Tuesday, May 30th, 2023
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary Garner-Howes
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Mark 15". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/
commentaries/ eng/ ghb/ mark-15.html. 1985.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Mark 15". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/
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JESUS SENT FOR TRIAL BEFORE PILATE V. 1-6
1) "And straightway in the morning," (kai euthus proi) "And immediately, without delay, early in the morning,’’ the next morning, when the morning was come, between 3 a.m. and 6 a.m., Matthew 27:1; Luke 22:66; John 18:28.
2) "The chief priests held a consultation," (sunboulion hetoirnasantes hoi archiereis) "The preparing administrative priests (arranging) a council,’’ held a council, for devious death purposes, and condemnatory and death executing design against Jesus, as prophesied Psalms 2:2.
3) "With the elders and scribes and the whole council,’’ (meta ton presubteron kai grammateon kai holon to sunedrion) "With the elders, and scribes and the whole Sanhedrin council," with whom they had already held a clandestine meeting the previous night, Mark 14:53.
4) "And bound Jesus," (desantes ton lesoun) ’’Then they bound Jesus," chained Him as if He were an hardened criminal, shackled Him with chains. The Sanhedrin court having "fixed’’ their case to present to Pilate, then bound Him to lead Him up to the hall of condemnation, to make Him publicly appear to be a notorious criminal, needing chain restraints.
5) "And carried Him away," (apenegkan) "They led Him away,’’ from where He had been detained in prison the latter part of the previous night, John 8:28. The Sanhedrin council could not under Roman law execute the death penalty. This is why they sought the approval or consent of Pilate.
6) "And delivered Him to Pilate." (kai parelokan Pilate) ’’And they delivered and gave Him over to Pilate,’’ the Roman Governor of that province, to appear before Pilate in ’’the hall of judgement,’’ Matthew 27:2; Luke 23:1; John 18:28. But these religious conspirators would not go in "lest they be defiled," as the passover was at hand.
1) ’’And Pilate asked Him," (kai eperotesen auton ho Pilatos) "And Pilate questioned Him," directly asked Him, (Jesus), Matthew 27:11.
2) "Art thou the king of the Jews?’’ (su ei ho basileuston loudaion) "Are you the king of the Jews?" Not "a" king, but "the’’ king, meaning the one who was to come to them, Matthew 27:11; Luke 23:3; John 18:33.
3) ’’And He answering said unto him," (ho de apo kritheis auto legei) ’’Then Jesus replying to him said," to the inquiry of Pilate. The early morning Sanhedrin meeting concluded with an agreement to present Jesus to Pilate as a pretender to the throne of Israel and a political danger to Caesar.
4) "Thou sayest it." (su legeis) "You said it,’’ rightly, but I have not presented myself as such, for my time for such is not now, John 18:33-38; Acts 1:6-7.
1) ’’And the high priests accused Him of many things:” (kai kategoroun autou hoi archiereis polla) "And the chief priests accused Him (charged Him) with many things," apparently to impress Pilate, after Pilate did not appear to be convinced that Jesus’ actual claim was hurtful to Caesar, Luke 23:5.
2) "But He answered nothing." (an interpolation in Mark) though used Matthew 27:12; At this composure of Jesus, and vehemence of the Sanhedrin, Pilate marvelled and responded, "I find no fault in this man," thus publicly adjudicating Him to be innocent of the trumped up charges of the Sanhedrin, Luke 23:4; and Pilate even repeated it a second time, John 18:38; Isaiah 53:9; 1 Peter 2:22.
You see Pilate could only preside over civil courts and adjudicate on civil matters, This is why the Jews changed their charges against Jesus, from blasphemy to sedition, failure to pay taxes, etc.
1) "And Pilate asked Him again, saying," (ho de Pilatos palin eperota auton [legon]) "Then Pilate quizzed Him saying," repeatedly, though he had already seen and heard enough that he did not believe Jesus was at all guilty of the bill of charges brought by the Sanhedrin, Luke 23:4.
2) "Answerest thou nothing?" (ouk apokrine ouden) "Do you make no reply at all?;" or do you not want to answer or respond to anything? And He did not, at that point.
3) "Behold how many things they witness against thee." (ide posa sou kategorousin) "You should notice of how many and how serious things they accuse you," Matthew 27:13; They even accused Him of "forbidding to pay tribute to Caesar," Luke 23:2. They lied about this and it appears that Pilate knew it, Matthew 17:27; Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17.
1) ’’But Jesus answered nothing;" (ho de lesous oiketi ouden apekeithe) "Then Jesus responded or answered no more anything they said at all,’’ for the entire arrest and arraignment had been at night, a breach of both Roman’ and Jewish law, and the charges were false, which was very evident, even to Pilate.
2) "So that Pilate marvelled." (hoste thaumazem ton Pilaton) "So that Pilate was caused to marvel, or be astounded,’’ Matthew 27:14. Pilate had never seen a prisoner like this before, Isaiah 53:7-8.
Jesus was charged before Pilate, on civil grounds of:
1) perverting the people,
2) forbidding tribute to Caesar,
3) claiming to be a king, claiming royalty, and
4) exciting edition against Caesar, which things Pilate knew, in his own mind and heart, to be fraudulent charges, unsustained by reliable evidence, Luke 23:1-5.
1) "Now at that feast," (kata de heorten) "Now at a feast," each year, a feast of unleavened bread, Matthew 27:15. When the Paschal Supper was over, a notable prisoner was released during the festival that followed, annually.
2) "He released unto them one prisoner," (apeluen autois hena desmion) ’’He released to them one chained prisoner," a felon, an indicted and imprisoned, chain-held criminal, as a custom of good-will from the Roman Governor to the Jews, Luke 23:17.
3) "Whomsoever they desired." (hon paretouton) "Whom they begged," to be released or whom they chose, by custom, John 18:39.
BARABBAS, NOT JESUS, RELEASED V. 7-15
1) "And there was one named Barabbas," (en de ho legomenos Barabbas) "Now there was the one (well known) whose name was Barabbas," called a "notable
or notorious prisoner, Matthew 27:16; Luke 23:18, and called a robber,’’ John 18:40.
2) "Which lay bound with them," (meta ton stasiaston dedemenos) "Having been bound or chained in prison confinement with the rebels," insurrectionists, Matthew 27:15-17.
3) ’’That had made insurrection with him,’’ (oitines en te stasei) "Who in the uprising or insurrection against the Roman Government," called also "sedition," Luke 23:19.
4) "Who had committed murder in the insurrection." (phonon pepoiekeisan) "Had committed murder," Luke 23:19; and was worthy of death, Genesis 9:6.
1) "And the multitude crying aloud,’’ (kai anabas ho ochlos) "And the crowd arose, stood up," (Gk. erksato) crying aloud boisterously, "all at once," Luke 23:18.
2) "Began to desire him to do,"(erksatoaiteisthai) "And they began to request, to plead with him," with Pilate to Joh, to again do, follow the practice, to repeat a practice, that had become a good-will necessity, Luke 23:19.
3) "As he had ever done unto them." (karhos epoiei autois) "To do just as he formerly had done for them," at the feast, on the occasion, Matthew 27:17.
1) ’’But Pilate answered them, saying,’’ (ho de Pilatos apekrithe autois legon) "Then Pilate answered to them saying, inquiring," Matthew 27:21 indicates that he inquired a second time to determine whether or not they preferred him to release Barabbas rather than Jesus.
2) "Will ye that I release unto you the King of the Jews?" (thelete apoluso humin ton Basilea ton loudaion) "Do you deeply wish that I may release to you the King of the Jews," Luke 23:30; John 18:39. The phrase "King of the Jews," was used by design, by Pilate, to feel the pulse-response from the masses, regarding a title so mortally offensive to the Sanhedrin. At this point he received a message from his wife, Matthew 27:19.
1) "For he knew that the chief priests," (eginosken gar hoti hoi archiereis) "Because he knew that the administrative priests," had motivated their first choice, Matthew 27:20.
2) "Had delivered Him for envy." (dia phthonon paradedokeisan auton) "Had delivered Him on account of envy," Proverbs 27:4. They were envious and jealous of Him over their jobs, as pictured Matthew 27:38; Matthew 27:18.
1) "But the chief priests moved the people," (hot de archiereis aneseisan ton ochlon) "Then the chief priests moved, around among, and stirred up the crowd,’’ at the feast day, aided and abetted by the Sanhedrin elders, Matthew 27:20; Luke 23:23.
2) "That he should rather release Barabbas unto them." (hina mallon ton Barabbas apoluse autois) "In order that he might release Barabbas rather than Jesus," Matthew 27:21; Luke 23:18. What unprincipled characters they were. It is little wonder that Jesus so often alluded to them as hypocrites.
1) "And Pilate answered and said again unto them,"(tio de Pilatos palm apokeitheris elegan autois) ’’Then Pilate responding again said to them," apparently after they had cried, ’’not Jesus, but Barabbas," John 18:40.
2) "What will ye then that I shall do unto Him," (ti oun poieso hon) "What then may I do to Him," Matthew 27:22. He sought the popular sanction of the masses, without conscience regarding the innocence of Jesus.
3) "Whom ye call the King of the Jews?" (hon legete ton Basilea ton loudion) "Whom you all call the King of the Jews?’’ Mark 15:9; Matthew 27:17; Matthew 27:22. He was there to administer Roman civil law, not usurp an adjudication, and authorize a religious oriented execution.
1) ’’And they cried again,’’ (hot de palin ekraksan) "Then they again (led by the chief priests) cried aloud,’’ it-. unison, as an incited mob, all again at once, Luke 23:18; John 18:40. They cried not testimony or evidence of evil in or of Him, but for His death.
2) "Crucify Him." (stauroson auton) "Crucify Him, "and they, the boisterous Jewish mob, cast their vote to murder Him, Acts 3:13-14; 1 Thessalonians 2:15. To them He had become a reprobate, less than three days after they had cried ’’Hosanna" to the King, Mark 11:9-11. The fickleness ana change was in the hate-incited mob, not in Jesus. The chief priests, in so short a time, had scattered the word that if they chose "The King of the Jews’’ man, (Jesus) they would not be Caesar’s friend, and could be themselves, charged as seditionists against Caesar, Mark 15:11.
1) "Then Pilate said unto them, Why,’’ (ho de Pilatos elegen autois ti) "Then Pilate replied to them the crowd, Why?’’ Matthew 27:23.
2) "What evil hath He done?" (ti gar epoiesen kakon) ’’For what? What evil has He done? to justify crucifying Him?’’ He once again certified that he had found no fault in Jesus, at all, Luke 23:22; Isaiah 53:9, "because He had no violence, neither was deceit in His mouth," 2 Peter 2:22.
3) "And they cried out the more exceedingly,’’ (hoi de perissos ’ekraksan) "Then they cried out even more boisterously," Matthew 27:22; Luke 23:23, as their cries and those of the priests prevailed.
4) "Crucify Him." (stauroson auton) "Crucify Him." They repeatedly called for His crucifixion, Matthew 27:23; Luke 23:21; Luke 23:23; John 19:15, fulfilling David’s prophecy, Psalms 69:20.
1) "And so Pilate, willing to content the people,’’ (ho de Pilatos boulomenos to ochlo to hikanon) "Then Pilate willing (minding or resolving) to satisfy the crowd," now having gotten the pulse of what the people wanted, as a political opportunist, though he knew better, and was warned against it, Luke 23:13-16; Matthew 27:19.
2) ’’Released Barabbas unto them,’’ (poiesai apelusen autois ton Barabban) "To do a favor to them released Barabbas,’’ Matthew 27:26; Luke 23:25.
3) "And delivered Jesus," (kai paredoken ton lesoun) ’’And gave up (delivered over) Jesus," Matthew 27:26; Luke 23:25. Though it was a foul thing to do, and he knew it.
4) "When he had scourged Him, to be crucified.’’ (phragellosas hino staurothe) "After he had scourged or flogged Him, in order that He might be crucified,’’ according to Roman law and Jewish custom, Matthew 27:26; John 19:1. He let the masses have their way.
JESUS MOCKED AND CROWNED WITH THORNS V. 16-23
1) ’’And the soldiers led Him away," (hoi de stratoitai apegagon auton) "Then the soldiers led Him out and away," from Pilate’s Judgement Hall, because they had charge of preparing Him for and executing Him
2) ’’Into the hall, called Praetorium;”- (eso tes autes no estin praitorion) ’’Inside the court barracks which is (called) praetorium," Isaiah 53:8; Matthew 27:27. It was the official residence of the chief magistrate.
3) "And they called together the whole band.’’ (kai sukalousin holen ten speiran) "And they called together all the cohort (band),’’ Pilate’s body guard, their comrads, to have some sport with, to deride and mock Jesus.
1) "And they clothed Him’ with purple," (kai endiduskousin auton prophuran) "And they dressed Him with a purple robe," a purple garment, a symbol of royalty, John 19:5; Matthew 27:28; also called scarlet, Matthew 27:28; Psalms 69:19.
2) "And platted a crown of thorns," (kai pleksantes akanthinon) "And they platted a thorny crown," a crown laced with thorns, Genesis 3:18; Matthew 27:29. They did it in mimicry of laurel wreaths worn at times by Caesars.
3) "And put it about His head." (peritiheasin auto) "And placed it (put it) around His head," as He was made to be sin for us, 2 Corinthians 5:21; Galatians 3:13.
1) "And began to salute Him," (kai erksato aspazesthai auton) "And they began to salute (greet Him)," with the words, repeatedly saying in cynical derision and mockery, making fun of Him - - One day they shall "cry" and He shall laugh, Proverbs 1:24-32.
2) "Hail, king of the Jews!" (chaire basileu ton loudaion) ’’Hail, (to you) King of the Jews," in mocking derision, in scorn; "Joy to you King of the Jews," Matthew 27:29; Isaiah 53:3-12 was fulfilled on that great day, as this humiliation continued until His death, Galatians 3:13.
1) "And they smote Him on the head with a reed," (kai etupton autou ten kephalen kelamo) "And they struck His head with a reed,’’ while the crown of thorns was upon it, Matthew 26:67; Matthew 27:30; then put the thorn-ribbed reed in His right hand, as a mock sceptre, Matthew 27:29.
2) "And did spit upon Him," (kai enuptuon auto) ’’And they spat at Him," toward Him and upon Him, as in Mark 15:30-31; Matthew 27:30; Psalms 22:6; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 53:3; Zechariah 13:7. Prophecies regarding this hour.
3) "And bowing their knees worshipped Him." (kai tithentes ta gonata prosekunoun) "And bending their knees, (in mock humility) they worshipped toward Him," vilifying Him in mock derision, Matthew 27:29.
1) "And when they had mocked Him," (kai hote enepaiksan auto) "And when they had mocked Him, ’ when they mocked Him for a time, and were finished, Matthew 27:31.
2) ’’They took off the purple from Him,’’ (eksedusan auton ten prophuran) "They took off and from Him the purple robe,’’ also called a scarlet robe by Matthew, likely both purple and scarlet, colors indicating royalty, Matthew 27:28.
3) "And put His own clothes on Him," (kai enedusan auton ta himatia autou) "And put on Him His own garments,’’ or clothes, Matthew 27:31.
4) "And Ied Him out to crucify Him." (kai eksagousin auton hina staurososin auton) "And they led Him forth (out and away) in order that they might crucify Him," Hebrews 13:11-14; outside the walls of the holy city, away from the Roman praetorium court area where they had mocked and derided Him, John 19:16. For He did suffer and die, as Divinely appointed, rejected by His own, "without the city," away from the Holy place, counted as a criminal heathen by His own people, John 1:11-12; Isaiah 53:3-12; Hebrews 13:12; to die an accursed death, Galatians 3:13.
1) "And they compel one Simon a Cyrenian," (kai anggareuousin tina Simona Kurenaion) "And they impress or impel a certain man, Simon a Cyrenian," of the continent of Africa, thought to be a black man, Matthew 27:32.
2) "Who passed by, coming out of the country," (paragonta erchomenon ap agrou) ’’Who coming away from the country, was passing by," along the street area now called Via Dolorosa (the way of the cross).
3) "The father of Alexander and Rufus," (ton patera Aleksandrou kai Hrouphou) "The father of Alexander and of Rufus,’’ It is believed that this is the same Rufus and his mother mentioned Romans 16:13, who was "chosen in the Lord.’’
4) "To bear His cross." (hina are ton stauron autou) "In order that he might bear the cross of Him, (of Jesus)," who now was physically weakened, nigh exhausted, Luke 23:26.
It appears that Jesus had become so weakened physically through the all night ordeal of His trial, His being humiliated, slapped, bruised with a reed, whipped with the cat-o-nine-tails, and crowned with thorns till blood ran down His face, that He had become almost too weak to walk, could not bear His cross all the way to Calvary, though He "went forth’’ at first "bearing His cross," John 19:17.
1) "And they bring Him unto the place Golgotha," (kai pherousin auton epi ton Golgothan topon) "And they brought Him out and upon the place (known as) Golgatha," North of the Holy temple area, outside the city walls, Matthew 27:33; Hebrews 13:12.
2) "Which is being interpreted," (ho estin methermneuomenos) "Which is (when) interpreted," also known as Calvary, Luke 23:33. Golgatha is the Hebrew name and Calvary is the Greek name of the place.
3) ’’The place of a skull." (kramiou topos) "The place of a cranium," or a skull, Matthew 27:33; Note, as Jesus left the Judgement Hall, or court area, He was "bearing His cross,’’ Himself, but on the way to Calvary it was taken by Simon of Cyrene, John 19:17; Matthew 27:32.
1) "And they gave Him to drink," (kai edidoun auto) "And they gave to Him to drink," the Roman soldiers passed or held up to Him, to His lips, tried to give to Him as His hands were nailed to the cross (Luke 23:36) while mocking Him; They offered Him,
2) "Wine mingled with myrrh:”(esmurnismenon oinon) "Wine that had been spiced with myrrh," a stupifying drink, apparently sour vinegar wine, with bitter gall dregs, mixed with the spice myrrh, as prophesied, Psalms 69:21; Matthew 27:34.
3) "But He received it not." (hos de ouk elaben) "But He did not take it," would not receive and drink it, Matthew 27:34. That He might taste death for every man, Hebrews 2:9. After He tasted the drugged potion, He refused to drink it, because He knew it was meant to stupefy, for He chose to die the death of the cross in its full pain and torment, Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24; 1 Peter 3:18.
JESUS CRUCIFIED V. 24-41
1) "And when they had crucified Him," (kai staurousin autou) ’’And there they crucify Him," put Him to death, or nailed Him to a cross to die on Golgatha. After they had completed nailing, fastening Him, inescapably to the cross, Luke 23:33; John 19:23. All this was done to fulfill the prophecy, Psalms 22:18.
2) "They parted His garments," (kai diamerizontai ta hinatia autou) "And there (near the cross) they divided His garments,’’ into four parts, among the soldiers, who took His clothes as loot, Matthew 27:35; Luke 23:34.
3) "Casting lots upon them, what every man should take.’’ (ballontes kleron ep’ auta tis ti are) "Casting a lot upon them (upon the garments) what each of them might take;" There appears to have been four soldiers who crucified Him, who divided His garments into four parts, and divided the loot, then they cast lots for His coat, John 19:23-24.
1) "And it was the third hour," (en de hora trite) "Now it was the third hour of the day," about nine o’ clock in the morning, as the sun rose brightly in the Eastern sky; all was hastily done through the night, and early morning hours, before the masses of people could know what was happening, except the hand-picked crowd assembled early by the Jewish leaders to cry crucify Him, crucify Him, Mark 15:11-15.
2) "And they crucified Him." (kai estaurosan) "And they crucified Him there," in the setting, on Golgotha. Here the law was fulfilled, Matthew 5:17-18; Galatians 3:11-14.
1) "And the superscription," (kai he epigraphe) "And the writing," superscription, or written sign, the title as it was described by John 19:19; Luke 23:38; It was written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, John 19:20.
2) "Of His accusation was written over," (tis haitias autou epigegrammene) "Of the accusation which had been written and was placed over Him,’’ over His head, and written in three languages, Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, as He hung on the cross, announcing the crime for which He was being put to death.
3) "THE KING OF THE JEWS." (Ho basileue ton loudaion) "The King of the Jews," What a crime! and yet, that is, who He was, a Savior and a King, rejected, Matthew 27:37; Luke 23:33; John 19:19-20. The entire accusation based on the four Gospels reads "This is Jesus of Nazareth, the king of the Jews."
1) "And with Him they crucified two thieves;” (kai sun auto staurousin duo lestas) "And with Him, very closely, they also crucified two robbers," two thieves, also called malefactors, Luke 23:32. This too was to fulfill the prophecy, ’’He was numbered with the transgressors."
2) "The one on His right hand," (hena ek deksion) "The one they crucified, just out to His right," to the right side of Him, Matthew 27:38; Luke 23:33.
3) "And the other on His left." (kai hena eks euonumon autou) "And one (the other) they crucified on, or just out to His left," Matthew 27:38; Luke 23:33. The two were perhaps companions of Barabbas, who escaped the death due him as an insurrectionist, for similar crimes for which they were dying.
1) "And the scripture was fulfilled, which saith," (kai eplerothe he legousa) "And at that moment was fulfilled what had been written in the scriptures," quoted from Isaiah 53:9; Isaiah 53:12, as follows:
2) "And He was numbered with the transgressors." (kai, meta anomon elogisthe) "And He was numbered, or reckoned, or identified with the law breakers, transgressors," to die as a law-breaker, as a transgressor dies, Deuteronomy 21:23; Luke 22:37; Galatians 3:13; 1 Peter 2:24.
1) "And they that passed by railed on Him," (kai hoi paraporeumenoi) "And those who pass by blasphemed Him," spoke to Him in a derogatory, condemnatory, mean and demeaning manner, fulfilling prophecies of Psalms 22:6-7; Psalms 109:25.
2) "Wagging their heads and saying," (kinountes tas kephalas auton ksi legontes) ’’Wagging their heads and repeatedly saying, in taunts of derision,’’ Matthew 27:39; Psalms 22:7-13.
3) "Ah, thou that destroyest the temple," (oua ho kataluon ton naon) "Ah, you who Would overthrow the temple shrine,’’ which He never desired to do or claimed that He would do, Matthew 27:40; but they persisted in perverting what He did say, John 2:19.
4) "And buildest it in three days." (kai oikodomon [on] trisin hemerais) "And build (or rebuild) it in three days," a false, lying claim in perverting His words, as He hung there on the cross, John 2:19-21.
1) "Save thyself," (soson seauton) "Just save or deliver yourself,’’ Matthew 27:40; Luke 23:35.
2) "And come down from the cross." (katabas apo tou staurou) "Coming down (just comedown) from (and off of) the cross," repeatedly they said it, in derision and scorn, Matthew 27:42.
1) "Likewise also the chief priests mocking," (homoios kai hoi archiereis empaizontes) "In a similar manner also the chief (Executive, administrative) priests repeatedly mocked," Matthew 27:41.
2) "Said among themselves with the scribes," (pros allelous meta ton grammateon elegon) "And with the scribes they said to one another, repeatedly," Luke 23:35. In chuckling blasphemy this motley horde of apostate religious leaders made sport of Jesus.
3) "He saved others;” (allous esosen) "Others He saved," Matthew 27:42. This was a glorious admission of truth, the purpose for which He came into the world, John 3:17; Luke 19:10.
4) "Himself He cannot save." (heauton ou dunatai sosai) "Himself He is not able to save," or deliver from the cross and from death, Matthew 27:42; By saving His life in the physical sense, He would have lost it in the higher spiritual sense, Mark 8:35.
1) "Let Christ the King of Israel," (ho Christos ho basileus Israel) "The Christ who is the king of Israel," so-called, if He be the king, Matthew 27:42.
2) "Descend now from the cross," (katabato nun apo tou-staurou) "Let Him now and forever, (for good) come down from the cross," Matthew 27:42.
3) "That we may see and believe." (hina idomen kai pisteuomen) "In order that we may see and believe," Matthew 27:43. The Roman soldiers joined in the same blasphemy, Luke 23:36-37. How much they had already seen, yet had not believed, John 8:24; Romans 3:3.
4) "And they that were crucified with Him reviled Him." (kai hoi sunestauromenoi sun auto oneidizon auton) "And those (two robbers or thieves) who were crucified in close association with Him on Golgatha, hanging near Him on either side, reproached Him or reviled Him also," or "cast the same in His teeth," Matthew 27:44. Tho Luke recounts that one of the thieves was later converted, turned in sincerity to Jesus Christ, even there while dying on the cross, Luke 23:39-43.
1) "And when the sixth hour was come," (kai genomenes horas hektes) "And when it was the sixth hour," or "about the sixth hour," of the day, high noon, that is midday, about three hours after Jesus was nailed to the cross, Matthew 27:45; Luke 23:44.
2) "There was darkness over the whole land," (skotos egeneto eph’ holen ton gen) "There came to be darkness (a blackout) an expression of Divine judgement upon and over the whole land;" A supernatural symbol of sin and sorrow, Matthew 27:45; or over the whole earth, Luke 23:44.
3) "Until the ninth hour."(heos horas enates) "Until the ninth hour of that day," or until three o’clock, that is mid-afternoon, for the space of about three hours, Matthew 27:45; Luke 23:44.
1) "And at the ninth hour," (kai te enate hora) "And at the point of the ninth hour," in mid-afternoon, at three o’clock, after He had hung on the cross about six hours, from the third hour of the day, Mark 15:25; Matthew 27:46.
2) "Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying," (eboesen ho lesous phone megale) "Jesus cried very loudly, with a megaphone-like voice," Matthew 27:46, a loud, expansive cry, in fulfillment of David’s prophetic words, Psalms 22:1; Psalms 88:14.
3) "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthanai?" (eloi, eloi, lama sabachthani) "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani" Matthew 27:46.
4) "Which is being interpreted," (ho estin methermeneuomenon) "Which is when having been interpreted," or that is said to be, Matthew 27:46.
5) "My God, my God," (ho theos mou, ho theos mou) "The God of me, The God of me," or "My God, my God," Matthew 27:46.
6) "Why hast thou forsaken me?" (eis ti egkatelipes me) "Why did you forsake or have you forsaken me?" Matthew 27:46.
Mark gave the Aramaic form of the direct address of Jesus to His Father, while Matthew gives the Gk. (ho, theos mou, ho theos mou) The cry was a cry of a deserted one forlorn, suffering alone, Isaiah 53:12; The answer of “why" is given, 2 Corinthians 5:21.
1) "And some of them that stood by," (kai tines ton parestekoton) "And some of those who were standing by."
2) "When they heard it," (akosantes elegon) "Upon hearing what He said," Matthew 27:47. When He said "I thirst."
3) "Said, behold, He calleth Elias," (ide Elian phonei) "Behold, He calls (for) Elias," or He is calling Elias, Matthew 27:49. In scorn they said it.
1) "And one ran and filled a sponge full of vinegar," (dramon de tis gemisas spongon oksous) "Then a certain one when he had filled a sponge with vinegar running like a dromedary," in an uncoordinated manner, This prophetic event was also foretold by David, Psalms 69:21; Matthew 27:48; A similar thing had occurred about six hours earlier, when He was first crucified, Matthew 27:34.
2) "And put it in a reed, and gave Him to drink, saying," (peritheis kalamo epotizen auton legon) "Placing it (the sponge) around a reed he reached it up, to Him to drink, repeatedly saying," to the noisy crowd, Matthew 27:48.
3) "Let alone; let us see," (aphete idomen)"Leave it off, cut it out, let us see or watch to see," as His life will be prolonged by the drugged potion, the sedative, Matthew 27:49.
4) "Whether Elias will come to take Him down." (ei erchetai Elias kathelein auton) "Whether or not Elias will come to loose Him or to take Him down," to release Him from the cross, an apparent sarcasm of play on the word Eloi that sounded like Elias.
1) "And Jesus cried with a loud voice," (ho de lesous apheis phone megale) "Then Jesus (again) letting go a loud voice," a second time, with a great sound, Matthew 27:50; as He had done before, Mark 15:34. The Gk. "palin," used by Matthew, means "a second time."
2) "And gave up the Ghost." (eksepneusen) "He expired, died, or gave up, dismissed the Spirit," expired of His own will, choice, or accord, voluntarily, John 10:17-18; John 19:19, and He cried "It is finished;" a victor’s cry, Matthew 27:50; Luke 23:46.
1) "And the veil of the temple was rent in twain," (kai to katapetama tou naou eschisthe eis duo) "And the veil of the temple-shrine was rent (torn) into two pieces," or in the midst, symbolizing the end of Judaism, Matthew 27:51; as the sun was darkened, Luke 23:45; fulfilling the prophecy of Amos 8:9.
2) "From the top to the bottom." (ap’anothen heoskato) "Away from the top, as far as, or all the way to the bottom," not from the bottom upward, as if torn by man. Matthew 27:51 adds that "at this time the earth did quake (or tremble) and the rocks rent," shifted, cracked, moved in the earth layers or strata.
1) "And when the centurion, which stood over against Him," (idon de ho kenturion ho parestekos eks enantias autou) "Then when the centurion who stood out opposite from Him," Matthew 27:54; recounted also as the centurion who glorified God as a righteous man, Luke 23:47.
2) "Saw that He so cried out," (hoti houtos) "Saw that He thus let ’go of a very loud cry," to the extent that nature’s God of Judgement shook and rent the earth with a quake, as if to say "this is why I have forsaken you," Matthew 27:54.
3) "And gave up the Ghost," (eksepneusen) "That He thus expired, died, or gave up His spirit," fear came upon him, an overwhelming fear, Matthew 27:54.
4) "He said, truly this man was the Son of God." (eipen alethos houtos ho anthropos huios theou en) "He said truly, (surely or certainly) this man was the Son of God," Matthew 27:54; As also recounted Luke 23:47; He declared also Jesus to be a righteous man, Romans 10:10; 2 Corinthians 5:21.
1) "There were also women looking on afar off:” hesan de kai gunaikes apo makrothen theorousai) "Then there were also women from afar (from the country of Galilee) observing, watching, or auditing this event;" Matthew adds "Many women," and a "great company of people," who had beheld Him and bewailed, from a distance, Matthew 27:55; Luke 23:27; Luke 23:48-49.
2) "Among whom was Mary Magdalene," (en hais kai Maria he Magdalene) "Among whom was Mary Magdalene, of Magdale, near Capernaum, in Galilee," out of whom Jesus had cast seven unclean or demon spirits, Luke 8:2.
3) "And Mary the mother of:"(kai Maria he meter)"And Mary the mother of," the following, Matthew 27:56. See also her sister Mary, the mother of Jesus, John 19:25.
a) "James the less," (labobou tou mikrou) "James the little one," the less, also ca I led the "Son of Alphaeus," the son of Mary, the sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus. He was a cousin of the Lord, also an apostle, Matthew 10:3, and author of the book of James.
b) "And of Joses," (kai losetos) "And the mother of Joses," who also had a cousin by the same name, Matthew 13:55. Note two sisters were called Mary and two cousins of the two Marys were called Joses.
c) "And Salome." (kai Salome) "And Salome" the mother of Zebedee’s children, also mentioned Mark 16:1. The word Salome means "perfect" whole, or mature.
1) "(Who also when He was in Galilee," (hai hote en te Galilaia) "Which ones when He was (was laboring) in Galilee," Luke 23:49.
2) "Followed Him, and ministered unto Him;)" (akolouthoun auto kai diekonoun auto) "Followed Him, and attended to Him," to His common physical needs, Matthew 27:55.
3) "And many other women which came up," (kai allai pollai hai sunanbasai) "And many others (other women) who had come up," (from Galilee) in His company, band of followers, or chosen ones.
4) "With Him unto Jerusalem." (auto eis lerosoluma) "in colleague (close affinity) with Him into Jerusalem." These also constituted early members of His church, who had been chosen in Galilee, and companied with Him, from the beginning, and stood by later, as He ascended into heaven, John 15:16; John 15:27; Acts 1:10-11.
THE BURIAL OR ENTOMBMENT V. 42-47
1) "And now when the even was come," (kai edeopsias genomens) "And now (at this moment) when it was evening," about 6 P.M. of the day, Matthew 27:57.
2) "Because it was the preparation," (epeen paraskeve) "Since it was the preparation," as the sabbath, weekly sabbath, drew nigh, Luke 23:54, and it was unlawful to take the body from the cross after the sabbath began.
3) "That is, the day before the sabbath," (ho estin prosabbaton) "Which is (exists as) the day preceding the sabbath," the seventh day sabbath, John 19:31; John 19:42. It was a time devoted to preparing for the Sabbath.
1) "Joseph of Arimathaea, an honorable counsellor," (loseph ho apo harimathaias euschemon bouleutes) "The Joseph who was from Arimathaea," who was known as an honorable counsellor," of the Jerusalem council, a rich man, and a disciple of Jesus, Matthew 27:57.
2) "Which also waited for the kingdom of God,"(hoskai autos en prosdechomenos ten basileian tou theou) "Who himself was also anticipating the kingdom of God," with the disciples from Galilee, a good man and a just man," who also had not consented to the Sanhedrin counsel and deed of them," the Jews, in murdering Jesus, Luke 23:51-52.
3) "Came, and went in boldly unto Pilate," (elthon tolmesas eiselthen pros ton Pilaton) "Coming, taking courage boldly, he went directly to Pilate," Matthew 27:58; Luke 23:52; John 19:38.
4) "And craved the body of Jesus." (kai etesata tosoma tou lesou) "And asked (to have) the body (corpse) of Jesus," Matthew 27:57; Luke 23:52; John 19:38. He urged Pilate to grant him permission to take away from Calvary the body of Jesus for burial. It was not the Roman custom to remove the bodies of the crucified from the cross, or permit them to be removed so soon.
1) "And Pilate marvelled if He were already dead" (ho de Pilatos ethaumasen ei ded tethneken) "Then Pilate marvelled, doubted if He were already (now) dead," for death by crucifixion normally took seventy-two hours, and seldom occurred in less than thirty six hours.
2) "And calling to him the centurion," (kai proskalesamenos ton kenturion) "And calling the centurion to him," for information, the captain of the Roman Guard who had overseen the crucifixion, who had become convinced already that Jesus was "The Son of God," Mark 15:39; Luke 23:47; Matthew 27:54.
3) "He asked him whether He had been any while dead." (eperotesen auton ei palai apethanen) "He quizzed, inquired of (or ascertained from) him, if He died, and if so, how long ago?" If He was actually dead, already dead? He was, Mark 15:37.
1) "And when he knew it of the centurion," (kai gnous apo tou kenturionos) "And when it was verified by the centurion," captain of the Roman Guard who heard His final cry, His last gasps of breath, and the earthquake, Matthew 27:54; Luke 23:46-47.
2) "He gave the body to Joseph." (ediresato to ptoma to loseph) "He granted the corpse to Joseph," to care for or oversee the legal burial, Matthew 27:58; Luke 23:53; John 19:38.
1) "And he bought fine linen," (kai agorasas sindona) "And having bought or purchased a piece of unused linen," to give Him a temporary burial preparation, until the Sabbath was passed, John 19:41-42.
2) "And took Him down," (kathleon auton) "He took Him down," from, and off of, the cross, Luke 23:53.
3) "And wrapped Him in the linen," (eneilesen te sindoni) "Wrapped (Him) with the linen," called by Matthew "a clean linen cloth," Matthew 27:59; Luke 23:53.
4) "And laid Him in a sepulchre," (kai katetheken auton en mnemati) "And deposited Him in a tomb," Matthew 27:60; Luke 23:53, where it was added "never man before was laid," Joseph’s own tomb.
5) ’’Which was hewn out of a rock," (ho en lelato memenon ek petras) "Which was already hewn out of a rock," Matthew 27:60; Luke 23:53.
6) "And rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre." (kai prosekulisen lithon epi ten thrran tou mnemeiou) "And he rolled a stone upon the door of the tomb entrance," Matthew 27:60, a very large and heavy stone, Mark 16:3.
1) "And Mary Magdalene," (he de Maria he Magdalene) "Then the Mary Magdalene," of Magdala, in Galilee, out of whom Jesus cast seven unclean spirits or demons, Matthew 27:60; Luke 8:2.
2) "And Mary the mother of Joses.." (kai Maria he losetos) "And Mary who was the mother of Joses," the Mary who was also the sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus, Matthew 27:60; John 19:25.
3) "Beheld where He was laid." (etheoroun pou tetheitai) "They beheld where He had been laid," Luke 23:55, which accounts for their going there later to anoint Him for burial, after they had rested through the Sabbath day, Luke 23:56.
BURIAL OF CHRIST
"There is another fact which was never denied either; and that is, that Christ was buried: no one ever doubted that, no one ever controverted that. He was buried, however, in a particular manner, just as He died in a particular manner. The sepulchre of Christ was an aperture in a rock, a hole cavity hewn out of a natural rock. So there was no approaching the sepulchre of Christ but by the mouth of it; there was no undermining it, there was no sapping and mining it, by which the corpse might have been abstracted, by which it might have been taken away some other way than the way it was put in; there was no way of the body getting out of the grave but by the way it got in, namely, by the mouth of the sepulchre. But the mouth of the sepulchre was shut up, sealed up, fortified with a great stone rolled against its mouth. The stone was sealed with royal arms, the imperial signet was attached to the stone, the sepulchre of Christ was hermetically sealed; so that it was supposed it could never be infringed upon, never could be violated ’ and to make it still more inviolatable, it was guarded by Rome’s veteran legions. It was never denied, then, that Christ was buried."