Tuesday, May 30th, 2023
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
the Week of Proper 3 / Ordinary 8
Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary Garner-Howes
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of Blessed Hope Foundation and the Baptist Training Center.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Mark 14". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/
commentaries/ eng/ ghb/ mark-14.html. 1985.
Garner, Albert & Howes, J.C. "Commentary on Mark 14". Garner-Howes Baptist Commentary. https://studylight.org/
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THE PLOT TO PUT JESUS TO DEATH, V. 1, 2 (The Passion History)
1) "After two days was the feast of the passover," (en de to pascha meta duo hemeras) "Now after two days was the passover," coming up, approaching, or near at hand, Matthew 26:1-2.
2) "And of unleavened bread:”- (kai ta azuma) "And(the feast of) the unleavened bread," Luke 22:1-2; It was the month of Nisan and the Passover began on the 14th day of the month, Exodus 13:2; Exodus 13:6. The feast began on the 15th and lasted seven days, Exodus 12:14-15.
3) "And the chief priests and the scribes," (kai hoi archiereis kai hoi grammateis) "And (at that time) the chief or leading priests and the scribes," writers and guardians of Moses’ Law scrolls and legal Jewish documents.
4) "Sought how they might take Him by craft," (ezetoun pos auton en dolo kratesantes) "Sought how they might kidnap Him by guile or treachery." They had their minds already fixed in collusion to take and murder Jesus - - the how, when, and where that such could be done disturbed them, Matthew 26:4.
5) "And put Him to death." (apokteinosin) "And murder Him," with premeditated malice aforethought, Genesis 9:6; The motley, religious, liquidation-squad considered of: 1) The chief (administrative) priests, 2) The scribes (writers and archives keepers of the Law), and 3) The elders(Sanhedrin), and 4) Caiphas, the High Priest of Jewery, Matthew 26:3. The Sanhedrin had decided after Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, some time before this, that some way must be devised to put Jesus to death, because He put their jobs in jeopardy, John 11:53. But the popularity of Jesus made it difficult, Luke 22:2; Mark 12:37; Luke 19:48.
1) "But they said," (elegon gar) "For they said," as they plotted among themselves, in the planning, plotting, collusion session that met, was held, at the palace of Caiphas, the High Priest, Matthew 26:3.
2) "Not on the feast day," (me en te heorte) "We must not plan to do it on the feast day," when the general public, who held Jesus in high esteem, was out in force, Matthew 26:5. The Sanhedrin knew that Jesus was highly influential with the populace who received Him gladly.
3) "Lest there be an uproar of the people." (mepote estai thorubos tou laou) "Lest there come to be an uprising (disturbance) among the people," for they feared the people greatly, lest the seizing of Jesus should cause a riot, uprising among the common masses with whom Jesus was popular, Matthew 26:5; Luke 19:48; Luke 20:19; Luke 22:2.
IN BETHANY MARY ANOINTS JESUS, V. 3-9
1) "And being in Bethany," (kai ontos autou en Bethania) "And He being in Bethany," when He was in Bethany, six days before the passover, John 12:1-11, some two miles East of Jerusalem, home also of Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, John 11:1 to John 12:8.
2) "In the house of Simon the leper," (en te oikia Simnos tou leprou) "In the house (residence or home) of Simon the leper," Matthew 21:17, whom Jesus had healed of his leprosy; Lazarus provided the meal, Martha served, Mary anointed Jesus, Simon provided the place, John 12:1-11.
3) "As He sat at meat," (katakeimonou autou) ’’As He was reclining,’’ at or following a leisurely meal, Luke 7:36,50; John 12:2; John 12:4)
4) "There came a woman having an alabaster box,’’ (elthen gune echousa alabastron) "A woman came who had an alabaster vial or bottle," Mary, sister of Martha of Bethany, John 12:3. The perfume jar was made of the famous alabaster of Egypt.
5) ’’Of ointment of spikenard very precious;”- (murou nardou pistikes polutelous) "Of a very costly nard, or (spikenard) ointment," Matthew 26:7. The term spikenard identified the spike’shaped nard flower from which the perfume was made.
6) "And she brake the box," (suntripsasa ten alabastr) "And she brake the alabaster vial,’’ or broke the seal on the bottle or vial that the perfume might quickly anoint Him and perfume the room with fragrance.
7) "And poured it on His head." (kalecheen autou tes kephales) "Then poured it upon His head," anointing Him as a king or an high priest, both of which He was, as being prepared for burial, as recounted Matthew 26:7; John 12:3; While Luke 7:38; Luke 7:46 indicates His feet were also anointed.
1) "And there were some," (esan de tines) "Then there were certain ones;- Mark doesn’t say who, but Matthew says "the disciples" and John specifically identified " Judas Iscariot,’’ who carried the money bag, Matthew 26:8; John 12:4; John 12:6.
2) "That had indignation within themselves," (aganaktountes pros heautous) "Who boiled or brewed with inner indignation" From the above references it appears that Judas led the loud complaint against Mary and against Jesus for accepting this expensive honor.
3) "And said," (eis ti) "Just why," give one good, logical reason, Matthew 26:8; But God’s thoughts are higher, of a higher order, than man’s thoughts, Isaiah 55:8-9.
4) "Why was this waste of the ointment made?" (he apoleia aute tou murou gegonen) "Why has this waste of ointment, (myrrh) occurred?" In whose judgement and wisdom was it wasted? This is a specific example that the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God, or compared with the wisdom of God. 1 Corinthians 1:25; 1 Corinthians 3:19.
Expensive or costly gifts from men express a crucifixion of their unselfishness and a sincere adoration of and faith in God, which is well accepted of Him, 2 Samuel 24:24.
1) "For it might have been sold," (edunato gar touto to mutou prathenai) "For this vial of ointment was able to have been sold,’’ traded or exchanged.
2) "For more than three hundred pence," (epano denarion triakosion) "For over three hundred denari (pence)," above three hundred pence in price or value, (nine pounds), demonstrating that "The love of money is the root of all (all kinds of) evil,’’ 1 Timothy 6:10-11. Judas using other people’s money, would help the poor, to hide his own covetousness.
3) "And have been given to the poor.’’ (kai dothenai tois ptochois) "And that money could have been doled out, given to the poor." They cared little or nothing for the poor - - Like cheap politicians they said whatever they thought would put the most people on their side, Matthew 26:9.
4) "And they murmured against her,’’ (kai enebeimonto aute) "And they were indignant with her," they murmured, complained, found fault with her, Much as ."social-dogooders," communists, and infidels find fault with money and time given by others that is spent for the expense of church buildings, church equipment, teaching material, and even the elements of the Lord’s supper. Those who joined in this extended complaint with Judas Iscariot were the Jews (Pharisees) who had come to the feast as a guest of Simon, John 12:9-11; Luke 7:36-50.
1) "And Jesus said, Let her alone;" (ho de lesous eipen aphete autou) "Then Jesus said, Leave her alone, get away from her," stop deriding her, layoff her, don’t hinder her work, John 12:7.
2) "Why trouble ye her?" (ti aute kopouse parechete) "Why do you all cause her trouble?" Why do you all try to stir up trouble against her? Matthew 5:11-12.
3) "She hath wrought a good work on me." (kalon ergon ergasato en emoi) "She wrought an ideal (a beautiful) noble work in me (in behalf of me)," Matthew 26:10.
1) "For ye have the poor with you always," (pantote gar tous ptochous echete meth’ heauton) "For you all have the poor within your midst always, or continually," to do good to them, Matthew 26:11; John 12:8.
2) "And whensoever ye will ye may do them good:-(kai hotan thelete dunasthe autois eu poiesai) "Anytime you really wish to do so, you can do them a kind deed, or do well to them," James 4:17. To do good in one area does not preclude doing good in another one of charity, 2 Corinthians 8:12; Deuteronomy 15:11; Galatians 6:10.
3) "But me ye have not always." (eme de ou pantote echete) "Yet, you do not have me always," Matthew 26:11; Luke 5:34-35; John 12:8; John 16:28. The willing minded person will always have or find enough for all honorable purposes.
1) "She hath done what she could:”- (ho eschen epoiesen) "What she had, she did (with it) what she did," the best she could, and what in conviction and good conscience she could, what she had to do in her own conscience.
2) "She is come aforehand," (proelaben) "She is (and has) beforehand come," before my death and burial. Anointing was normally done in connection with preparation for burial of a body that was already dead, John 19:40.
3) "To anoint my body to the burying." (murisai to soma mou eis ton entaphiasmai) "To anoint my body with reference to the burial," John 12:7 that was soon to come, Matthew 26:12. It, like Caiphas’ words, was prophetic, John 11:50-51.
1) "Verily I say unto you," (amen de lego humin) "Truly I tell you all," both His disciples, His host, and the murmuring, Judas Iscariot and Pharisees of Jewery, John 12:9; Luke 7:36-50.
2) "Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached," (hopou ean keruchthe to euangelion) "Wherever the gospel is proclaimed," witnessed or told, Mark 1:14-15.
3) "Throughout the whole world," (eis holon ton kosmon) "Into all (parts of) the world," by the church and His witnesses in this age, Matthew 28:18-20; Mark 16:15; Acts 1:8.
4) "This also that she hath done,"(kai ho epoiesen aute) "What also this woman has done," the anointing of Jesus Mark 14:3.
5) "Shall be spoken of for a memorial of her." (lalethesetai eis mnemosunon autes) "Will be spoken (repeatedly told) as a memorial or tribute of her," of her true faith, Matthew 26:9.
JUDAS COVENANTS TO BETRAY JESUS, V. 10, 11
1) "And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve," (kai loudas Iskanoth ho eis ton dodeka) "And Judas Iscariot, the one of the twelve," (the Judas who was one of the twelve apostles), as prophesied, Psalms 41:9; Psalms 55:12-14.
2) "Went unto the chief priests," (apelthen pros tous archeireis) "Went directly to the chief priests," the administrative priests of Jewery who met in a former session of collusion for the betrayal, seizure, and murder of Jesus, Mark 14:1; Matthew 26:14; Luke 22:4.
3) "To betray Him unto them”- (hina auton paradoi autois) "In order (for the purpose) that he might betray Him (Jesus) give Him over to them," as foretold also by Jesus, John 13:18-19. The spirit of the traitor is described Jeremiah 9:4; Jeremiah 9:9.
1) "And when they heard it, they were glad," (hoi de akosantes ercharisan) "Then when they heard it, they were caused to be glad," the "they" refers to the administrative priests of Jewery who helped form the murder plot against Jesus, Matthew 26:3-6.
2) "And promised to give him money." (kai epenngeilanto auto argurion dounai) "And they promised, contracted to give him (Judas) money, (silver money)," to secure his aid in the plot, Matthew 26:15. The amount was thirty pieces of silver, as prophesied Zechariah 11:11-13; Matthew 27:9-10.
3) ’’And he sought how he might conveniently betray Him." (kai ezetei pos auton eukairos paradoi) "And he sought how he might opportunely betray Jesus," while the people slept at night, John 3:19-20; Matthew 26:16. Thereafter, six days before the Passover feast, Judas watched for the right moment to betray Jesus to the Jewish leaders, in such a manner so as to avoid a public scene or riot, so he did it at night, John 12:1-11; Luke 22:5-6; Luke 22:21; Luke 22:23; Luke 22:47-48.
PREPARATION FOR THE ANNUAL PASSOVER V. 12-16
1) ’’And the first day of unleavened bread," (kai te prote hemera ton azumon) "And on the first day of the unleavened bread," six days after our Lord’s last trip into Bethany, during which time Judas Iscariot left the common meal supper at Simon the leper’s and went away to enter covenant to betray Jesus later, John 12:1; John 13:21-30.
2) "When they killed the passover," (hote to pascha ethuon) "When they sacrificed, (slew or killed) the passover lamb,’’ denoting the 14th day of Nisan, to be specific, on the annual passover sabbath, Exodus 12:6; Exodus 12:8.
3) "His disciples said unto Him," (legousin auto hoi mathetai autou) "His disciples inquired to Him," Matthew 26:17.
4) ’’Where wilt thou that we go,’’ (pou theleis apelthontes) ’’Where do you wish that we go,’’ Luke 22:8-9, The question was asked in the forenoon of the evening of the 14th day of Nisan, Exodus 12:6; Exodus 12:8.
5) ’’And prepare that thou mightest eat the passover?" (hetoimasomen hina phages to pascha) "in order that we may prepare that you may eat the passover?" this evening, Matthew 26:17.
1) "And He sendeth forth two of His disciples," (kai apostellei duo ton matheton autou) "And He sent (on a mandated mission) two of His disciples," named by Luke only as Peter and John, Luke 22:8.
2) "And saith unto them, go ye into the city," (kai legeis autois hupagete eis ten polin) ’’And He instructed or directed them, you (two) go into the city," of Jerusalem, from Bethany where they resided, Matthew 26:17-18; Luke 22:10.
3) "And there shall meet you a man," (kai apantesei humin anthropos) "And a man will meet you," (Matthew 22:18) A man who will respond to my wish, act in the providence of my will, as follows:
4) "Bearing a pitcher of water: follow him." (keramion hudatos bastason akolouthesate auto) "Carrying a pitcher, an earthen pitcher, of water: Follow him," into the house where he is going, Luke 22:10. Water carrying was traditionally the occupation of women, naturally a man carrying water would draw the attention of the two disciples.
1) "And wheresoever he shall go in," (kai hopou ean eiselthe) "And wherever he enters," into an house or residence, Luke 22:10-13; Matthew 26:18.
2) "Say ye to the goodman of the house," (eipate to oikodespote) "You all tell the housemaster," the man in charge of the house, Luke 22:11. He, this goodman was perhaps a disciple of Jesus, a person of His acquaintance.
3) "The Master saith, Where is the guest-chamber," (hoti ho didaskalos legei pou estin to kataluma mou) "That the teacher (master) asks, where is my guest room," large upper room, John 13:13. This indicates a previous acquaintance and understanding between Jesus and the goodman of the house.
4) "Where I shall eat the passover," (hopou to pascha phago) "Where I may eat the passover," for the last time. The Jews of Jerusalem, all who could, kept "open house" during the feast, to provide room for strangers from afar, to join the family in keeping the feast.
5) "With my disciples?" (meta ton matheton mou) "With, in communion with, my disciples?" Luke 22:11.
1) "And he will shew you a large upper room,’’ (kai autos humin dieksei anagaion mega) "And he will show you a large upper room," a room above the earth, large enough for the company of disciples, the "guest-room."
2) "Furnished and prepared:" (estromenon hetoimon) "Already furnished and prepared," furnished, all ready with table cushions on which dining persons reclined.
3) "There make ready for us." (kai ekei hetoimasate hemin) "And there, in that place, you two prepare for us," the passover, for Jesus and the other disciples, Luke 22:12.
1) "And His disciples went forth," (kai ekselthon hoi mathetai) "And the (two) disciples He had commissioned for the specific task .went forth.’’
2) "And came into the city," (kai elthon eis ten polin) "And they came into the city," as and where He had directed them, Matthew 22:19.
3) "And found as He had said unto them:”- (kai heuron kathos eipen autois) "And found (the man, and the house) just as He had told them;" Matthew 28:18; Luke 22:13. Our Lord’s commands are to be obeyed and His promises attached thereto will then be fulfilled, Matthew 28:18-20; John 16:4.
4) "And they made ready the passover." (kai hetoimason to pascha) "And there they prepared the passover,’’ Luke 22:13. There both He and they later ate it, Mark 14:17-21; Matthew 26:20-25; Luke 22:14-16; Luke 22:21-23.
THE LAST PASSOVER, V. 17-21
1) "And in the evening," (kai ophilas genomenes) "And when evening came," the beginning of the 14th day of Nisan, about 6 pm, after preparation had been made about 3 pm for the passover, Matthew 26:20.
2) "He cometh with the twelve." (erchetai meta ton dodeka) "He comes (came) with (in company of) the twelve," into the city from the area of Bethany, and sat down in the upper room, Mark 14:15; Luke 22:14.
1) "And as they sat and did eat," (kai anakeimenon auton kai esthionton) "And as they sat or reclined and were eating,’’ Judas began the passover with Jesus and the twelve, Luke 22:14.
2) "Jesus said, Verily I say unto you,’’ (Iko lesous eipen amen lego humin) "Jesus said (to them), Truly I tell you that I have longed to eat this supper with you all, before my most bitter suffering, Luke 22:15.
3) "One of you which eateth with me shall betray me.”
(hoti eis eks humon paradosei me no esthion met’ emou) "That one of you, a table companion who is eating with me will, betray me," Matthew 26:21; Luke 22:21-22. This was to be in fulfillment of Psalms 41:9.
1) "And they began to be sorrowful," (erksanto iupeisthei) "Then they began to grieve," to be heavy in heart and conscience, both that He would be betrayed, and that one of them would be the traitor.
2) "And to say unto Him one by one,"(kai legeinautoeis kata eis) "And to inquire of Him repeatedly, one by one," Luke 22:23.
3) "Is it I? and another said, Is it l?"(metiego)"Is it l? It is not I, Is it?’’ Matthew 26:22; ’Even Judas said, "Master (Rabboni) or honorable teacher, is it I?" Jesus replied "Thou has said," quietly to him, Matthew 26:25.
1) "And He answered and said unto them," (ho de eipen autois) "Then He responded to them all," addressing them as a group. He responded to the honest, earnest, and grieved disciples.
2) "It is one of the twelve," (eis ton dodeka) "It is one of the twelve," one of the trusted twelve apostles, indicating that other disciples were also present at the passover with the twelve.
3) "That dippeth with me in the dish." (ho embaptomenos met’ emou eis to [en] trublion) "it is the one who dips with me with his own hand in the (one) dish," the passover dish, Psalms 55:12-14; Matthew 26:23. As yet He did not specify "which one" of them. The sop consisted of a mixture of vinegar, figs, dates, almonds, and spices provided at the passover. John 13:25-26 indicates that Jesus told John that it would be the one taking the sop from Him.
1) "The Son of man indeed goeth," (hoti ho men huios tou anthropou hupagei) "Because the Son of man is surely going," departing this life, Isaiah 53:3-12; Psalms 55:12-14.
2) "As it is written of Him:" (kathos gegraptai peri autou) "Just as (in a specific way) that it has been written (in prophecy) concerning Him," Acts 2:23; Romans 9:19-23.
3) "But woe to that man," (ouai de ti anthropo ekeino) "But woe (be) to that man," woe awaits that particular man.
4) "By whom the Son of man is betrayed!" (di ou ho huios anthropou paradidotai) "Through whom the Son of man is betrayed!" Matthew 26:24.
5) "Good were it for that man," (kalon auto ho anthropos) "It would be ideal for that man," Judas Iscariot, the traitor, as it is for the man who offends or causes a young Christian to stumble, fall or go wrong, Matthew 18:6.
6) "If he had never been born." (ei oukegennethe) "If he was never born," had not been born at all. John 17:12; Acts 1:25.
Three lessons to be learned from this are:
1) There is no evil that fallen men are not capable of deliberately committing.
2)There is no person strong enough to trust his own flesh.
3) The foreknowing of God does not make void the criminality of any person’s sins, anyone’s chosen wicked deeds.
OUR LORD INSTITUTES THE LORD’S SUPPER, V. 22-25
1) "And as they did eat," (kai esthionton auton) "And as they were eating," following, or as the Passover supper was concluding, Matthew 26:26; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.
2) "Jesus took bread, and blessed, and brake it," (labon arton eulogesas eklasen) "He (Jesus) taking a loaf, blessing it, He broke it," Luke 22:19, as also described by Paul 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25.
3) "And gave to them, and said," (kai edoken autois kai eipen) "He gave to them (each of them), the disciples, and said," after Judas had apparently gone out to lead the gang to whom he had pledged or contracted to deliver Jesus to them for thirty pieces of silver, John 13:18-19; John 13:26 -30.
4) "Take, eat: this is my body." (labete touto estin to soma mou) "You all take, this is (exists as, represents) my body," my physical body. This He said to His church disciples, apparently after Judas had gone out, Matthew 26:26; He charged also "You all do this in remembrance (as a memorial) of me," Luke 22:19; Matthew 26:26.
The term "this" is not the same Greek gender as -body;" and the "this" thing (bread) represented His body that was broken, wounded, bruised, striped, penetrated for us,
THIS IS MY BODY
"The word for "is" denotes only "likeness" in all metaphors, and in the explanation of all symbols. ’The seven good kine are seven years;’ ’These bones are the house of Israel;’ ’The seed is the Word of God;’ ’This is he who hears the Word;’ ’The field is the world;’ ’The rock was Christ;’ ’The women are two covenants;’ ’The seven lamps are seven churches.’ Resemblance and representation are certainly implied in these and similar statements, but nothing more,"
1) "And He took the cup," (kai labon poterion) "And taking a cup," a container of the "fruit of the vine," Mark 14:25; 1 Corinthians 10:16.
2) "And when He had given thanks," (euch aristesas) "When He Had offered thanks," to His Father, Matthew 26:27; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25.
3) "He gave it to them:" (edoken autois) "He gave it (doled it out) to them," to each and all of them, of the disciples then present, Matthew 26:27.
4) "And they drank of it." (kai epion eks autou pantes) "And they (each and all)drank of it, "they of His disciples, with perhaps the exception of Judas who had gone out, Matthew 26:18-19; 1 Corinthians 11:25.
The covenant of keeping God’s Word was sealed or sprinkled with blood, as a symbol of fidelity, loyalty, and sincerity, Exodus 24:7-8. This blood of the covenant is symbolized in the fruit of the vine, Leviticus 17:11; Hebrews 8:6 -13; 13:20, 24.
1) "And He said unto them," (kai eipen autois) "And He explained to them all," to the disciples there assembled, Matthew 26:18-19.
2) "This is my blood of the new testament," (touto estin to haima mou tes deathekes) "This is (exists as a type of) my blood of the covenant," of the new covenant, blood covenant, fulfilling the old, in a memorial way, Matthew 26:28; symbolized and foreshadowed Leviticus 17:11; 1 Corinthians 10:16; Hebrews 9:14-22.
3) "Which is shed for many." (to ekchunnomenon huper pollon) "Which is being shed on behalf of many," and Luke uses the phrase "shed for you all," Luke 22:20.
1) "Verily I say unto you," (amen lego humin) "Truly I. tell you all," as a body, a fellowship company, a church, Matthew 26:18-19.
2) "I will drink no more of the fruit of the vine," (hoti ouketi ou me pio ek tou genematos tes ampelou) "That I will by no means drink at all of the fruit of the vine, “any more or again, Matthew 26:29.
3) “Until that day," (heos tes hemeral ekeines) "Until that day arrives," that future day, as also foretold by prophets, Isaiah 25:6-9.
4) "That I drink it new," (hotan auto pino kainon) "When I drink it new," fresh, as sweet juice, from the vine, Joel 3:17-19; Amos 9:13-15.
5) "In the kingdom of God." (en te basileia tou theou) "In the kingdom (millennia] era) of God," Ezekiel 34:23-24.
PETER’S DENIAL OF JESUS FORETOLD, V. 26-31 (On the Way to Gethsemane)
1) "And when they had sung an hymn," (kai hunesantes) "And having sung a hymn," as a final act of worship, as they concluded the passover and the institution and observance (as a church body), of the first Lord’s Supper here, as prophesied, He sang in the midst of the church, Hebrews 2:12.
2) "They went out into the Mount of Olives." (ekselthon eis to oros ton elaion) "They went out to the Mount of Olives," East of Jerusalem, from the upper room, where they had spent the evening, Matthew 26:30. Between our Lord’s drinking of the cup and singing the hymn He delivered His final discourse (John 15:1-27) and offered His intercessory prayer, John 17:1-26.
1) "And Jesus saith unto them," (kai legei autois ho lesous) "And Jesus told or explained to them," to the eleven, and perhaps other disciples, Judas having left,
2) "All ye shall be offended because of me this night," (hoti pantes skandalisthesesthe) "That each and all (of you) will be offended, made or caused to stumble or be scandalized,’’ involved in a scandal (hoti), "because of me tonight," Matthew 26:31.
3) "For it is written," (hoti gegraptai) "Because it has been written," recorded in prophecy, which is "true from the beginning," Psalms 119:160; Matthew 26:31; John 16:32.
4) "I will smite the shepherd," (patakso ton poimena) "I will strike the shepherd," cause the shepherd to be struck or smitten, Zechariah 13:7. Jesus was that Shepherd; His disciples made up that flock, or that church, 1 Peter 5:3.
5) "And the sheep shall be scattered." (kai ta probata diaskorpisthesontai) "And the sheep (of the flock) will be scattered;" Acts 20:28. The flock is and, was the then existing church body of witnesses who had companied with Jesus from the beginning in Galilee, John 15:16; John 15:27; John 20:21; Acts 10:37,
1) "But after that I am risen," (alla meta to egerthenai me) "But after I am raised,’’ up from the grave, from the dead, a prophetic claim Jesus made concerning Himself, a note of cheer and hope, Matthew 26:32.
2) "I will go before you into Galilee." (proakso humas eis ten Galilaian)"I will go before as a shepherd, (precede) you all (of my flock, or church body) into Galilee," a post-resurrection claim that He fulfilled Matthew 28:7; Matthew 28:10; Matthew 28:16; Mark 16:7. He went to a particular mountain, in Galilee, near where He had begun the church and given them the Sermon on the Mount, there commissioned them, Matthew 28:11-20.
1) "But Peter said unto Him," (de Petros ephe auto) "Then Peter chided, scolded, or corrected Him," regarding His and the other disciples’ denying or being offended because of Him, Matthew 26:33; Luke 22:31.
2) "Although all shall be offended," (ei kai pantes skandalisthesontai) "If (even if) all men (all the rest of the flock) shall be offended or scandalized, afraid to be identified ’with you, your name," conceding that it was possible that the rest might.
3) "Yet will not I.”- (all’ ouk ego) "But (yet) I absolutely will not." This is the third time Peter stated that he would die for the Lord, Matthew 26:33-34; Luke 22:33-34; John 13:37. One has well written:
"Beware of Peter’s words,
Nor confidentially say,
I’ll never deny my Lord,
But I trust I never may,’’
1) "And Jesus saith unto him," (kai legei auto ho lesous) "And Jesus said directly to him," to Peter, knowing what was in man, Acts 15:8; 1 John 3:20.
2) "Verily I say unto thee," (amen lego soi) "Truly I tell you," before it occurs; I tell you confidentially, personally, and directly, that you may recall it later, Matthew 26:34; Matthew 26:75; John 13:38.
3) "That this day, even in this night " (hoti ou semeron taute te nukti) "That you today, in this night," before midnight. Our Lord was specific, because He was Lord, was omniscient, and was right, and knew all things, Psalms 44:21; Psalms 94:11; Matthew 6:8; Romans 8:27-28.
4) "Before the cock crow twice," (prin e dis alektora phonesai) "Before the (a) cock even crows twice," before the rooster crows two times, two specific times.
5) "Thou shalt deny me thrice." (tris me aparnese) "Three times you will deny me," three specific times, again, and again, and again. Were these specific, definitive prophecies of Jesus fulfilled "that night?" John 18:27. They were! As specifically verified by inspiration, as follows: First, John 18:17; Second, John 18:25; Third, John 18:27. And first, Matthew 26:70; second, Matthew 26:72; and third, Matthew 26:74-75.
1) "But he spake the more vehemently," (no de ekperissos elalei) "Then he said more emotionally,’ in protest, disagreeing, denying that he would do such a thing at all, under any circumstance; He kept repeating it; See also John 13:36-38. Peter had more confidence in himself than he had in Jesus.
2) "If I should die with thee," (ean dee me suna pothanein soi) "If I must even die with you," die in colleague, or close affinity, because of my close attachment to and with you, Luke 22:33.
3) "I will not deny thee in any wise." (ou me se aparnesomai) "I will by no means (under no circumstance) deny you," at all! Matthew 26:35; Luke 22:31-34 recounts our Lord’s direct address to Peter regarding Satan’s desire to have him and sift him; Jesus pledged His prayer for Peter and gave him a charge, Luke 22:32.
4) "Likewise also said they all." (hosautos [de] kai pantes eletes elegon) "Then in similar manner or fashion on a lower pitch-claim, not repeating it as Peter did, all the disciples also responded," or affirmed to Jesus their undying loyalty and fidelity of attachment to Him and that they would stand up for and with Him, but "they all forsook Him and fled," as He had told them they would, Mark 14:27, fulfilled Mark 14:50; Matthew 26:35.
THE AGONY IN THE GARDEN, V. 32-34
1) "And they came to a place," (kai erchontai eis chorion) "And they came to a plot of land," a piece of land, a location at the foot of the Mount of Olives East of Jerusalem, near the brook Kedron, John 18:1.
2) "Which was named Gethsemane:" (hou to onoma Gethsemane) "Which name means "oil press," garden of our Lord’s passion agony "unto death,’’ Mark 14:24; It was a place where He frequently went to pray, a thing known to Judas, who led the arresting party there, Luke 22:39; John 18:2-3.
3) "And He saith to His disciples," (kai legei tois mathetais autou) "And He instructed His disciples," as follows: (to those who had promised not only never to deny but also to die in colleague with Him, Mark 14:31)
4) "Sit ye here," (hathisate hode) "You all just sit here,’’ Matthew 26:36; He also instructed them to pray or be praying that they enter not into temptation, Luke 22:40.
5) "While I shall pray." (heos proseukoomai) "While I pray for a while," at a distance, with a little more privacy, Matthew 26:36.
1) "And He taketh with Him," (kai paralambanei met’ autou) "And He takes (took) with Him, a little distance," into the olive grove, away from the other disciples, Matthew 26:37.
2) "Peter and James and John,’’(ton Petron kai lakobon kai ton loarmen) "The Peter and James and the John," who were of the twelve, the twelve apostles, the three who were also referred to as the "inner circle" apostles, also recounted Matthew 17:1; Mark 5:37; Mark 9:2; Mark 13:3; Luke 8:51; Luke 9:28; Luke 22:8; John 18:15.
3) "And began to be sore amazed," (kai erksato ekthambeisthai) "And He began to be greatly astonished," emotionally distressed, at the sudden, appalling revelation of what was at hand, confronting both Him and His little flock," the church, Matthew 26:37.
4) "And to be very heavy;”- (kai ademonein) "And to be deeply, mentally distressed," Isaiah 53:3; La 1:12; John 12:27.
1) "And saith unto them," (kai legei autois) "And He confided to them," to Peter, James, and John, with inner-circle affection, confidence, and trust, each of whom was later to recount the event.
2) "My soul is exceeding sorrowful," (perilupos estin he pouche mou) "My soul is (exists) in a deeply grieved state or condition,’’ as His "soul’’ began, at this time, to be made, formed, or fashioned as an "offering for sin," Isaiah 53:10. Surely Satan who "departed from Him for a season," in His temptation on the mount, had now returned in glee, Luke 4:13.
3) "Unto death:”- (heos thanatou) "As to death," relating to my death, as it should continue to be, as He “poured out His soul unto death," Isaiah 53:12; Isaiah 50:6-7; Romans 3:25; Matthew 27:46.
4) "Tarry ye here, and watch." (meinate hode kai gregoreite) "You all remain here and watch," in closeness with me, near me, Matthew 26:38.
THE FIRST GARDEN PRAYER V. 35-38
1) "And He went forward a little,"(kai proelthon mikron) "And He went forward a little way," about a stones throw away, from Peter, James, and John, Mark 14:33-34; Luke 22:41.
2) "And fell on the ground, and prayed that," (epipten epi tes ges kai peoseucheto hina) "And He fell upon the ground and prayed in order that," for the purpose that; The imperfect tense of "fell" indicates that He prayed arose and repeatedly fell, or fell again and again, Matthew 26:39.
3) "If it were possible," (ei dunaton estin) "If a possibility exists," or if it is at all possible, in harmony with His Father’s will, which He came to do, if morally possible, John 5:30; Matthew 26:39.
4) "The hour might pass from Him." (parethe ap’ autou he hora) "The hour might pass away from Him," the hour of His death by cruel crucifixion with the agony of sins of all the world bearing down upon His conscience and soul, also referred to as "the cup," Luke 22:42; yet, for "this hour" He had come into the world, John 17:1.
1) "And He said, Abba, Father," (kai elegan abba ho pater) "And He said (prayed)Abba Father," affectionately, "0 my Father," Matthew 26:39.
2) "All things are possible unto thee;”- (panta dunta soi) "All things are possible to you," Mark 10:27, all things that are in the realm or in harmony with your will. Then, 0 how the love of God is there shown! John 3:16.
3) "Take away this cup from me:”- (parenegke to poterion touto ap’ hemou) "Remove this cup from me: “The humanly dreaded experience of Jesus is called "this cup." The "hour’’ and the "cup’’ are both terms adopted by Jesus to convey the idea of His approaching sacrificial. and substitutionary death, Matthew 20:22; John 18:11; Isaiah 53:46; 1 Peter 2:24. He was not a mere victim of men’s hatred, or God’s will, for He gave His life voluntarily, of His own choice or volition, John 10:17-18; Luke 23:46.
4) "Nevertheless not what I will," (all’ ou ti ego thelo) "But not what I will," in isolation from your will, to make my soul an offering for sin, Isaiah 53:10; Isaiah 53:12; Philippians 2:8.
5) "But what thou wilt." (a I la ti su)"But what you will to be or to do," and as you have promised to do in your covenant-integrity, Matthew 26:39; John 4:34; as prophesied Psalms 40:7-8; Hebrews 10:7.
1) "And He cometh, and findeth them sleeping," (kai erchetai kai heuriskei autous katheudontas) "And He came and found (the three) sleeping," Matthew 26:40; Luke 22:45.
2) "And saith unto Peter," (kai legei to Petro) "And called to Peter," who had been so firm, so adamant in his vow to stand by and with Jesus, Mark 14:33.
3) "Simon, sleepest thou?" (Simon katheudeis) “Simon, are you sleeping?" Are you asleep, really sleeping, at a time like this? Simon the "old," not the “new," name of the disciple who had been so confident an hour before, vowing loyalty.
4) "Couldest not thou watch one hour?" (ouk ischusas mian horan gregoresai) "Are you not strong enough to watch, even one hour?" Matthew 26:40. It is not within man "to direct his steps," Jeremiah 10:23. Pledges and vows made for Divine purposes may be kept only by Divine aid, John 15:5; La 3:21, 22. The pledges of men of God should always be made, contingent on, "If the Lord wills," James 4:15; Acts 18:21; 1 Corinthians 4:19.
1) "Watch ye and pray," (gregoreite kai proseuchesthe) "You all watch and pray," as you tarry with me in this "hour," as I take hold of this "cup," Matthew 26:41; Luke 18:1, as men ought always to pray."
2) "Lest ye enter into temptation." (hina me elthete eis peirasmon) "In order that you come not into temptation," or not be led into it, a serious testing crisis, Matthew 5:13; Luke 22:46. Some are unintentionally led and others deliberately walk into temptations.
3) "The spirit truly is ready," (to men pneuma prothumon) "The spirit is certainly eager," to watch, Matthew 26:41.
4) "But the flesh is weak." (he de sarka asthenes) "Yet the flesh (nature) is weak, or sickly," puny, Romans 7:17-25; Men may "resist" great temptations by prayer, James 1:13-14; James 4:6-8.
Peter’s self-confidence, confidence in the flesh, proved to be his perfect weakness, Jeremiah 10:23.
THE SECOND GETHSEMANE PRAYER V. 39, 40
1) "And again He went away and prayed," (kai palin apelthon proseuchato) "And going away (leaving them), again He prayed," to gain strength and to test the disciples. Mark, like Matthew recounts the agony of Jesus in three phases, but he reports Jesus’ words only in the first phase, Mark 14:36.
2) "And spake the same words." (ton auton logon eipon) "Saying repeatedly the same word," or the same thing over and over again, as He had before, Mark 14:36, Matthew 26:3944; Luke 22:44.
1) "And when He returned," (kai palin elthon) "And upon returning again,"
2) "He found them asleep again," (heuren autous katheudontas) "He found them (the three) sleeping," Luke 22:45; Matthew 26:45. They were weighed down with irresistible sleep.
3) "(For their eyes were heavy,)" (esan gar auton hoi ophthalmoi katabarunomenoi) "Because their eyes were having become very heavy," Matthew 26:43, brought on by weakness of the flesh, during the long weary day, Mark 14:38.
4) "Neither wist they what to answer Him." (kai ouk edeisan ti apokirithosin auto) "And they did not know what to answer or say in reply to Him," being drowsy and probably ashamed. They were dumbfounded, taken back, speechless, because of their stupidity produced by sleep. They did not know how to excuse themselves, Romans 2:1.
THE THIRD GETHSEMANE PRAYER, V. 41, 42
1) "And He cometh the third time," (kai erchetai to triton) "And He came the third time,’’ for the third time, from praying a distance from the disciples, Matthew 26:44.
2) "And saith unto them, Sleep on now," (kai legei autois katheudete to loipon) "And He said to them you all sleep on, loiter on," linger on, if you may, or if you can, Psalms 69:20; John 2:25; He found comfort from no man, but knew what was in man.
3) "And take your rest: it is enough," (kai anapauesthe apechei) "And be at rest; it is enough." The idea is "I have conquered in my prayer-struggle, and need your sympathy no longer, you may sleep if you will."
4) "The hour is come;”- (elthen he hora) "The hour has come," arrived, the predicted hour, the expected hour, the planned-for-hour had come at last, John 7:30; John 8:20; John 17:1; John 17:4.
5) "Behold the Son of man is betrayed,’’ (idou paradidotai ho huios anthropou) "Behold the Son of man is betrayed (given over)," by collusion.
6) "Into the hands of sinners." (eis tas cheiras ton hamartholon) "Into the hands of law-breaking sinners," Mark 14:43, for whom He suffered and died, inclusive of the chief priests, scribes, elders, Pharisees, Sadducees and Caiphas the High Priest, Mark 7:6; Luke 7:6; Luke 15:20; Luke 19:10.
1) "Rise up,’’ (egeiresthe) "You all rise,’’ stand up, as you have said you would, Mark 14:27-31.
2) "Let us go;”- (agomen) "Let us go,’’ me to my death, my doom - - you to fulfill my words, to be offended, to stumble, to forsake me and flee, Mark 14:27.
3) "He, that betrayeth me is at hand." (idou ho paradidous me engiken) "Behold, the one engaged in betraying me has drawn near," John 18:2-3, is approaching, is almost here, the one who took the sop, then went out into the night, into eternal darkness, soon to be a self-accused victim of remorse, suicide, and conscious damnation in hell forever! Mark 14:20; John 13:26-30; Acts 1:16-20; Mark 14:31; John 17:12.
THE BETRAYAL AND ARREST OF JESUS, V. 43-46
1) "And immediately, while He yet spake," (kai euthus eti autou lalountos) "And immediately while He was still speaking to His disciples,’’ the betrayer approached with deception in his soul, Matthew 26:46.
2) "Cometh Judas, one of the twelve," (paraginetai [ho] loudas eis ton dodeka) "The Judas who was one of the twelve (and absent) arrived," knowing where Jesus often resorted to pray, John 18:2, leading a bandit-minded religious gang of Jewish leaders, Luke 22:47.
3) ’’And with him a are at multitude,’’ (kai met autou ochlos) "And with him a crowd or throng,’’ a great mass of people, murder-minded people, "a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees," John 18:3.
4) "With swords and staves," (meta machairon kai ksulon) "Armed with swords and with clubs," in the after-midnight hours, and John adds, ’’with torches." There were 1) Soldiers from the Roman Guard of Antonio, captains of the temple, Luke 22:52; Luke 22:2) Servants of the High Priest, Luke 22:50.
5) "From the" (para ton) "From (or alongside accompanying and supporting, or backing up the:"
a) "Chief priests," (archiereon) "Chief or ruling priests," the administrative priests of the Mosaic Law
b) "And the scribes," (kai ton grammateon) "And t scribes,’’ writers and keepers of legal and religious documents, the clerks, librarians, and archives guardian of Jewish law records.
c) “And the elders," (kai ton presbuteron) "And the elders," mature, older Jewish interpreters of Moses’ Law known as the Sanhedrin, the interpreters a adjudicators of religious issues among the nation Jews.
1) "And he that betrayed Him," (de ho paradidous auto)"Now the one who was engaged in betraying Him (Judas Iscariot)," John 18:2; John 18:5.
2) "Had given them a token, saying," (dedokei sussemon autois legon) "Had given to them (the motley trio-band of lawbreaking sinners, chief priests, scribe and elders), together with the servants of Caiphas t High Priest and the Roman soldier band, a signal, saying a sign by which they would know Jesus, Luke 22:50; Luke 22:52; Matthew 26:48.
3) "Whomsoever I shall kiss," (hon an philes "Whoever I may kiss," according to our agreement, Matthew 26:48.
4) "That same is He;" (autos estin) "He is the one," the one to seize and charge, and put away, the one I have so to you for the silver, as afore prophesied, Zechariah 11:12; Matthew 26:14-15.
5) "Take Him, and lead Him away safely." (kratesa auton kai apagete asphalos) "Seize (or grab) Him and led Him away from there securely," as if He were a vicio desperado, a capitol criminal. To this time the thirty piece of silver, the love of money, was the most desired thing Judas’ covetous heart, Matthew 26:14-15; and now he wanted Jesus "put away," killed, that he might go and spend his "traitor wealth," his ill-gotten silver, 1 Timothy 6:10-11.
1) "And as soon as he was come," (kai elthon euthus) "And as he (Judas) was coming of his own volition and covetous choice, immediately," at once, going directly to Jesus.
2) "He goeth straightway to Him, and saith,’’ (proselthon auto legei) "He went directly to Him (Jesus) and said,’’ rushed to Him repeatedly saying, with feigned or pretended affection; what a friend! Psalms 41:9.
3) "Master, master; and kissed Him." (hrabbi kai katepilesen auton) "Rabbi, teacher, and fervently (with feigned affections) kissed Him," for thirty pieces of silver, in covetous greed he kissed Him, with treachery and ingratitude he kissed Him, in soul-damning deceit, he kissed Him, Luke 22:48; Matthew 26:14-15.
1) "And they laid their hands on Him," (hoi de epebalan tas cheiras) "Then they (the arresting band), Roman captains of the temple, laid their hands upon Him," without compassion, as if He were a jail-breaking thug, John 18:12.
2) "And took Him." (kai ekratesan. auton) "And in this manner they seized (grabbed) or nabbed Him,’’ those of the treacherous religious band who had come, led by Judas Iscariot, Matthew 26:57; Luke 22:54. From there they led Him to Caiphas, the High Priest’s palace where He was taken through the first of six illegal (farce) trials, Matthew 26:57-59.
PETER SMITES WITH THE SWORD, THEN FOLLOWS AFAR OFF, JESUS FORSAKEN BY ALL, V. 47-52
1) "And one of them that stood by drew a sword," (eis de tis ton parestekoton spasamenos ten machairon) "Then a certain one who was standing alongside of Jesus drew his sword," that certain one was Simon Peter, John 18:20.
2) ’’And smote a servant of the high priest," (epaisen ton doulon tou archiereos) "Struck the slave-servant of the high priest," Matthew 26:51. The servant’s name was Malchus, John 18:20.
3) "And cut off his ear," (kai apheilen autou to ptarion) "And cut off his ear," his right ear, Luke 22:50.
1) "And Jesus answered and said unto them," (kai apokritheis ho lesous eipen autois) "And Jesus replied and said to them," to the multitude specifically to the 1) Chief Priests, and 2) Scribes, and 3) Elders of Israel, Mark 14:10; Mark 14:43.
2) ’’Are ye come out, as against a thief," (hos epi lesten ekselthate) "Did you all really come out here, as if to pounce upon a violent man, thief, thug, bandit, or barbarian," Matthew 26:55.
3) "With swords and with staves to take me?" (meta machairon kai ksulon sullabein me) "With drawn swords and lifted (drawn back) clubs to arrest me?’’ Mark 14:47; Luke 22:52. He was here "numbered with,’’ or identified "with the transgressors,’’ by the Jewish religious order, Isaiah 53:12.
1) "I was daily with you in the temple teaching," (kath’ hemeron hemen pros humos en to hiero didaskon) "Daily I was with you all in the temple, repeatedly teaching," openly, offering opportunity for your seizure, there where even some thieves might be found, Mark 11:17.
2) "And ye took me not," (kai ouk ekratesate me) "And you did not seize, grab, or nab me," Mark 11:18; Mark 12:12, in the open daylight, above board, when daylight witnesses were present; See? John 3:19-21; But this was their hour, Luke 22:53.
3) "But the scriptures must be fulfilled," (all’ hina plerothosin hai graphai) "But in order that (for the purpose that) the scriptures may be fulfilled," meaning "let the Scriptures be fulfilled," Matthew 26:54; Isaiah 53:10-12.
1) "And they all forsook Him," (kai aphentes auton) "And leaving (forsaking or deserting) Him, though they, the disciples, had all vowed that they would not, Mark 14:31. Paul asserts that he too endured a similar experience, at his first trial, before his foes, in his defense at Rome, 2 Timothy 4:16; Job 19:13.
2) "And fled." (epugon pantes) "They all fled." All the disciples and remaining apostles of our Lord present in Gethsemane that nefarious night, fled, panic-stricken, Matthew 26:56. They fled to protect themselves, to provide for their own safety, for which Jesus had made provisions, John 18:8-9.
1) "And there followed Him a certain young man," (kai neaniskos tis sunekolouthei auto) "And a certain young man closely accompanied Him," stuck close to Jesus, an account mentioned by no other Gospel writer; (not one of the twelve) who had joined the company, but did not flee with the rest, at first.
2) "Having a linen cloth cast about his naked body;” (peribeblemenos sindona epi gumnou) "That had been clothed with, (in) a nightgown over his naked body," indicating that he had hurriedly gotten out of bed to join the scene, the milling mob in the street, on the way to Gethsemane.
3) "And the young men laid hold on him:”- (kai kraptousin auton) "And they (the arresting officers) seized (grabbed) him," thinking he was one of the disciples. The term "a certain young man" is similar to John’s indirect reference to himself as "that other disciple" and likely refers, in this Gospel, to Mark.
1) "And he left the linen cloth,’’ (ho de katalipon ten sindona) "Then he, leaving the nightgown," in their hands, tearing away from the Roman guards who had surrounded and seized Jesus.
2) ’’And fled from them naked." (gumnos ephugen) "Fled, (made an escape from them) naked," in the literal sense, left his night-shirt in their hands to save his own life and freedom. Since Mark was not one of the twelve, one of the apostles, and the only Gospel writer that relates the incident, it is likely that he was that young mian, giving this testimony with modesty, yet illustrating the determination of the arresting mob, not to be challenged in their seizure of Jesus.
JESUS HAILED BEFORE THE HIGH PRIEST AND SANHEDRIN
1) "And they led Jesus away to the high priest," (kai apegagon ton lesoun pros ton archierea) "And they(then) led Jesus away to the high priest,’’ First to Annas then to Caiphas, John 18:12-15, to confront the High Priest, Luke 3:2; Acts 4:6, in late evening hours, perhaps midnight hours, Matthew 26:57.
2) "And with him were assembled," (kai sunerchontai) "And in colleague or collusion with him were come together," the three classes of major religious employees of Judaism.
a) "All the chief priests," (pantes hoi archiereis) "All the chief or administrative priests."
b) "And the elders," (kai hoi presbuteroi) "And the elders of Israel," those who constituted the Sanhedrin.
c) "And the scribes." (kai hoi grammateis) ’’And the scribes," legal writers, keepers, and distributors of the law and legal documents of Israel. They served as clerks, file clerks, librarians, and archives guardians of all religious and legal records relating to the law of Moses.
Order of events on the crucifixion day were as follows:
1) Before day, early in the morning Jesus was brought before Caiphas, there in his palace. There He was condemned and mocked, Matthew 26:57-68; Luke 22:63-71; John 18:19-24.
2) From Caiphas’ palace the Sanhedrin led Jesus to
Pilate, Matthew 27:1-2; Matthew 27:11-14; Matthew 15:1-5; Luke 23:1-5; John 18:25-28.
3) Pilate then sent Jesus to Herod, Luke 23:6-12; John 19:4.
4) Pilate then released Barabbas and condemned Jesus to crucifixion, Matthew 27:15-26; Mark 15:6-15; Luke 23:13-25; John 18:39-40; John 19:4-16.
5) Jesus was then crowned with thorns and mocked,
Matthew 27:26-30; Mark 15:15-20; John 19:1-3.
6) Judas went to suicide, Matthew 27:3-10; Acts 1:16-20.
7) Led from Pilate’s hall to crucifixion, Simon bears His cross along the way, and Jesus talked with, or to, the women along the way, Matthew 27:31-32; Mark 15:20-23; Luke 23:26-33; John 19:16-17.
1) "And Peter followed Him afar off," (kai ho Petros apo makrothen ekolouthesen auto) ’’And Peter followed Him from a distance," a good safe distance, to avoid being arrested, Matthew 27:58; Luke 22:54. John, another of the apostles was also there. John 18:16 indicates that he went out of the High Priest’s palace and brought Peter inside.
2) "Even into the palace of the high priest:" (heos eso eis ten auten tou archiereos) "Until he was within the court of the high priest," where Jesus was first led, before Annas and Caiphas, John 18:12-16.
3) "And he sat with the servants," (kai en sughathemenos meta hupereton) "And he (Peter) was sitting with the attendants, the officers," to "see the end,’’ or outcome, Matthew 26:28; Luke 22:55.
4) "And warmed himself at the fire." (kai thermainomenos pros to phos) "And warming himself by the bright fire," with the arresting officers, John 18:18. The account of the setting for Peter’s denials of Jesus here begins, as he sat by the fire, in the cold, with sinners, according to Mark, and then the account is suspended by the account of the trial, and resumed Mark 14:66. To sit with, stand with, or walk among sinners is not good, Psalms 1:1-3.
Peter was fearful of death, yet drawn by love for Jesus, and by natural curiosity to seek the end or outcome of the episode or event.
1) "And the chief priests and all the council," (hoi de archiereis kai holon to sunedrion) "Then the chief priests and the whole council of the Sanhedrin," the Jewish High Court.
2) "Sought for witnesses against Jesus,’’ (ezetoun kata tou lesou marturian) "Searched for witnesses who would testify against Jesus," Matthew 26:59 asserts that the three parties of colluding, 1) chief priests, 2) elders, and 3) all the council sought false witnesses.
3) "To put Him to death; and found none." (eis to thanatosai auton) "So that they might put Him to death," (kai ouch heurishon) "And they found not a one.’’ not even one that was conclusive evidence, Matthew 26:59; Psalms 35:11-12.
1) "For many bare false witness against Him," (polloi gar epseudomarturoun kat’ autou) "For many falsely witnessed, (lied) against Him," in collusion with, and perhaps hired by, the priests, elders, and Sanhedrin council, Matthew 26:59; as they later did, regarding His resurrection, Matthew 28:11-15.
2) "But their witness agreed not together." (kai isai hoi marturiai ouk esan) ’’And their testimonies were not in agreement," but contradicted one another, as they appeared in the mock trial, the ’’fixed trial,’’ brought to fruition by "desperately wicked-hearted men,’’ Jeremiah 17:9. Their testimony, if not directly contradictory with one another, at least was not of sufficiently serious criminal nature against Jesus, to merit His death. At least two or three agreeing or reliable witnesses were required for such a trial and condemnation under Moses Law, Deuteronomy 17:16; Deuteronomy 19:15.
1) ’’And there arose certain," (kai tines anastantes) ’’And certain ones standing up," arose or stood up, two in particular, Matthew 26:60.
2 "And bare false witness against Him, saying,’’ epseudomarturoun kat’ autou legontes) "Falsely testified against Him (invented lies) repeatedly saying," or affirming the following falsehood: Matthew 26:61.
1) "We heard Him say, I will destroy this temple,’’ (hoti hemeis ekousamen autou legontos hoti kataluso ton, naon touton) "We heard Him repeatedly saying, I will overthrow this shrine,’’ Matthew 26:61. At no time, in no place, did Jesus state that He would destroy the Jewish temple.
2) "That is made with hands," (ton cheiropoieton) "The one that is handmade," a thing He never said. His message was deliberately taken from its contextual setting, used to condemn Him, John 2:18-22; Matthew 26:61.
3) "And within three days," (kai dia trion hemeron) "And through (after) a period of three days," accusations, false though they were, that were repeated to Him in derision as He hung on the cross, Matthew 27:40.
4) "I will build another made without hands." (allon acheiropoieton oikodomeso) "I will build another that is not handmade;" The Pharisees and high priests knew the charges were false, or fictitious, as verified by their testimony after His death, Matthew 27:62-64. This was a farcical claim, wholly in the nature of perjury.
1) "But neither so," (kai oude houtes) "And not at all, not in the least," in the least degree of similarity or concord, what they said was sufficient.
2) "Did their witness agree together." (eis in he marturia auton) "Was their testimony identical, or even in agreement," or in harmony, so that what they said could be received as fact or even probable truth, Deuteronomy 17:6; Deuteronomy 19:15; Numbers 35:30.
1) "And the high priest stood up in the midst," (kai anastas ho archiereus eis meson) "And the high priest stood up in the midst of them," of the "kangaroo court," the clandestine, illegal assembly of a packed court, walked out, stood in the semi-circle of the Sanhedrin, as if an irritated baffled man.
2) "And asked Jesus, saying," (eperotesen ton lesoun legon) "And quizzed Jesus repeatedly saying,’’ badgering Him, deriding, or scoffing indignantly, Matthew 26:62.
3) "Answerest thou nothing?" (ouk apokrine ouden) "Are you not intending to answer anything?" He was stunned, reprimanded by the silence of Jesus, Isaiah 53:7; 1 Peter 2:23. He hoped to incite fresh grounds for accusation against Him, as in Mark 14:62.
4) "What is it which these witnesses against thee?’’ (ti houtoi sou katamarturousin) "What is it that these witnesses testify against you?’’ The truth is that Jesus knew that Caiphas, the high priest, had been in on the conspiracy and collusion to put Him to death for some time, and was not interested in giving respect to anything Jesus had to say. Read Mark 14:3-4.
1) ’’But He held His peace, and answered nothing," (ho de esiopa kai ouk apekrinato ouden) "Then He was silent and replied not one thing," fulfilling the prophecy concerning Him, "as a sheep before his shearers is dumb so opened He not His mouth," Isaiah 53:7; "No guile" was found in His mouth, 1 Peter 2:23.
2) "Again the high priest asked Him, and said unto Him," (palin ho archiereus eperota auton kai legei auto) "And again the high priest quizzed Him, saying," Matthew 26:63. He sought with an oath of adjuration, a second time, to get a self-condemning statement from Jesus, or one he could declare was self -condemning.
3) "Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" (su ei ho Christos ho huios tou eulogetou) "Are you the Christ, (the Messiah) the Son of the Blessed One?" Jesus would not, could not, withhold the identity of His Divinity when asked, Matthew 26:63.
1) "And Jesus said, I am:”- (ho de lesous eipen ego eimi) "Then Jesus replied, I am:" "it is as thou hast said,’’ I am the self-existing one, John 1:1-3; John 10:30.
2) "And ye shaII see the Son of ma n, " (kai opsesthe ton huion tou anthropou) "And you all will see the Son of man," Matthew 26:64. I am also the Judge who is to come, as well, is the meaning of this statement, not just a man, 2 Timothy 4:1-2.
3) "Sitting on the right hand of power," (ek deksion kathemenon tes dunameos) "Sitting out from and at the right hand of the power," Psalms 110:1; Acts 7:55-56. I shall come with honor, armed with power and authority, Matthew 26:64; Luke 21:27.
4) "And coming in the clouds of heaven." (kai erchomenon meta ton nephelon tou ouranou) "And coming in and with the clouds of heaven," as foretold by Daniel, Daniel 7:13-14; Matthew 24:30-31; Matthew 25:31; Luke 1:30-31; Acts 1:10-11; Revelation 1:7; Revelation 3:21.
1) "Then the high priest rent his clothes and saith," (ho de archiereus diareksas tous chitonas autou legei) "Then the High Priest rending (tearing) his tunic, said," in a "sham" a feigned rage of emotion, assumed horror and indignation, tearing his outer garments, as persons in high positions wore two, Numbers 14:6; Acts 14:13-14.
2) "What need we any further witnesses?" (ti eti chreian echomen marturon) "What more need do we have of a witness?" Matthew 26:65.
1) ’’Ye have heard the blasphemy:" (ekousate tes blasphemias) "You all heard the blasphemy," that is Caiphas called Jesus’ claim to Deity, "blasphemy,’’ Matthew 26:65; John 10:33-37.
2) "What think ye?" (tis humin phainetai) "What does it (His claim) appear to be to you?" You see the high priest had already adjudged Him to be guilty of blasphemy. He actually wanted them all to agree, to join in declaring what the penalty should be for blasphemy.
3) "And they all condemned Him," (hoi de pantes katekeinan auton) "Then they all (in collusion, agreement aforehand) gave judgement against Him, condemned Him," as guilty of blasphemy.
4) "To be worthy of death." (enochon einai thanatou) "Making Him liable to be put to death," under the Mosaic Law. Such was the decision of all the Sanhedrin council of elders, joined by the high priests, Pharisees, and scribes who had aided and abetted the entire conspiratorial plot of His betrayal, arrest, and condemnation to death, Matthew 26:66; Leviticus 24:16.
1) "And some began to spit on Him," (kai erksanto tines emptuein auto) "And some (in that clandestine, nighttime courtroom) began again to spit at and upon Him," in the midst of the council of the Sanhedrin, and in the presence of Caiphas the High Priest, Mark 14:53-54.
2) "And to cover His face," (kai perikaluptein autou to prosopon) "And some began to cover His face," to cover His sight as prophetically described (Isaiah 50:6), and declared as here fulfilled, Matthew 26:67. To cover the face was a death symbol, Ezra 7:8.
3) "And to buffet Him," (kai kolaphizein auton) "And to buffet, harass, or maltreat Him," as further described Isaiah 52:14; Matthew 26:67; Luke 22:63-64.
4) "And to say unto Him, Prophesy:”- (kai legein auto propheteuson) "And to say to Him repeatedly, Prophecy," Matthew 26:68. Tell us, with your face covered, tell us, call their names, etc., Luke 22:64.
5) "And the servants did strike Him," (kai hoi huperetai auton labon) "And the attendants took Him," the Roman officers or temple captains who had arrested Him, Matthew 26:67; Micah 5:1.
6) "With the palm of their hands." (hrapismsin) "With slaps, with the palms of their hands," demanding that He tell them who smote Him, from the blind side, or from behind, Matthew 26:68, even as they also spat on Him, and smote Him on the head in Pilate’s Hall, Matthew 27:30. The hands they bound had healed the sick, the lips they smote had calmed the winds, and waves, John 20:30-31.
PETER DENIES HIS LORD - THE COCK CROWS, V. 66-72
1) "And as Peter was beneath in the Palace," (kai ontos tou Petrou kato en te aule) "And as Peter was below in the court," indicating the trial was in an upper chamber of the palace of Caiphas, Matthew 26:57; Matthew 26:69. There he sat, waiting by the fire, for the outcome of the trial, Mark 14:53; Luke 22:55; John 18:25.
2) "There cometh one of the maids of the high priest," ,erchetai mia ton paidiskon tou archiereos) "There came one of the maidservants, a portress of the High Priest," at such a late hour of the night, also called, a damsel of Caiphas, Matthew 26:69. How Peter got there is told by John, John 18:15-16.
1) "And when she saw Peter warming himself," (kai idousa ton Petron thermamomenon) "And (upon) seeing Peter warming himself," by the palace court fire.
2) "She looked upon him and said," (emblepsasa auto legei) "Looking at him she asserted,’’ spoke up, after she had looked him straight in the eye, earnestly looked him over, Luke 22:56, for she had likely seen him with Jesus in the temple, the earlier part of the week.
3) "And thou also wast with Jesus of Nazareth." (kai su meta tou Nazarenou estha tou lesou) "You also was with Jesus of Nazareth," or of Galilee, Luke 22:56; Matthew 26:29, the one then being abused and mocked in the upper-chamber before the council.
1) "But he denied, saying, I know not," (ho de ernestao legon oute oida) "Then he denied it saying, I was neither with Him nor do I know Him;" This denial was said to be - before them all," with an oath. All gathered in the lower court, a boisterous denial, Matthew 26:10.
2) "Neither understand I what thou sayest," (oute epistamai su ti legeis) "Nor do I understand what you are saying," what you are charging. He denied Jesus, a thing he swore he would never do, Mark 14:29; Mark 14:31; Luke 22:57. He pretended astonishment at her remarks.
3)"And he went out into the porch;”- (kai ekselthen ekso eis to proaulion) "And he went forth outside into the forecourt," the open street in front of the court, John 18:25.
4) "And the cock crew." (for the first time), Mark 14:72; John 18:27.
1) "And a maid saw him again." (kai he paidiske idousa auton) "And the maidservant seeing him," again, another maid spotted him when he had gone out into the porch, Matthew 26:71.
2) "And began to say to them that stood by," (erksato palin legein tois parestosin) ’’Began again repeatedly to say to those who stood by," pointing Peter out, a short while later, Luke 22:59.
3) "This is one of them." (hoti houtos eks auton estin) "This man (Peter) is of (out of and from) them," the disciples, or followers of Jesus of Nazareth, Mark 14:67; Matthew 26:71.
1) "And he denied it again. And a little after," (ho de palin erneito kai meta mikron) "Then he again denied, and, after a little while,’’ Matthew 26:72, after his second denial that he knew Jesus, now a third time approached.
2) ’’They that stood by said again to Peter,’’ (palin hoi parestoles elegon to Petro) "Again those who stood by (stood nearby) said to Peter," in an accusatory and indicting manner, for it was the truth.
3) "Surely thou art one of them" (alethos eks auton) "Truly you are out of and from among them,’’ the followers of Jesus, Matthew 26:73.
4) "For thou art a Galilaean," (kai gar Galilaios ei) "For indeed you are a Galilaean;" This was about an hour later than the first two successive denials, Luke 22:59.
5) "And thy speech agreeth thereto," (an interposation) or betrays your native tongue locality, where you are from, Acts 2:7.
1) "But he began to curse and to swear," (ho de erksato anathematizein kai omnunai) ’’Then he began repeatedly to curse and to swear," a phrase used exclusively to call down a curse upon himself if he were not telling the truth, Matthew 26:74.
2) "Saying, I know not this man of whom ye speak." (hoti ouk oida ton anthropon touton hon legete) "That I know not, recognize not this man, whom you all say I do," Matthew 26:74.
Six lessons to be learned from the denial are:
1) Self-confidence is folly.
2) To disregard warnings from the best of friends is folly.
3) There is danger in sitting in company with the known wicked.
4) One deliberate act of sit) calls for another to cover it.
5) There is danger that deliberate sins lead to greater ones
6) The best of men must always recognize they have a disposition to sin and guard against it daily.
1) "And the second time the cock crew," (kai euthis ek deuterou alektor ephonesen) "And immediately (for) a second time, a cock crew," as the Lord had specifically predicted, Mark 14:30; Matthew 26:34; Luke 22:34.
2) "And Peter called to mind,’’ (kai anemnesthe ho Petros) "And the Peter of the disciples remembered," thought thereon, recalled with deep sorrow, like a person running into an open door in the dark.
3) "The word that Jesus said unto him,’’ (to hrema hos eipen auto to lesous) "The word of warning, as Jesus and said, told to him," when he persistently affirmed, never to deny the Lord, Matthew 26:34-35.
4) "Before the cock crow twice," (hoti prin alektora dis phonesai) "That before a cock crows twice begins to crow a second time, as cited in Matthew 26:34-35.
5) "Thou shalt deny me thrice.’’ (tris meaparnese)"You will deny me three times," and he had! Luke 22:34.
6) "And when he thought thereon, he wept." (kai epibalon eklaien) "And thinking on what Jesus had said, he wept,’’ he went out and wept, bitterly sobbed tears of sorrow, and regret, and remorse, Luke 22:62; 2 Corinthians 7:10-11.