1 Peter 5:5. He says "all;" for the Hebrews were not all in one place, though the Jerusalem Hebrews are chiefly addressed.

They of Italy - not merely the brethren at Rome, but of other places in Italy.

Verse 25

Paul's characteristic salutation in every one of his other thirteen letters, as he says himself, 1 Corinthians 16:21; 1 Corinthians 16:23; Colossians 4:18; 2 Thessalonians 3:17-18. it is foiled in no letter written by any other apostle in Paul's lifetime, being known to be his badge. It is used in Revelation 22:21, subsequently and in Clement of Rome. Greek, 'The grace (namely, of our Lord Jesus Christ) be with you all.'

Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 13". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://studylight.org/commentaries/eng/jfu/hebrews-13.html. 1871-8.
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